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Alpheus Smith 

^iSSlMMfflinlillm?'"' "'^'onary of the 



Cornell University 

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tlie Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 

http ://www. arch i ve . o rg/detai Is/cu31 924008779690 


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^i'^m m^ 



IVl^r^^ "WB*"*"* 

vjUN - q ?nfi? 











LiTT.L)., LL.D., D.C.L., Ph.D., F.B.A, 



'Were man to live co-eval with the sun, ir 

Tlie patriarch-pupil would be learnipg still.' />' 

Young/ A^fA< Thoughts, vii, S6 






^ 1 ( ' 





INTRODUCTION . . . . vii 

Key to the General Plan of the Dictionary . . . xi 

List of Abbreviations ,. xii 




I. List of Prefixes 624 

II. Suffixes . . 630< 

in. Select List of Latin Words 632,- 

Select List of Greek Words 644 

IV. Homonyms . . 647 

v. List of Doublets ... 648 

VI. Distribution of Words according to the Languages 

from which they are derived 652 




' A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language ' was 
first published in 1882, and, after passing through several editions, 
appeared in 190 1 in a new form, so largely re-arranged and re-written 
as to become, practically, a new book 

The edition of 1901 has now been again revised, and numerous 
corrections have been made, chiefly due to the new light which has 
been thrown upon some words by the advance of the publication of 
the New English Dictionary, and by the appearance of new works 
upon etymology. Among the latter I may especially instance the 
Laleinisches Etymologisches Worterbuch by Dr. Alois Walde, published 
at Heidelberg in 1906. 

Cambridge, Dec, igio. 


The first edition of my ' Concise Etymological Dictionary of the 
English Language' was published in 1882, and it has since passed 
through several editions. 

Each successive edition contained several corrections and additions, 
in order that the work might be, to some extent, brought up to 

Meanwhile, numerous and important contributions have been 
made, by many writers, to the study of Indo - germanic philology ; 
more exact methods of analysing phonetic changes have been 
adopted, and important advances have been made at many points. 
Such works as Kluge's Etymological Dictionary of German, Franck's 
Etymological Dictionary of Dutch, Godefroy's Dictionary of Old 
French, the Modern French Dictionary by Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, 
in addition to other highly important books such as the Comparative 
Grammar of the Indo-germanic languages by Brugmann, have all 
contributed to a much clearer and more exact view of the science of 
comparative philology. Hence the time has come when partial 
emendations of my Concise Dictionary, however diligently made, 
have (as I fear) failed to keep pace with the requirements of 
the present day.; and I have accordingly rewritten the book from 
beginning to end, making improvements in nearly every article, 
whilst at the same time introducing into the body of the work 
words which have hitherto necessarily been relegated to a con- 
tinually increasing Supplenient. The result is less a new edition 
than a new book. 

Since the year 1882 above-mentioned, a great advance has been 
made in English lexicography. An entirely new edition of Webster 
appeared in 1890, and The Century Dictionary, of which the publication 


was begun in 1889, was completed iniSgi. In both of these works my 
name appears in the ' List of Authorities cited ' ; though it is seldom 
expressly mentioned except in cases of considerable difficulty, where 
the writer preferred not to risk an opinion of his own. But the chief 
event during this period has been the publication of The New 
English Dictionary on Historical Principles, the unique value of 
which is even now too little understood and respected by the 
general public. The first part of this great national work appeared 
in 1884. 

The chief difference between the second and later editions of my 
Concise Etymological Dictionary and the present one can now be 
readily explained. The former editions were mainly reproduced from 
the first edition, at a time when, from the nature of the case, little 
help could be had from the works above-mentioned, owing to the 
fact that they either did not exist or could not be much utilised. 
But in the present work, I have endeavoured to glean from them all 
their most important results. The work has been collated with the 
Century Dictionary throughout, and with the New English Dictionary 
from A to H (excepting a small portion of G). I have endeavoured 
to make good use of Kluge, Franck, Brugmann, and other autho- 
rities ; and have gladly adopted a large number of corrections. In 
particular, I have now marked the quantities of all the vowels 
in Latin words, as this often throws much light upon Romance 
phonology. And in many cases where the result is tolerably certain 
I have given the primitive types of Teutonic and even of Indo-germanic 

In all former editions, I endeavoured, by help of cross-references, 
to arrange derivative words under a more primitive form. Thus 
ex-cite, in-cite, re-cite and resus-cit-ate were all given under Cite. 
But experience has shewn that this endeavour was more ambitious 
than practical, often causing needless delay and trouble. Hence the 
only truly practical order, viz. an alphabetical one, has been here 
adopted, so that the required word can now be found at once. But 
in order to retain the chief advantages of the old plan, I have pre- 
pared two lists, one of Latin and one of Greek words, which account 
for a large number of derivatives. These will be found in the 
Appendix, § III, at pp. 632 and 644. 

I have much pleasure in mentioning two more circumstances by 
which I have been greatly assisted and encouraged. Some few years 


ago, my friend the Rev. A. L. Mayhew was so good as to go patiently 
through every word of the Concise Etymological Dictionary, making 
hundreds of suggestions for improvement; and finally sent me the 
copy in which all these suggestions were entered. They have all 
been carefully considered, and in a very large number of instances 
have been fully adopted. Again, while the revises were passing 
, through the press, they were read over by Mr. H. M. Chadwick, M.A., 
Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, author of ' Studies in Old 
English' published by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1899; 
and his exact knowledge of Indo-germanic phonology has been 
suggestive of many improvements. I have only to add, in justice to 
these scholars, that they are not responsible for all the results here 
given. In some few cases I have held to my own preconceived 
opinion ; perhaps not always wisely. Still it was best that the final 
form of each article should be left to the author's decision ; for the 
reader is then sure as to where he must lay any blame. 

Many articles which, in former editions, appeared only in the 
Supplement have now been incorporated with the rest, so that the 
number of words now explained (in alphabetical order) amounts to 
more than 12,750. 

Considerable pains have been taken to ensure accuracy in the 
printing of the forms cited ; and I have received much help from the 
care exercised by the press-reader. At the same time, I shall be 
thankful to any reader who will kindly send me a note of any error 
which he may detect. I have myself discovered, for example, that 
under the word Ceme/ery the ' Skt. fi" is an error for the ' Skt. fl' 
A few belated corrections appear at pp. 662-3. 

As I frequently allude to the ordinary vowel-changes in the course 
of the work, I may note here those which are the most elementary 
and common. They deserve to be learnt by heart at once. 

ANGLO-SAXON. The most usual vowel-change is that produced 
by the occurrence of an i or/ (which often disappears by a subsequent 
contraction of the word) in the following syllable. Owing to this, we 


frequently find that the vowels, as arranged in row (i) below, are 
changed into the corresponding vowels in row (2). 

(1) a, u (p), ea, eo, a, o, it, ea, eo. 

{2) e, y, u{y), te[y), a, e, y, ie{y, O. Merc, e), ie{y). 

Example -.—fyllan, to fill, for *fulljan ; {lom/ull, full. 

Moreover, substantives and secondary verbs are often formed from 
bases seen in the past tense singular, past tense plural, or past participle 
of a strong verb, rather than from the infinitive mood. Thus 6and and 
dend a,Te from the base seen in the A. S. 6and, pt. t. of bindan, to bind; 
whilst bundle is derived from that which appears in the pp. bund-en. 
By way of distinction, I refer to bind- as the ' prime grade,' to band- 
as the ' second grade,' and to bund- as the ' weak grade.' 

Lastly, our modern words of native origin belong rather to the 
Midland (or Old Mercian) dialect than to the ' Anglo-Saxon ' or 
Wessex ; and Old Mercian employs a (mutated to e) where the A. S. 
has ea, and sometimes e for A. S. eo. 

ICELANDIC. This language abounds in somewhat similar vowel- 
changes, but very few of these appear in English. But we must not 
pass over the frequent formation of derivatives from the past tenses 
(singular or plural) and the past participles of strong verbs. Thiis 
bait, Icel. beita, lit. ' to cause to bite,' is the causal of bita, to bite ; its 
form may be explained by the fact that the pt. t. of lita is.beit. 

Again, as regards the Romance languages, especially French, it 
must be borne in mind that they are also subject to phonetic laws. 
These laws are sufficiently illustrated in Mr. Paget Toynbee's trans- 
lation of Brachet's Historical French Grammar. In particular, I may 
note that most French substantives are derived from Latin accusatives ; 
and that to derive bounty from bonitds (nom.), or honour from Lat. 
honor (nom.), is simply impossible. 

For fuller information, the reader is referred to my Principles of 
English Etymology, First and Second Series ; the former deals chiefly 
with the native, and the latter with the foreign elements of the 
language. My Primer of English Etymology contains some of the 
more important facts.. 

I subjoin a key to the plan of the work, and a list of abbreviations. 



§ I. Order of Words. Words are given in their alphabetical 
order; but a few secondary derivatives are explained under some 
more important form. Thus campaign is given under Camp, and 
cannon under Cane. 

§ 2. The Words selected. The word-list contains nearly all 
primary words of most frequent occurrence, with a few others that are 
remarkably prominent in literature, such as unaneled. Homonymous 
forms, such as bay (used vafive senses), are numbered. 

§ 3. Definitions. Definitions are omitted in the case of common 
words ; but explanations of original forms are added wherever they 
seemed to me to be necessary. 

§ 4. Iiauguage. The language to which each word belongs is 
distinctly marked, in every case, by means of letters within marks of 
parenthesis. Here the symbol — or - is to be read as ' derived 
from.' Thus Abbey \% (F. — L. — Gk. — Syriac) ; i.e. a French word 
derived from Latin ; the Latin word being, in its turn, from Greek, 
whilst the Greek word is of Syriac origin. 

The order of derivation is always upward or backward, from late 
to early, and from early to earlier forms. 

The symbol + is employed to distinguish forms which are merely 
cognate, and are adduced merely by way of illustrating and confirming 
the etymology. Thus, bi{e is a purely English word, derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon bitan. The other Teutonic forms, viz. the Du. bijten, 
Icel. Mia, Swed. bita, Dan. bide, G. beissen, and the other Indo- 
germanic forms, viz. luaX.findere (basest/-) and Skt. bhid, to cleave, 
are merely cognate and illustrative. On this point, there commonly 
exists the most singular confusion of ideas; and there are many 
Englishmen who are accustomed to derive English, of all things, from 
Modern High German ! I therefore introduce this symbol -J- by way 
of warning. It has its usual algebraical value of plus or additional; 
and indicates 'additional information to be obtained from the com- 
parison of cognate forms.' 


The symbol > means ' older than,' or ' more primitive than ' ; the 
symbol < means ' younger than,' or ' derived from.' 

§ 5. Symbols of Languages. The symbols, such as F.=French, 
are not used in their usual vague sense, so as to baffle the enquirer 
who wishes to find the words referred to. Every symbol has a special 
sense, and has reference to certain books, in one at least of which the 
word cited may be found, as I have ascertained for myself by looking 
them all out. I have purposely used, as far as was practicable, the 
most easily accessible authorities. The exact sense of each symbol is 
given in the list below. 

§ 6. Roots. In some cases, a word is traced back to its original 
Indo-germanic root. The root is denoted by the symbol V, to be 
read as 'root.' Thus bear, to carry, is from -/BHER. Some of 
these roots are illustrated by the lists in § III of the Appendix. 

§ 7. Derivatives. The symbol Der., i. e. Derivatives, is used to 
introduce forms related to the primary word. Thus, under Act, I 
note such derivatives as act-ion, act-ive, &c., which cause no difficulty. 


Arab. — Arabic ; as in Richardson's Per- 
sian and Arabic Diet., ed. F. John- 
son ; 1829. See also Devic's Sup- 
plement to Littre's F. Diet. 

A. S. — Anglo-Saxon ; as in the diction- 
aries by Bosworth and Toller, Ett- 
miiller, and Grein ; in the Vocabu- 
laries edited by T. Wright and Prof. 
Wiilker ; and in Sweet's Oldest 
English Texts. 

Bavar. — Bavarian ; as in Schmeller's 
Bayerisehes Worterbnch ; 1827- 

Bret. — Breton ; as in Legonidec's Bret. 
Diet., ed. 1821. 

Brugm. — Bnigmann, Gmndriss der ver- 
gleichenden Grammatik, &e.; vol. i. 
(2nd ed.), 1897 ; vol. ii. 1889-90. 

C. — Celtic ; used as a general term for 
Irish,Gaelic,Welsh, Breton, Cornish, 

Com. — Cornish ; as in Williams' Diet.; 

Dan. — Danish; as in Ferrall and Repp; 
Dan. dial. — Danish dialects ; as in 
Molbech, 1841. 

Du. — Dutch; as in Caliseh and in the 
Tauchnitz Dutch Diet. Middle 
Dutch words are from Oudemans, 
Hexham (1658), or Sewel (1754). 

E.— Modern English; as in N. E. D. 
(New English Dictionary) ; and in 
the Century Dictionary. 
M.E.— Middle English (English from 
the thirteenth to the fifteenth cen- 
turies inclusive); as in Stratmann's 
Old English Diet., new edition, 

F.— French. Most of the forms cited 
are not precisely modem French, but 
from Cot. = Cotgrave's Dictionary,. 


ed. 1660. This accounts for citation 
of forms, such as F. recreation, 
without accents; the F. accents 
being mostly modern. Such words 
are usually marked M. F. (Middle 
French). See also the dictionaries 
by Hatzfeld and Littre. 
O. F. — Old F'rench ; as in the dic- 
tionaries by Godefroy, Burguy, or 

Fries. — Friesic; as in Richthofen, 1840. 

Gael. — Gaelic ; as in Macleod and 
Dewar, 1839; or Macbain, 1896. 

G. — German ; as in Fliigel, 1883. 
Low G. — Low German; as in the 

Bremen Worterbuch, 1767. 
M. H. G. — Middle High German ; as 
in Schade, Altdeutsches Worter- 
buch, 1882. 
O. H. G. — Old High German ; as in 
the same volume. 

Gk. — Greek ; as in Liddell and Scott's 

Goth. — Moeso - Gothic ; as in Balg's 
Glossary, 1887-9. 

Heb. — Hebrew; as in Gesenius' Diet., 

Hind. — Hindustani ; as in Forbes, Bate, 
or Wilson's Glossary of Indian 

Icel. — Icelandic ; as in Cleasby and Vig- 
fusson, 1874. 

Idg. — Indo-germanic ; the family of 
languages which includes Sanskrit, 
Greek, Latin, English, &c. 

Irjsh. — Irish ; as in O'Reilly, 1864. 

Ital. — Italian ; as in Meadows, 1857 ; 
Torriano, 1688 ; and Florio, 1598. 

L. — Latin; as in Lewis and Short, 1880. 

Late L. — Late Latin ; as in the latest 

edition of Ducange ; by L. Favre, 

1884-7. (Low L. = Late L. words 

of non-Latin origin.) 

Lith. — Lithuanian ; as in Nesselmann's 

Diet., 1851. 
Low G. — Low German ; see under G. 

Malay. — As in Marsden's Diet., 1812; 

cf. Notes by C. P. G. Scott. 
Mex. — Mexican; as in the Diet, by 

Simeon, Paris, 1885. 
M.E.— Middle English; see under E. 

M. H. G.— Middle High German; see 

under G. above. 
Norw. — Norwegian ; as in Aaseu's Norsk 

Ordbog, 1873. 
O. F. — Old French ; see under F. above. 
O. H. G. — Old High German; see under 

G. above. 
O. Sax. — Old Saxon ; as in the Heliand, 

&c., ed. Heyne. 
O. Slav. — Old Slavonic; as in Mik- 

losich, Etym. Diet., Vienna, 1886. 
Pers. — Persian ; as in Richardson's Arab. 

and Pers. Diet. ; or in Palmer's Pers. 

Diet., 1876 ; cf. Horn, Neupersische 

Etymologie, 1893. 
Peruv. — Peruvian ; as in the Diet, by 

Gon9ales, Lima, 1608. 
Port. — Portuguese; as in Vieyra, 1857. 
Prov. — Proven9al ; as in Raynouard's 

Lexique Roman, and Bartsch's 

Chrestomathie Provenfale. 
Russ. — Russian; as in Reiff's Diet., 

Scand. — Scandinavian; used as a general 

term for Icelandic, Swedish, Danish, 

and Norwegian. 
Skt. — Sanskrit ; as in Benfey's Diet., 

Span. — Spanish ; as in Neumann, ed. 

Seaone, 1862; Pineda, 1740; or 

Minsheu, 1623. 
Swed. — Swedish ; as in the Tauchnitz 

Diet., or in Widegren, or in Oman. 
Swed. dial. — Swedish dialects; as in 

Rietz (1867). 
Teut. — Teutonic ; a general term for 

English, Dutch, German, Gothic, 

and Scandinavian. 
Turk.— Turkish ; as in Zenker's Diet., 

W.— Welsh; as in Spurrell, 1861. 




ace. — accusative case. 

adj. — adjective. 

adv. — adverb. 

A.V.— Authorised Version of tlie 

Bible, 1611. 
cf. — confer, i. c. compare. 
Ch. — Chaucer, 
comp. — comparative, 
conj. — conjunction, 
dat. — dative case, 
decl. — declensional. 
Der. — Derivative. ' 

dimin. — diminutive, 
f. or fem. — feminine, 
frequent. — frequentative, 
gen. — genitive case. 
i. e.— id est, that is. 
inf. — infinitive mood, 
interj. — interjection, 
lit. — literally, 
ra. or masc. — masculine, 
n. or neut. — neuter. 

nom. — nominative case. 

obs. — obsolete. 

orig. — original or originally. 

pi. — plural. 

pp. — past participle. 

prep. — preposition. 

pres. part. — present participle. 

pres. t. — present tense. 

prob.— probably. 

pron. — pronoun. 

prov. — provincial. 

pt. t. — past tense. 

q. V. — quod vide = which see. 

3. V. — sub verbo== under the v^ord. 

sb. — substantive. 

Shak. — Shakespeare. 

sing. — singular. 

str. vb. — strong verb. 

superl. — superlative. 

tr. — translated, or translation. 

trans. — transitive. 

vb. — verb. 

Some of the longer articles are marked off into sections by the use 
of the Greek letters p, 7. This is merely intended to make matters 
clearer, by separating the various statements from each other. 

Notes at the end of an article are marked off by beginning with 
the symbol U. XIV, XV, XVI, mean that the word was introduced 
in the 14th, 15th, or i6th century, respectively. Hyphens are freely 
introduced to shew the etymological division of a word. Thus the 
word concede is derived from Lat. con-cedere ; meaning that concedere 
can be resolved into con- and cedere. This etymological division is 
often very different from that usually adopted in printed books when 
words have to be divided ; thus capacious can only be divided, etymo- 
logically, as cap-ac-i-ous, because cap- is the root-syllable ; whereas, 
when divided according to the pronunciation, it becomes ca-pa-ci-ous. 

Theoretical forms are marked by an asterisk preceding them. Thus, 
under Barrow (i), the Teutonic type *bergoz, a hill, is the primitive 
Teutonic form whence the A. S. beorg and the G. berg are alike de- 
scended ; and under Beetle (2), the A. S. form bytel must have been 
*betel in Old Mercian. 


The symbols tS and p are both written for ^h. In Icelandic, Jj has 
the sound of /A in /h'n, and tS that of /A in ihai; but the M.E. and A.S. 
symbols are confused. The M.E. symbol 5 commonly represents j/ at 
the beginning of a word, and gA in the middle. A. S. short and long 
vowels, such as a and a, are as distinct from each other as e and >/, 
or o and cu in Greek. 

The distinction between the two values of A. S. long a (as 
made by Dr. Sweet in his A. S. Diet.) has been carefully observed. 
Thus the A. S. « invariably represents the mutation of A. S. a (as 
usual), and corresponds to Goth, at; but A. S. a represents the 
Wessex sound corresponding to the Anglian and Kentish e, and to 
Goth. e. For example, Aeal is from A. S. Asian, cognate with Goth. 
Aailjan, G. Aeilen; but deed is from O. Merc, ded (Wessex dxd), 
cognate with Goth, deds, G. that. 


In the course of revision, the following Errata have been observed, 
is added for the sake of completeness, as the errors are not serious. 

This list 

Adieu, 1. 1. For (F.) read (J. - L.) 

Adulation. Read adulalidnem, adu- 
Idlio, adulaius, adfdSrl. 

Allegory. .ffrai^(F.-L.-Gk.) XIV 

Audience, I. 5. Read a.fia9ia6ai. 

Chicken, 1. 5. Read kjuklingr. 

Choose, 1. 3. Read Dii. kiezen, G. 

Cost, vb. Prob. (Du.-F.-L.) Du. 
hasten ; from O. F. cosier. 

Curl, 1. 4. For krulla read krulle. 

Cypress (2), 1. 3. For {Y. — l.^ read 

Diphthong, 1. 4. For G. read Gk. 

Engage. For (F.-L.) read (F.-L. 
and 'I'eut.) 

Urotic, 1. a. For crude form read decl. 

Exponent, 1. i. Read exponent-. 

Falcon, Some take falco to be of 
Teutonic origin. 

Fern, last line. The Gk. irrepts, Ttrepov, 
are merely given by way of illustration. 
They are not allied words. 

Fusil (i). Tlie L./o«7^ is not found ; 
but Ital. has this very form. 

Gunny, 11. 2, 3. Read ^ffn, gSni. 

Hare, 11. 4, 5. Read sasnis, *kasnis. 
N.B. The Skt. ^asa is not from faf, to 
jump ; but perhaps meant ' gray'; of A. S. 
hasu, gray. ] 

History, 1. 5. For base read weak 

Holly, 11. 5, 6. For G. hilht read 
Low G. hulse. 

Hone, 1. 4. For stem read type. 

Hyson, 1. 6. For Chin, read Amoy. ; 

Indigent, 1. 6. Not allied to axip. s 

Mist, 1. 9. Read VMEIGHw, to 
darken ; distinct from, &c. 

XTasturtium, 1. .^. Read— also spelt 
nasturcium; both forms are for *nas- 
torctiom (Walde). 

STotorions, 1. 3. Read — voucher,! 
witness ; cf. L. pp. notus, &c. 

Fier, 1. 2. Reaii — M. E. pere ; A. F. 
pere, the Norman equivalent of O. Y.piere. 

Plait, 1. 3. Read *plutmn. 

Scraggy, 1. 5. For skragga read 
skragger. (Ross gives Norw. skragg, a poor 
weak creature, s/iraggen, scraggy.) 

Shaddock, 1. 4. Read late in tlie 

Shah, 1. 2. Read khsayathiya. 

Smith, 1. S. Read pp. *smidano%. 

Throstle, 1. 5. Read IcA. prSstr. 

Vernal, last line. For Mr read/fl'iV. 

Wheel, 1. 8. For QEL read QwEL. 

P. 652. The lists given in this Section VI 
are somewhat uncertain, and are only giveni 
tentatively. Several will hereafter require 
slight readjustment. 




A, indef. art (E.) See An. 
A- (i), as in a-down = A.S. qfilune. 
(E.) Here a- = A. S. of; see Of, Off. 
A- (2), as in afoot. (E.) For on 
foot; see On. % This is the commonest 
value of the prefix a-. 
A- (3), as in a-long. (E.) Here a- = 
A. S. and- ; see Along. 
A- (4), as in a-rise. (E.) Here a- = 
A. S. a- ; see Arise. 
A- (5), as in achieve, astringent. (F. 
^L. ; or L.) Here a = F. prefix a = L. 
ad, to ; see Ad-. 
A- (6), as in a-vert. (L.) Here a- = 
L. a; see Ab- (i). 
A- (."f), asm a-mend. (L.) Heiea-mend 
is for e-mend\ and e- = L. ?or«;i; ; see Ex-. 
A- (8), as in a-las. (F.) See Alas. 
A- (9)v as in a-ij>sst. (Gk.) Here a- = 
Gk. d- or av- ; see TJn-, Abyss. 
A- (10), as in a-do. (E.) For at do; 
see At, Ado. 

A- (11), as in a-ware. (E.) Here 0- is 
for M. E-._y-, «-, A. S. ^«- ; see Aware. 
A- (12), as in a-vast. (Du.) For Du. 
hcmi vast ; see Avast. 
Ab- (1), prefix. (L.) L. cib, from; 
cognate with E. of; see Of. In F., it 
becomes a- or av- ; see Advantage. 
Ab- (a), prefix. (L.) For L. a</, to, 
by assimilation ; see Abbreviate. 
Aback. (E.) For on back. A. S. 
onbac; see A- (2) and Back. 
Abaft. (E.) From the prefix a- (2), 
and b-aft, ^ort for bi-aft, by aft. Thus 
a-b-aft =oa by aft, i.e. at the part which 


lies to the aft. Cf. M. E. biaften. Gen. 
and Exod. 3377; A. S. bemflan. See A- 
(2), By, and Aft. 

Abandon. (F.-Low L.-O.H. G.) 

M. £. abandounen, vb.— F. abandonner. — 
F. iJ bandon, at liberty; the power 
(of J. — L. ad, at ; Low L. batidum, bannum, 
an order, decree ; from O. H. G. ban, 
snmmoos, ban ; see Ban. 
Abase. (F.-L.) M. E. aiaj««, from 
A- (5) and Base ; imitating O.F. abaissier, 
to lower. 
Abash. ^F.) M. E. abaschen, abais- 
chen, abasen. — O. F. esbatss-, stem of pres. 
part, of esbdir (F. ibahir), to astonish.— 
O. F. es- ( = L. ex, out, very much) ; and 
bdir, bahir, to cause astonishment, a 
word of imitative origin from the interj. 
bah ! of astonishment. ^If Sometimes con- 
fused with abase in M. E. See Bashful, 
Abate. (F.-L.) M.E. abaten.- 
O. F. abatre. — Late L. *abbattere, to beat 
down (as in Ital.). — L. ad, to; and batere, 
for ba/uere, to beat. See Batter. ^ Hence 
bate, ioT arbate. Cf. Ab- (2). 
Abbot. (L.,-Gk.-Syriac.) M. E. 

abbot, abbod, A. S. abbod. — L. abbdt- (nom. 

abbas), axi abbot, lit. a fatljer. — Gk. d/S/SSr. 
— Syriac abba, a father; Rom. viii. 15. 
abbess. (F. - L. - Gk. - Syriac.) 

M. E. abbesse. — O. F. abesse, al'nesse, — 

Late L. abbat-issa. — L. abbdt- (as above) ; 

and -issa = Gli. -laaa, fern, suffix. 
abbey. (F. - L. - Gk. - Syriac.) 

M. E. abbeye. - O. F. abeie. - Late L. 

abbatria. — I^ abbdt: (above). 

Abbreviate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

abbreuidre, to shorten. — L. ab-,^ for ad, 
to, by assimilation; and breuis, short. 
See Ab- (2) and Brief. 

Abdicate. (L.) From pp. ofL.«i- 
dicdre, to renounce. — L. ab, from ; dicare, 
to proclaim. Allied to Diction. 

Abdomen. (L.) L. abdomen (stem 
abdomin-), lower part of the belly. 

Abduction. (L.) L. abduclionem, 
ace. of abductio, a leading away.-L. oA- 
(f««rif, to lead away. - L. ai5, from ; diicere, 
to lead. Cf. Duke. 

Abed. (E.) For on bed; see A- (2) 
and Bed. 

Aberration. (L.) From ace of L. 

aberrdtio, a wandering from ; from pp. of 
L. ab-errdre.—'L. ab, from; errdre, to 
wander, err. See Err. 

Abet, to incite. (F.-Scand.) O.F. 
abeter, to excite, set on (Godefroy). — F. 
a- (Lat. ad-) ; and O. F. beter, to bait (a 
bear), to set on, from Icel. beita, to make 
to bite, causal of bita, to bite. See Bait, 
Bite. Der. bet, short for abet, sb. 

Abeyance, expectation, suspension. 
(F. - L.) A. F. abeiance, suspension, 
waiting (Roq.) . — F. a ; and beant, pres. pt. 
of O. F. beer (F. bayer), to gape, expect 
anxiously. — L. ad, at ; and baddre, to gape. 

Abhor. (L.) L. ab-horrere, to shrink 
from in terror. — L. ab, from; horrere, to 
dread. Cf. Horrid, 

Abide (i), to wait for. (E.) A.S. 
d-bJdan ; from a-, prefix, and bidan, to 
bide. See A- (4) and Bide. 

Abide (2), to suffer for, pay for. (E.) 
In Sh. ; corrupted from M. E. abyen, to 
pay for, lit. to buy up, redeem. — A. S. 
dbycgan, to pay for. See A- (4) and Buy. 

Abject, mean, lit. cast away. (L.) 
L. ab-iectus, cast away, pp. of ab-icere, to 
cast away. — L. ab, away; iacere, to cast. 
Cf. Jet (i). 

Abjure. (L.) "L. ab-iHrdre, to deny; 
lit. to swear away from. — L. <ji, from ; 
iurdre, to swear. — L. iiir-, from mom..ius, 
law, right. Cf. Jury. 

Ablative. (L.) L- abldtluus, lit. 
taking away. — L. alt, from ; and latum 
{ = t latum), to bear, take; allied to tollere, 
to take. See Tolerate. 

Ablaze. (E.) For on blaze; see A- 
(2) and Blaze. 

Able, powerful, skilful. (F. - L.) 
M. E. ai/«, hable. — O. P. habile, able, able. 

— L. habilis, easy to handle, active. — L. 


/Sfl«r^, to have. Cf. Habit. -DeT.abilitg 
from L. ace. habilitdtem. 

Ablution. (F.-L.) F.; from L. 
ace. ab-lutionem, a washing away.-L. 
ablutus, pp. of ab-luere, to wash away.- 
L. ab, from ; luere, to wash. 

Abnegate. (L.) From pp. of L. ab- 
negdre, to deny. — L. ab, from ; negdre, to 
say no. Cf. Wegation. 

Aboard. (E.) For on board; seeA- 
(2) and Board. 

Abode, sb. (E.) M. E. abood, delay, 
abiding. P'ormed as if from A. S. dbSd,^ 
2nd stem of dbldan, to abide. See Abide.! 

Abolish.. (F.-LO F. aboliss-, stem 
of pres. pt. of abolir. — L. abolere, to 

Abominate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

ab-omindri, to turn away from that which 
is of ill omen. — L. ab, away ; omin-, for 
omen, an omen. 

Aborigines, original inhabitants, 
(L.) L. aborigines, the nations which, 
previous to historical record, drove out 
the Siculi (Lewis and Short). Formed 
from L. ab origine, from the beginning; 
where origine is the abl. of origo (Vergil, 
Mvi. i. 642). 

Abortion. (L.) From ace. of L. 
abortio, an untimely birth. — L. aborttts, 
pp. of ab-oriri, to fail. — L. ab, away; 
orlrl, to arise, begin. Cf. Orient. 

Abound. (F.-L.) A.F. abunder^^ 
O. F. abonder. — L. ab-unddre, to overflow., 
— L. ab, away ; tmda, a wave. 

About. (E.) M. E. abuten, abouten. 
A.S. dbietan, onbiltan; short for on-be- 
titan ; where be answers to E. by, and titan, 
outward, is related to lit, out. See A- (2), 
By and Out. 

Above. (E.) M. E. aboven, abufen^ 
A.S. dbufan, for on-be-u/an; where be 
answers to E. by, and u/an, upward, is 
extended from Goth, uf, up. See A- (j), 
By, XTp. (A.S. u/an = G. oben. A.S. 
be-i(fan = 'Dn. boven.) 

Abrade, to scrape off. (L.) L. ab\ 
rddere, to scrape off. — L. ab, off ; ridire, 
to scrape. Der. abrasion (from L. pp. 

Abreast. (E.) Put for on breast; 
see A- (2) and Breast. '. 

Abridge. (F.-L.) M. E. abreggl^ 
A. F. abregger, O. F. abreger, abregier, to, 
shorten. — L. abbreuidre, to shorten. "-L, 
ab; put for ad-, to; and breuis, short. 
Cf. Brief, Doublet, abbreviate. 

Abroach, to set. (E. and F.) Put 

for to set on broach ; see A- (2) and 

Abroad. (E.) M. E. abroad; put for on 
brood; lit. on broad ; see A- (2) and Broad. 

Abrogate. (L.) From pp. of L. ab- 
rogare, to repeal a law. — L. ab, away; 
rogdre, to ask, pi'opose a law. 

Abrupt. (L.) L. abruptus, pp. of 
ab-rumpere, to break off. — L. ab, off; 
rumpere, to break. 

Abscess. (L.) A gathering of humours 
into one place; lit. a going away. — L. 
abscessus, a going away ; abscess (Celsus). 
— L. abscessus, pp. of abs-ced&re, to go 
away. — L. abs, away ; cedere, to go, cede. 

Abscind. (L.) From L. ab-scindere, 
to cut off. — L. cib, off; scindere, to cut. 
Der. abscissa, from fem. of L. abscissus, 
pp. olabscindere. 

Abscond, to go into hiding. (L.) L. 
abscondere, to hide. — L. abs, away; condere, 
to hide. Condere is from con- (cum), to- 
gether, and -dere, to put, allied to Skt. 
dhd, to put. (VDHE, to place ; Brugm. 
i. § 589.) See Do. 

Absent, adj. (F.-L.) XIV cent. 
O. F. absent, adj. — L. absent-, stem of ab- 
sens, being away. — L. ab-, away; -sens, 
being, occurring also in pra-sens. Cf. Skt. 
sant, pres. pt. of as, to be ; from -^ES, to 
be. Cf. Present, Sooth. Der. absence, 
F. absence, L. absentia. 

Absolute, unrestrained, complete. 
(L.) L. absolutus, pp. of aJ>-soluere, to 
set fi:ee. — L. ab, from ; soliiere, to loosen. 
absolve. (L.) L. ab-soluere, to set 
free (above). Der. absohtt-ion, from the 
pp. above. 

Absorb. (L.) L. abserbere, to swal- 
low. —L. ah, away; jo^-^fre, to snp up.+ 
Gk. po<t>ieiv, to sup up. (Brugm. ii. 
§ 801.) Der. absorpt-ien, from pp. ab- 

Abstain. (F.-L.) ¥. abstenir{0.¥. 
astern/). — L. abs-tinere, to refrain from. — 
L. abs, from ;- ienere, to hold. Der. abs- 
tinence, F. abstinence, from L. abstinentia, 
sb. ; abstent-ioHi from the pp. 
Abstemious. (U) L. abstemius, 
refraining from strong drink. — L. abs, from ; 
temetum, strong drink, whence iemu-lentus, 

Abstract. (Lr) L. abstractas, pp. 
of abs-trahere, to draw away. — L. abs. 
away;. trakere, to draw. 
Abstruse. (L.) . L. abstriisusj diffi- 


cult, concealed; pp. of abs-triidere , to 
thrust away.-L. abs, away; trudere, lo 
thrust. See Intrude. 

Absurd. (L.) L. absurdus, inhar- 
monious, foolish. -L. ab, from; surdus, 
deaf, inaudible, harsh. Cf. Surd. 

Abundance. (F.-L.) F. abandonee. 

— L. abundantia. See Abound. 
Abuse, vb. (F.-L.) F. abuser, to 

use amiss. — L. abHsus, pp. of ab-iiti, to 
use amiss. — L. ab, away (amiss) ; fiti, 
to use. 

Abut, to project towards. (F.—L. and 
G.) O. F. abouter, to thrust towards. — 
L. ad, to ; O. F. bouter, boter, to thrust. 
See A- (5) and Butt (i). 

Abyss, a bottomless gulf. (L.-Gk.) 
Milton. L. abyssus. — Gk. oiSuffiroj, bottom- 
less. —Gk. d-, short for av-, neg. prefix; 
and 0vaaAs, depth. See A- (9), TJn- (i). 

Acacia, a tree. (L. — Gk.) L. acacia. 

— Gk. dxaitia, the thorny Egyptian acacia. 

— Gk. d«is, a point, thorn. (.y'AK.) See 
Brugm. ii. § 52 (4). 

Academy. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. 

acad^mie. — I,. academta. — Gk. aKaHintia, 
a grove where Plato taught, named from 
the hero Akademus. 

Accede. (L.) L. ac-ddere, to come 
towards, assent to. — L. ac- (for ad), to ; 
cedere, to come, cede. 

Accelerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

cucelerdre, to quicken. — L. ac- (for ad), 
to ; celer, quick. Cf. Celerity. 

Accent. (F.—L.) ¥. accent, sh. — 'L. 
ace. accenium, a tone. — L. ac- (for ad); 
cantus, a singing, from canere, to sing. 

Accept. (F. — L.) F. accepter. — v.. 
acceptare, frequentative of ac-cipere, to re- 
ceive. — L. ac- (for ad) , to ; capere, to take. 

Access. (L.) L. accessns, a coming 
unto. — L. accessus, pp. of ac-cedere, to 
accede. — L. ac- (for ad), to; cedere, to 
come, cede. 

Accident. (F.—L.) F, accident, a 
chance event (Cot.). — L. accident-, base of 
pres. pt. of ac-cidere, to happen. — L. ac- 
(for ad), to ; cadere, to fall. Der. ac- 
cidence, F. accidence, L. accidentia. 

Acclaim. (L.) Formed from L. ac- 
cMmdre, to cry ont at. — L. cu- (for ad), 
at ; cldmdre, to cry out. For the spelling, 
cf. Claim. 

Accli'vity. (L.) XVII cent. From 
L. accliuitdtem, ace. of accliuitas. — L. ac- 
(for ad) ; and cliu-us, sloping, a slope ; see 
Iiean (i). (y^KLEI;- Brugm. i. § 463.) 


Accolade, the dubbing of a knight. 
(F. — Ital. - L.) F. accollade, in Cotgrave, 
ed. I C6o ; lit. an embrace round the neck, 
then a salutation, light tap with a sword 
in dubbing a knight. — Ital. accollata, fern, 
of pp. of accollai-e, to embrace about the 
neck (Florio).-L. ac- (for ad), to, about ; 
colliim, the neck. 

Accommodate. (L.) From pp. of 

L. accominoddre, to fit, adapt. — L. ac- (for 
acC), to; and commodus, fit. — L. com- ( = 
ctwi), with ; a.aA' modus , measure, mode. 

Accompany. (F.-L.) F. accom- 
pagmr^ to accompany. — F. tt {L. ad), to ; 
and O. F. coinpaing, companion ; see 

Accomplice. (F. — L.) Put for a 
complice \ a is the indef. art. — F. complice, 
'a complice, confederate;' Cot. — L. ace. 
cpmplicem, from complex, confederate, lit. 
'. interwoven.' — L. com- icutii), together; 
and slem plic-, allied to plicdre, to weave. 
Cf. Ply. 

Accomplislx. (F.— L.) M. E. acom- 
pJisen. — O.F. acomplis-, stem of pres. 
part, of acomplir, to complete. — L. ad, to ; 
cgmplere, to fulfil. — L. com- (cum), to- 
gether ; plere, to fill. 

Accord. (F. — L.) A. F. acoi-der,io 
agree. — Late L. acconldre, — L. ac- (for ad), 
to ; and cord-, stem of cor, heart. Cf. 

Accordion, a musical instrument. 
(Ital. — L.) , From Ital. accord-are, to 
accord, to tune an instrument ; with suffix 
-ion (as in c/ar-2tf»). — Late L. accordare, 
to agree. See above. 

Accost, to address. (F. — L.) F. 
accoster, lit. ' to go to the side of.' — Late 
L. accostdre (same). — L. ac- (for ad), to; 
casta, rib, side. See Coast. 

Account, vb. (F. — L.) A. F. acounter, 
aciinter. — O. F. a, to ; conler, compter, to 
count. — L. ad; and com-putdre, to com- 
pute, from co7ti- {cum), and putdre, to 

Accontre. (F.— L. ?) F. accoutrer, 
formerly also cucoustrer, to dress, array. 
Etym. quite uncertain ; perhaps from O. F. 
coustre, coutre, a sacristan who had charge 
of sacred vestments, from Late L. cuslor 
= L. custos, a custodian, keeper. 

Accretion, increase. (L.) From ace. 
of L. accrelio, increase. — L. accritus, pp. 
of ac-crescere, to increase. — L. ac- (for ad) ; 
crescere, to grow, inchoative form from 
cre-are, to make. Cf. Create. 


Accrue, to come to by way of increase. 
(F. — L.) From A. F. acru, O. F. acreu, 
pp. of acroistre (F. accroltre), to increase; 
— L. accrescere ; see above. 

Accumulate. (L.) From pp. of L, 
ac-cumuldre, to amass. — L. ac- (ad), t^ 
cumuldre, to heap up, from cumului^-§ 
heap. •M 

Accurate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
acciirdre, to take pains with. — L. ac- {ad),. 
to ; ciirdre, to care for, from cii/a, caie„ 
See Cure. 

Accursed, cursed. (E.) Pp. of M.E, 
acursien. A. S. a-, prefix ; and cursian,> 
to curse ; see A- (4) and Curse. 

Accuse. (F. — L.) K.¥. acuser.-l,. 
accusdre, to lay to one's charge. — L. ac- 
(ad) , to ; and causa, caussa, a suit at law,- 
a cause. .;,j 

Accustom. (F.— L.) K.'S.acustumeri 
(F. accoutumer), to make usual. — F. a 
(from L. ad, to) ; and A. F. custutiu^ 
custom. See Custom: 

Ace, the ' one ' on dice. (F.-L.-Gk.?) 
M. E. flj. - O. F. as. — L. as. [Said to be the 
Tarentine oj, ibr Gk. tfs, one.] 

Acephalous, headless. (Gk.) Gk. 
aicc(paK-os, headless ; with suffix -ous. — Gk. 
a-, un- ; and KKpaXij, head. See A- (9). 

Acerbity. (F.-L.) XVI cent. F. 
acerbity. — L. ace. acerbitdtem (nom. acer- 
bitas), bitterness. — L. acei-h-us, bitter; 
cf. deer, sharp, lit. piercing. — L. cuere, to 
be sour. 

Ache, verb. (E.) M.E. aken, vb.| 
pt. t. 00k. A. S. acan. (■^h.G, to drive.) 
% Spelt ache by confusion with M.E, 
ache, sb., from A. S. ace, a pain. The verb 
survives, spelt as the obs. sb. 

Achieve. (F. — L.) M. E. ar/;e»«».- 
A. F. achever, to achieve ; lit. to come to 
a head. — O. F. a chef, to a head.— L. ai, 
to ; caput, a head. Cf. Chief. 

Achromatic, colourless. (Gk.) See 
A- (9I and Chromatic. 

Acid, sour, sharp. (F.— L. ; or L.) 
F. acide. — 'L. a^-jVwj, lit. piercing. (^\K, 
to pierce.) Der. acid-i-ty\ acid-ul-at-d, 
(from L. acid-ul-us, dimin. of acid-us). 

Acknowledge. (E.) XVI cent 

M. E. knowlechen ; from the sb. knoivkck, 
mod. E. knowledge ; see Knowledge. The 
prefix is due to M.E. aknowen (==A.S. 
oncndwan), with the same sense; hence 
the prefix is A- (2). 

Acme, top. (Gk.) Gk. dw/ii}, top, 
sharp edge. (^AK, to pierce.) 


Acolyte, a servitor. (F. -Low L.- 
Gk.) V. acolyte, Cot — Lateh. aco/yl/ius. 

— Gk. dK6\ov6os, a follower. — Gk. d-, 
with (akin to Skt. sa-, with) ; iciXevBos, a 
path ; so that aadKovBos = a travelling-com- 

Aconite, monk's-hood. (F. — L.— 
Gk.) F. aconit. — 'L. acomjiim. — Gk. 
ukovTtov, a plant ; perhaps so called from 
growing kv ajcovat^, on steep sharp rocks. 

— Gk. aK-dvri, a whetstone, sharp stone. 
Acorn. (E.) M-E-acm-n. A.S.acem, 

fruit ; properly ' fruit of the field ,' from 
A. S. arer, a field ; see Aore.+Icel. aharn, 
Dan. agern. Goth, akran, fruit ; from Icel. 
akr, Dan. ager, Goth, akrs, a field. ^ Not 
from oak. 

Acoustic. (Gk.) Gk. d/cov(TTi/C(!s, 
relating to hearing (or sound}. — Gk. 
dtfcufii', to hear. 

AccLnaint. (F. — L.) M.E. acqueyn- 
ten, earlier acointen. — O.F. acointer, 
acointier, to acquaint with. — Late L. 
adcognitare, to make known (Brachet). — 
L. ad, to ; and *cogttitare, formed from 
cognitus, pp. of cognoscere, to know. See 

Acq,ixiesce. (L.) L. acquiesccre, to 
rest in. — L. ac- (for ad), to; qttiescere, to 
rest. See Quiet. 

Acquire. (L.) L. acquTrere, to get, 
obtain. — L. ac- (for aii), to; quarere, to 
seek. Der. acquisit-ion ; from pp. ac- 

Acquit. (F. — L.) M.E. aqiiiten.— 
O. F. aquifer, to settle a claim ; Late L. 
ocqtiieiare. — L,. ac- (for ad), to; quieldre, 
vb., formed from quielits, discharged, Iree, 
orig. at rest. See Quiet. 

Acre. (E.) M. E. aker. A. S. <?«?■.+ 
Du. akker, Icel. akr, Swed. aker, Dan. ager, 
Goth, akrs, G. acker; L. ager, Gk. d7p(5s, 
Skt. ajra. Teut. type *akroz ; Idg. type, 
*agros. The orig. sense was 'pasture.' 
(^AG.) Der. acor-n, q. v. 

Acrid, tart. (L.) Coined by adding 
-d to L. Scri-, stem of acer, sharp ; on 
the analogy of ac id. 

Acrimony. (F. — L.) F. acrimoine. 

— L. dcri-mon-ia. — L. dcri-, stem of deer 

Acrobat, a tumbler. (F. — Gk.) F. 
acrobate. — Gk. oKpoBaros, lit. walking on 
tiptoe. — Gk. d«po-v, a point, neut. of 
dx-pos, pointed ; and Par6s, verbal adj. of 
Baivfiv, to walk ; see Come. 

Acropolis, a citadel. (Gk.) Lit. 


' upper city.' — Gk. axpo-s, pointed, upper; 
and iroAis, a city. 

Across. (E. and Scar\<\.) For on cross ; 
see A- (2) and Cross. 

Acrostic, a short poem in vhich the 
initial letters spell a word. (Gk.) Gk. 
dxpoOTix^?. — GV, dnpo-s, pointed, also 
first ; and ffTi'xos, a row, line, from weak 
grade of artixfiy, to go. (V STEIGH.) 

Act, sb. (F. — L.) ¥. actc. — 'L. actus, 
m., and actum, n. — L. actus, done ; pp. of 
agere , to do, drive. See Agent. Der. act- 
ion ; act-ive (F. aetif) ; act-or; act-n-al (,L. 
actiidlis) ; act-uaiy (L. actiidritis' ; act-u- 
ate (from pp. of Late L. actudt e, to per- 
form, put in action). 

Acumen. (L.) L. ac-a-men, sharp- 
ness, acuteness. Cf artiere, to sharpen. 

Acute. (L.) L. acutvs, sharp ; pp. of 
ac-u-ere, to sharpen. (y'AK, to pierce.) 

Ad-, prefix. "(L.) L. ad, to, ccgnate 
with E. At. % L. ad becomes ac- before 
c ; af- btf.f; og- bef. g; at- bef. / ; an- 
bef. « ; ap- bef / ; ar- bef. r ; as- bef. s ; 
at- bef. t. 

Adage, a saying. (F. — L.) F. adage. 

— L. adagium. — L. ad ; and agi-, as in 
*a^io, orig. form of dio, I say. 

Adamant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 

adainaunt, a diamond, a magnet. — O.F. 
adajnant. — L. adamanta, ace. of adamasi 

— Gk. dSd//as, a very hard metal or stone ; 
lit. ' unconquerable.' — Gk. d- ( = E. nn-); 
and Zapaa, I conquer, tame. See Tame. 

Adapt. (F.-L.) Early XVII cent.- 
F. adapter— "L. ad aptdre, to fit to. — L. 
ad, to ; aptdre, to fit, from aftus, fit, apt. 

Add. (L.) M.E. adilen. — 'L. addere, 
lit. to put to. — L. ad; and -dere, to put. 
See Abscond. 

Adder, a viper. (E.) M. E. addere; 
also naddcre, neddere. [An adder resulted 
from a nadder, by mistake.] A. S. nd'dre, 
ndddre, a snake.+G. natter, a snake; also 
cf. Icel. nabr, Goth, nadrs (with short a). 

Addict. (L.) From L. addict-us, pp. 
of ad-dicere, to adjudge, assign. — L. ad, 
to ; dicere, to say, appoint. Cf. Diction. 

Addled, corrupt, unproductive. (E.) 
Due to an attributive use of the M. E. sb. 
adel, filth, used in the compound adcl-ey, 
lit. ' filth-egg ' = Late L. ovum firince, 
urine-egg; mistaken form of L. otnim 
iirtnum, wind-egg, due to Gk. ovptov &ov, 
wind-egg. Orig. 'mud,' from A.S. adcla, 
mud (Grein). Cf. Low G. adel, a puddle. 

Address, vb. (F.-L.) F. adresser. 


-F. a, to; dresser, to direct, dress; see 

Adduce. (L-) L. ad-dilcere,Ao lead 
to, bring forward. — L. ad, to ; ducere, to 
lead, bring. 

Adept, a proficient. (L.) L. adefhis, 
one who has obtained proficiency ; pp. of 
adipisci, to obtain. -L. ad, to; fl/iV«, to 
obtain, perhaps related to aptiis, fit. 
Cf. Apt. 

Adeq.uate. (L.) L- adaqudtus, pp. 
of adaqudre, to make equal to. — L. ad, 
to ; (Square, to make equal, from aqitus, 

- Adhere. (L.) L- ad-hcerere, to stick 
to. — L. ad, to ; hcerere, to stick. 

Adieu, farewell. (F.) M.E. a dieu. 

— F. ^ dieu, (I commit you) to God. — L. 
ad Deum, to God. See Deity. 

Adipose, fatty. (L.) Late L. adi- 
pSsus, fatty. — L. adip-, stem of adeps; sb., 
fat. Connection with Gk. a\ei<pa, fat, is 

Adit, access to a mine. (L.) L. adit-us, 
approach, entrance. — L. adit-um, supine of 
ad-ire, to go to. — L. ad, to ; ire, to go. 

Adjacent, near to. (L.) From base 
of pres. pt. of L. ad-iacere, to lie near. — 
L. ad, near ; iacere, to lie. 

Adjective. (F.-L-) Y . adjecHf {iexa. 
■ive). — l^. ad-iectiuus, lit. put near to. — 
L. ad-iectus, pp. of ad-icere, to put near. — 
L. ad, to ; iacere, to cast, throw. 

Adjoin, to lie next to. (F.-L.) O.F. 
adjoindre. — L. ad-itmgere (pp. adiunctus) , 
to join to. — L. ad, to ; iungere, to join. 

Adjourn, to put off till another day. 
(F.— L.) O. F. ajorner, properly to draw 
near to day, to dawn ; also, to appoint a 
day for one. — Late L. adjurnare, ' diem 
dicere alicui ; ' Ducange. — L. ad, to ; and 
Late h.jurnus (J.ta\.giomo), a day, from 
L. adj. diurnus, daily. — L. dies, a day. 

Adjndge. (F.-L.) M.E. adiugen; 
also aiugen { = aJ!igen). — 0. F. ajiiger, to 
decide. — L. adiudicdrc, to award. — L. ad, 
to ; iudicare, to judge, from iiidic-, base 
of index, a judge. See Judge. 

Adjndicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
adiadicdre (above). 

Adjnre. (L.) L. ad-iardre, to swear 
to; in late L., to put to an oath. — L. ad, 
to ; iUrdre, to swear. See Jury. 

Adjust, to fit exactly. (F. — L.) From 
F. adjuster, ' to adjust, place justly ; ' Cot. 
L. ad, to ; iustus, just, exact ; see Just. 
^ A new F. formation, due to misunder- 


standing the sense of O. F. ajosteri,. to 
put side by side, arrange. — L. ad, to ; and 
iuxtd, near ; see Joust. 
Adjutant, lit. assistant. (L.) From 
L. adiutant-em, ace. of pres. part, of 
adiutare, to assist, frequent, of ad-iuudre, 
to aid. — L. ad, to; iuudre, to help. Cf 

Administer. (F.-L.) M.E. «;«;«. 

istren. — O.F. aministrer. — L. ad-mini^m 
trdre, to minister (to). - L. ad, to ; minis- 
trdre, to serve, from minister, a servant. 
See Minister. 

Admiral. (F.-Arab.) M.E. ad- 
miral, more often amiral. — O. F. amiral, 
amirail, also amire ; cf Low L. admi- 
raldus, a prince, chief. — Arab, amir, a 
prince ; see Smir. The suffix is due to 
Arab, al in amir-al-bahr, prince of the sea. 

Admire. (F.-L.) ¥. admirer {O.Y. 
amirer). — L. admirdri, to wonder at.- 
L. ad, at ; mirdri, to wonder. 

Admit. (L.) L. ad-mittere, to let 
to, send to. — L. ad, to ; millere, to send. 
Der. admiss-ion ; from pp. admiss-us. 

Admonish.. (F.— L.) M.E. amon- 
esten ; so that admonish has taken the 
place of amonest, with changed suffix due 
to verbs in -ish. ' I amonesle or wame ' j 
Wyclif, I Cor. iv. 14. — O.F. amonester." 
Late L. admonestdre, new formation from 
L. admonere, to advise. — L. ad, to; monert^:} 
to advise. Cf. Monition. 

A-do, to-do, trouble. (E.) M. E. cd 
do, to do ; a Northern idiom, whereby at 
was used as the sign of the infin. mood, as 
in Icel., Swedish, &c. See Do (i). 

Adolescent, growing up. (L.) L. 
adolescent-em, ass^ of pres. pt. oi ad-olescere, 
to grow up. See Adult. 

Adopt. (L.) L. ad-optdre, to adopt, 
choose. — L. ad, to ; optdre, to wish. 

Adore. (L.) L. ad-orare, to pray to. 

-L. ad, to ; ordre, to pray, from os (gen. 
or-is^, the mouth. Cf. Oral. 

Adorn. (L.) L. ad-omare, to deck. 

— L. ad, to ; orndre, to adorn. 
Adown, downwards. (E.) M. E. 

adiine. A. S. of-diine, lit. from a down or 
hill. - A. S. of, off, from ; and dime, dat. 
of diin, a hill ; see A- (i) and Down (2). 

Adrift. (E.) For on drift; see A- 
(2) and Drift. 

Adroit. (F.-L.) F. a(/r»?>, dexterous. 

- F. (J droit, rightfully. -F. d (L. ad), to; 
Late L. directum, right, justice, neut. of 
L. directus, pp. of di-rigere, to direct, 


from L. di- (for dis-), apart, and regere, to 

Adulation, flattery. (F.-L.) F. 
adulation. — !^, ace. aduldtionem, from 
aduldtio, flattery. — L. adufdius, pp. of 
adulnri, to flatter. 

Adult. (L.) L. adulius, grown up ; 
pp. of ad-olescere, to grow up. — L. ad, to ; 
'olescere, inceptive form related to alere, to 
nourish ; see Aliment. 

Adulterate, to corrupt. (L.) XVI 
cent. — L. aduUerdtus, pp. of adulterare, to 
corrupt. — L. adulter, an adulterer, a de- 
baser of money. 

Adultery. (F.— L.) M.E. avoutrie; 
but a later form was adtilterie, in imita- 
tion of Latin. Cf. O.F. avoutrie, avouierie, 
adultery; from avoutre, an adulterer, 
which represented L. adulter (see above) ; 
so that avoutrie was equivalent in sense to 
L. adiiUerium, adultery. 

Adumbrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
ad-umbrdre, to shadow forth. —L. ad, to; 
umbra, a shadow. 

Advance, to go forward. (F. — L.) 
XVI cent. A mistaken form ; for M. E. 
auatuen, avancen. — F. avancer, to go for- 
ward or before. — F. avant, before. — L. ab, 
from ; ante, before. See Ante-, Van. 

Advantage, profit. (F.-L.) Amis- 
taken form for M. E. avantage. — F. avant- 
age ; formed with suffix -age from avant, 
before ; see above. 

Advent, approach. (L.) L. aduentus, 
approach. — L. aduentus, pp. of ad-uemre, 
to approach. — L. ad, to ; uenlre, to come. 
Cf. Venture. 

Adventure. (F.— L.) 'hi.'K.aventure; 
with F. a- replaced by L. ad-. — F. 
aventure, a chance, occurrence. •- L. ad- 
ueniura, fem. of aduentUrus, about to 
happen, fut. part, oi aduenire, to approach; 
see above. 

Adverb. (F.-L.) Used to qualify a 
verb. F. adverbe. — L. adiierbium. — L. ad, 
to ; uerium, a word, a verb. 

Adverse. (F.-L.) M.F.advers{O.F. 
avers). — h. aduersus, turned towards, also 
opposed to ; pp. of L. adueriere, to turn 
to (see below). Der. advers-ary, adversity. 

Advert. (L.) L. ad-uertere, to turn 
to, regard, heed. — L. ad, to; uertere, to 
turn ; see Verse. Bar. in-advert-ent, not 

Advertise. (F. - L.) M. E. averfisen, 
later advertise. From the base of aver- 
tiss-ant, pres. pt. of avertir, to inforni. 


warn. — Late L. adueriere, put for L. aduer- 
tere, to turn to, heed ; see above. 

Advice. (F.— L.) M.E. auis {avis), 
without d. — O.Y. avis, an opinion; orig. 
a compound word, put for a vis, i. e. ac- 
cording to my opinion. — L. ad, according 
to ; uisum, that which has seemed good 
to one, orig. neut. of msits, pp. of nidere, 
to see. 

Advise. (F. — L.) M..'^.. aduisen, aha 
auisen iavisen), without d. — O. F. aviser,. 
to be of opinion. — O. F. avis (above). 

Advocate, sb. (F. — L.) M. F. advocate 
'an advocate;' Cot. — L. aduocdtus, an 
advocate, one ' called upon ' to plead. — 
L. aduocdtus, pp. of ad-uocdre, to call to,, 
call upon. — L. ad, to; uocdre, to call. 

Advowson. (F.-L.) A. F. avoeson,. 
also advouson, patronage ; hence the right 
of presentation to a benefice (Roquefort). — 
Late L. aduocationem, ace. of aduocdtio, 
patronage. — Late L. aduocdtus, a patron ; 
the same as L. aduocdtus, an advocate. 

Adze, a cooper's axe. (E.) M. E. adse, 
adese. A. S. e^esa, an adze. 

Aerial. (L- — Gk.) Formed with suffix 
-a/ from L. aeri-us, dwelling in the air.— 
L. aer, air. — Gk. aqp, air ; see Air. 

Aerolite, a meteoric stone. (Gk.) 
Also aeroUth, which is a better form.— 
Gk. atfo-, from 6.i\f, air ; Ai0-os, a stone. 

Aeronaut, a balloonist. (F. — Gk.) 
F. aeronaute.~Qi\i. df po-, from dij/), air; 
i'ouT-17!, a sailor, from voCs, a ship. 

Aery, an eagle's nest, brood of eagles or 
hawks. (F. — Late L.) — F. aire, ' an airie 
or nest of hawkes ; ' Cot. —Late L. area, a 
nest of a bird of prey ; of uncertain origin. 
H Sometimes misspelt ejfry, by confusion 
with M. E. ey, an egg ; see Egg. 

Sstbetic, refined. (Gk.) Gk. alaStj- 
TiKos, perceptive. — Gk. cdaBiaSai, to per- 
ceive. (VAW ; see Brugra. ii. § 841.) 

ausestbetic, relieving pain, dulling 
sensation. — Gk. av-, not ; and aiaBrinie6t. 

Afar. (E.) For on far. 

Affable. (F.-L.) ¥. affable. -'L.affd- 
bills, easy to be spoken to. -L. af- = ad, 
to ; fan, to speak. 

Affair. (F.-L.) yi.F.affere.-O.F. 
afeire, afaire, a business ; orig. a faire, 
i.e. (something) to do.-L. ad, to; facere, 
to do. 

Affect. (L.) L. affectdre, to apply 
oneself to (hence, to act upon) ; frequent, of 
afficere, to aim at, treat. — L. of- = ad, to; 
facere, to do, act. Der. dis-affect. 


Affeer, to assess, confirm. (F. — L.) 
■O. F. afeurer, to fix the price of a thing 
(officially). -Late L. affordre, to fix a 
price. — V,.af- (for ad) j tmi forum, market, 

Affiance. (F.— L.) O.F. a/fa««,trnst; 
cf. affier, afier, to trust (whence E. affy).— 
O. F. a (L. ad), to ; aaifidant-, stem of 
pres. pt. of Late L. fiddre, to trust, from 
i-,.fidere, to trust. Cf. Late \..ftdantia, 
a pledge. 

Affidavit, an oath. (L.) Late L. affi- 
dduit, 3 p. s. pt. t. of affiddre, to pledge. - 
L. af- = ad, to ; Late V.. fiddre, for L.fidere, 
to trust. 

Affiliation. (F.-L.) F. affiliation, 
an adoption as a son. — Late L. ace. affilia- 
tidneni. — L. af- =ad, to ; filius, a son. 

Affinity. (F.-L.) F. affiniti.-'L. 
afflnitatem, ace. of affinilas, nearness. — L. 
affinis, near, bordering on. — L. af- {for ad^, 
to, near; finis, boundary, end. 

Affirm. (F.-L.) M. E. affermen.- 
O. F. afermer, to fix. — L. affirmdre. — L. 
af- (for ad), to ; firmdre, to make firm, 
from finniis, strong ; see Firm. 

Affix. (L.) Late L. affixdre (Ducange), 
frequent, of L. afftgere (pp. affix-us)i to 
fasten to.- L.a/"- (for arf), \.o\figere, to fix. 

Afflict, to harass. (L.) XVI cent. -L. 
afflictus, pp. of affligere, to strike to the 
ground; — (for ad), to ; a.nAfligere, to 
dash. So also cotiflict, from pp. con-flictus ; 
inflict ; and cf. pro-flig-ate. 

Affluence. (F.-L.) F. affluence. - 
L. ajluentia, abundance. — L. ajfluent-em 
(ace), flowing towards, pres. part, of 
affluere, to flow to, abound. — L. af (for 
cut), to ; fluere, to flow. 

Afford. (E.) Altered from aforth, 
M.E. aforthen, to provide, P. PI. B. vi. 
20I. — A. S. geforSian,fortSian, to further, 
promote, provide. — A. S. ge-, prefix ; and 
forS, forth, forward ; see Forth. 

Affray, to frighten. (F.-L. atid Teut.) 
XIV cent. M. E. affrayen. — O. F. effraier, 
esfreSr, to frighten. — Low L. exfriddie, to 
break the king's peace, cause an affray or 
fray ; hence, to disturb, frighten. — L. .fjr ; 
andO. H. G.friJu (G.friede), peace. (See 
Romania, 1878, vii. 121.) Der. affray, sb., 
also iTgitltfray ; and afraid, q. v. 

Afi&eightment, the hiring of a vessel 
to convey cargo. (F. — L. and G.) An 
E spelling of F. affretement, now written 
affritement, the hiring of a ship. — F. 
affreter (now affriter), to hire a ship. — F. 

AGATE >:, 

af, for L. ad-, prefix ; and F. fret, the 
freight of a ship. See Fraught, Freight 

Affrigllt, to frighten. (£.■) The 
double/is late. From M. E. afright, use? 
as a pp., aSfrighted. — A. S. Sfyrht, dfyrhtiA 
pp. afirighted ; from infin. Sfyrhtan (n6| 
used). — A. S. a-, intensive; &nd fyrhlan, 
to terrify, bom fyrhto, fright ; see Fright. 

Afiront. (F. — L.) M..'E.. afronten.- 
O. F. afronter, to confront, oppose face to 
face. — Late L. affronldre. — L. af- (for ad), 
to; front-em, ace. of frons, forehead, 

Afloat. (E.) For on float. 

Afoot. (E.) For on fool. 

Afore. (E.) For on fore; A. S. on- 
foran, afore. 

Afraid. (F.-L. and Teut.) Orig, 
affrayed, i. e. 'frightened.' Pp. of Affray, 

Afresll. (E.) For on fresh or of fresh; 
see Anew. 

Aft, After. (E.) A. S. aftan, be- 
hind ; after, after, both prep, and adv.+ 
Icel. aptan, behind, aptr, rt/?/-, backwards; 
Dan. and Swed. efter, Du. achter, O. H. G, 
aftar, prep, and adv. behind, p. Aftaw 
is extended from Goth, af, off; see Of, 
After is a comp. form, likeGk. dna-Tep-a, 
further off; it means more off, further off, 
hence behind. Der. ab-aft, q v. ; aft&- 
ward (see Toward). 

Aftermath., a second crop of mown 
grass. (E.) Here after is an adj. ; and math 
means ' a mowing,' unaccented form of 
A. S. m&p. Allied to Mead, Mow. Cf. 
G. mahd, a mowing : nachmahd, aftermath; 

Aftermost, hindmost. (E.) A. S. 
aftemest, Goth, aftumists; but affected 
by after and most. The Goth, af-tu-m- 
ists is a treble superl. form. See Aft. 

Asa, Agha, a chief officer. (Turk.) 
Turk, aghd, master. 

Again. (North E.) Cf. M.E. ayein, 
A. S. ongegn {ongean). — K.S. on; and 
gegtt, of which the primary meaning seems 
to have been ' direct,' or ' straight.' 
(N.E.D.)+Dan. igien, Swed. igen, again, 
against. (North E.) Thesis added. 
Cf. M. E. ayeines, against ; extended from 
M. E. ayein, against, with adv. suffix -«. 
— A. S. ongean, against ; the same as A. S, 
ongean, ongegn, again ; see above. +Ice^ 
I gegn, G. entgegen, against. * 

Agate. (F. - It. - L. - Gk.) O.F. agalt, 
agathe. — Ital. agata, agatha, an agate 
(Florio). — L. achdtem, ace. oi achates.- 



Gk. dxonys, an agate ; so named from being 
found near the river Achates (Sicily). 

Age. (F. - L.) O. F. mge, edage. - Late 
L. ataticum. — L. celdti- , stem of letas (from 
*teai-ids), age. — L. auum, life, period.+ 
Gk. aiiiv; Goth, aizvs; Skt. dyas, life. 
Brugm. ii. § 112. 

Agent. (L.) XVI cent. L. agent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of agere (pp. actus), to do, 
drive, condnct.+Gk.aYEii'; \ce\.aka; Skt. 
aj, to drive. (V AG.) ^ 

Agglomerate, to mass together. (L.) 
From pp. of L. agglomerdre, to form into 
a mass. — L. ag- ( = ad) ; and glomer-, stem 
of glomtts, a mass, ball, clue of thread, 
allied to globus, a globe ; see Globe. 

Agglutinate. (L.) From pp. of 
agglutindre, to glue together. — L. a^- 
( = arf), \.a ; glfUin- , {ov gluten, glue. 

Aggrandise. (F.-L.) M.V.aggran- 
dis-, stem of pres. pt. of aggrandir, to 
enlarge. Also agrandir (with one ^) . — F. 
a (for L. ad) ; and grandir, to increase, 
from L. grandire, to enlarge, which is 
from L. grandis, great. 

Aggravate. (L.) From pp. of L. ag- 
graudre, to add to a load. — L. ag- (^=ad), 
to; graiidre, to load, fiom gram's, heavy. 

Aggregate. (L.) From pp. of L. a^- 
gregdre, to collect into a ilock. — L. ag- (for 
'ad), to ; greg-, stem oigrex, a flock. 

Aggress, to attack. (F.-L.) M.F.a^- 
gresser. — 'L. aggressus, pp. oi aggredi, to 
assail. — L. ag- {{01 ad), to; gradt, to ad- 

Aggrieve. (F.— L.) M.'E. agreven.— 
O. F . agrever, to overwhelm. — O. F. a, to ; 
grever, to burden.— L. ad, to; graudre, to 
weigh down, from grauis, heavy, grave. 
See Grave (3). 

Agbast, horror-struck. (E.) Misspelt 
for agast, which is short for agasted, pp. of 
M. E. agasten, to terrify ; Ch. C. T. 2341 ; 
Leg. of Good Women, Dido, 248. — A. S. 
a-, prefix ; and gSstati, to terrify, torment. 
p. A. S. gcestan is irom the base gas- = 
Goth, gats- in us-gais-jan, to terrify. (^ 
GHwAIS.) Brugm. ii. § 802. 

Agile. (F.-L.) XVI cent. V. agile. 
— L. agilis, nimble ; lit. easily driven 
about. -L. agere, to drive. ) 

Agistment, the pasturage of cattle 
by agreement. (F. — L.) From the F. vb. 
agister, to assign a resting-place. — F. a 
( = L.ffrf),to ; and O.Y.giste, a conch,lodg- 
ing, verbal sb. from O. F. gesir (F. gisir), 
to lie, from L. iacere, to lie. 


Agitate. (L.) L. agitdtus, pp. of 
agitdre, to keep driving about, frequent, of 
agere, to drive ; see Agent. (^AG.) 

Aglet, a tag of a lace. (F.-L.) Also 
aygulet, Spenser, F. Q. ii. 3. 26. -F. aiguil- 
lette, dimin. ai aiguille, a needle. — Late L. 
aciicula, dimin. of ac-us, a needle, pointed 
thing. Cf. Aome. (VAK.) 

Agnail, (i) a com on the foot, C2) a 
sore beside the nail. (E.) The sense has 
been confused or perverted. From A. S. 
angncegl, a corn on the foot (see A. S. 
Leechdoms, ii. 81, § 34); with which cf. 
O. Friesio ogneil, ongneil, apparently used 
in a similar sense. From a prefix ang-, 
signifying afflicting, paining, and A. S. 
ncegl, a nail (as of iron), hence a hard 
round-headed excrescence or wart fixed in 
the flesh ; see Anger and Wail. p. Soort 
misunderstood as referring to the nails of 
the toes or fingers, and so made to mean 
' a sore beside the nail ' ; prob. by com- 
paring (wrongly) the Gk. vapovvxia, a 
whitlow (lit. beside' the nail), or by con- 
fusion with F. angonaille, a sore (Cot.). 
See N. E. D. 

Agnate, allied. (L.) L. agndtus, 
allied ; pp. of agnascT= ad-gnascT. — L. ad, 
to ; nasct, earlier form gnasci, to be born. 

Ago, Agone, gone away, past. (E.) 
M. K. ago, agon, agoon, pp. of the verb 
agon, to pass by, pass away. A. S. dgdn, 
pp. of dgdn, to pass away. See A- (4) 
and Go. 

Agog, in eagerness. (F.) For a-gog, 
in activity, in eagerness, where a- is 
the prefix A- (2). Adapted from O. F. 
en gogues (Littre), or a gogue (Godefroy), 
in mirth. Cot. has estre en ses gogues, ' to 
be frolicke, ... in a veine of mirth.' The 
origin of O. F. gogue, fun, diversion, is 

Agony. (F.— L. — Gk.) M. E. agonie. 

— Y. agonie. — L. agSnia.— Gk. a-^aivia, orig, 
a contest. — Gk. ar^iii', contest. — Gk. dytiv, 
to drive. ^{^ AG.) 

Agouti, a rodent animal, of the guinea- 
pig family. (F. — Sp. — Brazil.) F; agouti. 

— Sp. aguti. "'RiazW. aguti, acuti. 
Agraffe, a kind of clasp. (F.-O.H.G.) 

F. agrafe; also agraphe (in Cotgrave), 
a hook, clasp; agrafer, to clasp. The 
verb is from F. a (=L. ad), to; and 
M. H. G. kraffe, O. H. G. crapo, chrapfo, 
a hook, which is allied to E. cramp. 
Agree, to accord. (F. — L.) O. F. 
agreer, to receive favourably. — O. F. a gre, 



favourably.— O. F. a ( = L. ad), according 
to ; gre, gret, pleasure, from L. gratum, 
neut. of ^ra/«j, dear, pleasing. Cf. Grace. 
Der. dis-agne. 

Agricnltnre. (L-) L- agrl cultura, 
culture of a field. - L. agi-i, gen. of ager, 
a field ; and cultura. See Acre and Cul- 

Agrimony, a plant. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M. E. agremoine, egremoine. — M; F. aigH- 
moine, — L. aigemonia, ai-gemahe. — Gk. 
dpyfinaivq. (Lewis and Short, L. Diet.) 

Agroimd. (E.) ¥or on ground. 

Ague, a fever-fit. (F.-L.) Lit. 
' acute ' attack. — O. F. ague, fem. of agu 
(F. aigu), acute. — L. acuta {febris), acute 
(fever) ; fem. of aciitus ; see Acute. 

Ah! (F.-L.) M.E. a!-O.F. o!- 
L. ah ! 

Aheaid. (E.) For on head, i.e. in a 
forward direction. See A- (2). 

Ai, a sloth. (Brazil.) From Brazil, ai. 

Aid. (F.-L.) M. E. fliVsK. - O. F. 
aider. — L. adiutare, frequent, of adiuudre, 
to assist. — \j. ad; and iuuare, to help, pp. 
iiitus. Cf. Brugm. ii. § 583. 

Ail, V. (E.) M. E. eilen. A. S. eglan, 
to pain ; cognate witli Goth, agljan. — 
A. S. egle, troublesome (allied to Goth. 
aglus, hard). Cf. A. S. ege, terror, orig. 
pain ; see Awe. 

Aim, to endeavour after. (F. — L.) M. E. 
eimen. From confusion of (i) A. F. 
esmer, from L. astiniare, to estimate, aim 
at, intend; and (2) O. F. aesmer, from L. 
ad-mstimdre, comp. with prefix ad-, to. 
See Sateeiu. 

Air (i). (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. air, eir. 
— F. air. — L. der. — Gk. aqp, air. 

air (2), mien, affected manner ; tune. 
(F. - It. - L. - Gk.) F. air, look, tune. - 
Ital. aria, ' a looke, . . a tune ; ' Floiio. — 
Folk-L. neut. pi. dlra, treated as a fem. 
sing_. (Diez). — L. ai?>-.-Gk. ar/p (above). 

Alrt, a point of the compass. (Gael.) 
Gael, aird, a quarter or point of the 
compass. Cf. O. Irish aird, a point, limit. 

Aisle, the wing of a church. (F.— L.) 
Better spelt aile. — F. aile. — L. dla, a wing. 
Prob. for *axla, dimin. of Axis. 
Ait. (E.) See Eyot. 
Aitch-bone, the rump-bone. (Hyb. ; 
F. — L. and E.) Orig. spelt nachebone. — 
O. F. nache, sing, of naches, the buttocks ; 
and E. bone. Naches = Late L. naticds, ace. 
of naticce, dimin. of L. nates, the but- 


Ajar. (E.) From a char, on char, on 
the turn (G. Douglas, tr. of Virgil, b. vii; 
prol.). — A.S. u» cierre, on the turn ; cf. A.S. 
cyrran, cierran, to turn. See Char (2). 

Akimbo, in a bent position. (Scand.) 
M. E. in kenebowe, Beryn, 183S. Perhaps 
from Icel. f keng, into a crook; with 
E. bom, i. e. bend, superfluously added. 
Here keng is the ace. of kcngr, a croolcT 
twist, kink, Cf. also Icel. ksngbog^^M 
bent into a crook, from kengr, a crofl^ 
twist, kink, and boginn, bowed, pp. of 
lost verb bjiiga, to bow. See Kink and 
Bow (i). (Very doubtful ; a guess.) 

ATrin, of kin. (E.) For of kin. 

Alabaster. (F. -L. - Gk.) M.E. ala- 

bastre. — O. F. cilabastre (F. aMtre').w'L. 
alabaster, alabastrum. — Gk. dXaffaarpor}^ 
dKa^aaros, Said to be derived from Alit-i 
bastron, a town in Egypt. (Pliny.) 

Alack. (E.) Prob. a corruption of M.E, 
a ! lack ! alas ! a shame 1 lit. ' lack,' (It 
cannot be the same as alas^ 

Alacrity. (L.) Formed by analogyi 
with celerity, from L. alacritdtem, ace. ofj 
alacritds, briskness. - L. alacer, brisk. 

Alarm, a call to arms. (F.-Ital.-U) 
M. E. alarrne. — Y.alarme. — Ital. aU'arme, 
to arms ! for aile arme. — Late L. ad 
illas armas, for L. ad ilia arma, to 
those arms ! to your arms ! 

alarum. (F.-Ital.-L.) The same 
word, with an old pronunciation, in which 
the r was strongly trilled. 

Alas! (F.-L.) M.E.a/aj.-O.F.a/aj 
(cf. F. helas). - O. F. a, ah ! and las, 
wretched that I am ! - L. ah\ and lassus, 
tired, wretched. (Allied to Late.) 

Alb, a white vestment. (F,-L.) M.E. 
albe. — O. F. a/fo.-Late L. alba,sh.; orig, 
fem. of L. albus, white, 

Albacore, a kind of tunny, (Fortl 
Arab.) Port, albacor, albacora. Saidio 
be of Arab, origin. 

Albatross, a large sea-bird. (Port.- 
Span. — Arab. — Gk.) Formerly also alga- 
Iross. — VoTt. alcatraz, a cormorant, alba- 
tross ; Span, alcatraz, a pelican. -Port. 
alcatruz, a bucket. Span, arcaduz, M.Span. 
alcaduz (Minsheu), a bucket on a water- 
wheel. - Arab. al-qadHs, the same (Dozy). 
Similarly Arab, saqqd, a water-carrier, a 
pelican, because it carries water in its 
pouch. (Devic ; supp. to Littre,) 

Album, lit, that which is white. (L) 
L. albiim, a tablet, orig. neut. of alius, 


albtimeu, white of egg. (L.) 1.. albu- 
men eui (also album out), white of egg.— 
L. alius, white. 

Alcayde, a judge ; see Cadi. 

Alchemy. (F.-Arab.-Glc.') O. F. 
akhemie. — Arab, al, the ; and kimm, 
alchemy.- Late Gk. x^Meia, chemistry; 
probably confused with x"Mf''"j a ming- 
ling, from Gk. x^^'"! to pour out, mix. 

Alcohol. (Med. L.-Arab.i Med. L. 
alcohol, applied to pure spirit, though the 
orig. sense was a fine impalpable powder. 
— Arab, al, the; and kohl or kulil, a 
coUyrium, very fine powder of antimony, 
used to paint the eyelids with. 

Alcoran ; see Koran. 

Alcove, a vaulted recess. (F. — Span. — 
Arab.) ¥. alcSve. — Spaji. alcoba, a recess 
in a room. — Arab, al, the; and qobhah, a 
vault, dome, cupola ; hence a vaulted space. 

Alder, a tree. (E.) M. E. alder, aller 
(d being excrescent). — A. S. alor (aler, 
«//■). +Du. els; Icel. olr (iox glr) ; Swed. 
al; Dan. elle, el; G. erle; O.H. G. enla, 
earlier elira ; Span, aliso (from Gothic). 
Teut. stems *alu%-, "aliz-, *alis-. Allied 
to Lith. alksnis, L. alnus (for *alsnos') ; 
Russ. olekha ; and perhaps to Sim. 

Alder-, prefix, of all. In alder-liefest 
(Sh.) ; here alder is for aller, O. Merc. 
alra, A. S. ealra, gen. pi. of al, eal, all. 
See AU. 

Alderman. (E.) Merc, aldomian, 
A. S. ealdorman. — Merc, aldor (ealdor), a 
chief; and man, man. Allied to O. Fries. 
alder, a parent; G. elterti, pi. parents; 
and to L. al-tor, a bringer up, from alere, 
to nourish. Cf. Old. 

Ale. (E.) M. E. ale. - A. S, ealu, gen. 
alo} (stem *«/»/).+ Icel., Swed., and Dan. 
bl; Lithnan. fl/z« ; \<x&%. olovina. 

Alem.1}ic, a vessel for distilling. (F.— 
Span. — Arab. — Gk.) M. E. alemhyk. — F. 
aiambique (Cot.). — Span, alambique. — 
Arab, al, the ; and anb'iq (pronounced am- 
biq), a still. — Gk. a/j/Sif, a cup, goblet ; 
cap of a still. Cf. Limbeck. 

Alert. (F.-ItaL-L.) F. a/«;-/« ; for- 
merly allerte, and (in Rabelais) a Iherle, 
i.e. on the watch. — Ital. alVerta, on the 
watch ; from the phr. stare all'erta, to 
stand erect, be on one's guard. — Ital. alia 
(for a la), at the, on the ; erla, fem. of 
erto, erect. — L. ad, to, at ; illam, fem. ace. 
of ille, he ; erectam, fem. ace. of erectus, 
erect ; see Srect. 

Algebra. (Late L. — Arab.) Late L. 


algebra, computation. — Arab, al, the ; and 
jabr, setting, repairing ; also, the reduction 
of fractions to integers in arithmetic ; hence, 
algebra. — Arab, xooi jabara, to set, con' 

Algfaazil, a police-officer. (Span.— 
Arab.) Span, alguazil. — Arab, al, the ; 
wazTr, a vizier, officer ; see "Vizier. 

AlgTUU, sandal-wood. (Heb. - Skt.) 
In 3 Chron. ii. 8, ix. lo ; spelt alimig, 
1 Kings X. II. — Heb. fl;4'*""«»"'«>or(trans- 
posed) almugim ; a borrowed word. Sup- 
posed by Max Miiller (Set. Lang. i. 232) to 
be from Skt. valgu-ka, sandal-wood; where 
-ka is a suffix. 

Alias. (L.) L. alias, otherwise. — L. 
alius, another ; see Alien. 

alibi. (L.) L. alibi, in another place. 

— L. alt-, as in alius ; and suffix -bi as in 
i-bi, there, u-bi, where. See below. 

alien. (,F. - L.) M. E. aliene. - O. F. 
alien. — L. alienus, strange; a stranger. — L. 
alius, another. + Gk. aKKos, another; O. 
Irish aile, W. aill, all; Goth, aljis (stem 
aljo^, other ; see Else. 

Alight (i), to descend from. (E.) M. E. 
alihten, to alight from horseback ; A. S. 
glihtan, the prefix a- being = A. S. a-. 
■The simple form lihtan also occurs in A. S., 
meaning to make light, relieve of weight, 
alight (from a horse) ; from iTht, light, 
adj. See Light (3). 

alight (2), to light upon. (E.) M.E. 
alihten, with reference to the completion of 
the action of alighting. See above. 

Align ; see Aline. 

dftJiEe, similar. (E.) M-Y^. alike, dike. 
A. S. onlic, like ; from lie, like, with prefix 
on- = OTi, prep. 

Aliment, food. (F. — L.) ¥. aliment. 

— L. alimentum, food ; formed with 
suffix -mentum from alere, to nourish. 

alimony, money allowed for a wife's 
support upon her separation from her 
husband. (L.) L. alimonia, nourishment. 

— L. alere, to nourish ; see above. 
Aline, Align, to range in a line. (F. 

— L.) Adapted from mod. F. aligner, to 
range in a line. From the phr. d ligne, 
into line. — L. ad, to ; llnea, a line. See 
Line. {Aline is the better spelling for 
the E. word.) 

Aliquot. (L.) L. aliquot, some, several 
(hence, proportionate). — L. ali-us, other ; 
and quot, how many. 

Alive, in life. (E.) From A. S. on life. 


in life; where life is dat. of ///) life; see 

Alkali, a salt. (Arab.) Arab, al, the ; 
and ^a/f, ashes of salt-wort, which abounds 
in soda. 

All. (E.) M. E. al, sing.; alle, pl.- 
O. Mere, al, all; A. S.«a/, pl.cfl//«.+Icel. 
ttllr ; Swed. all ; Dan. al ; Da. al; O. H. G. 
al ; Goth, alls, pi. allai. Tent, type *al- 
noz ; allied to Irish uile, all, from Idg. 
type *oljos. 

all, adv., utterly. In the phr. all-to 
In ake (correctly allto-brake). Judges ix. 53. 
Here the incorrect all-to, for 'utterly,' came 
up about A.D. 1500, in place of the old 
idiom which linked to to the verb ; cf. 'Al 
is tohroslen thilke regioun,' Chaucer, C. T. 
2757. See 'So-, prefix. 

almost. (E.) A. S. ra/-»!^j/, i.e. quite 
the greatest part, nearly all ; affected by 
mod. E. most. See Most. 

alway, always. (E.) (i)A.S. ra/ws 

weg, every way, an accus. case. (2) M. E. 
alles weis, in every way, a gen. case. 

Allay. (E.) M. E. aleyen, alaien, the 
stem of which is due to A. S. dleg-es, dleg- 
eS, 2 and 3 pres. t. sing, of A.S. dlecgan, to 
lay down, put down, which produced also 
M. E. aleggen, to lay or set aside. — A. S.. 
a.-, prefix ; and lecgan, to lay, place ; see 
A- (4) and Lay [\). p. But much con- 
fused with other forms, especially with M. E. 
aleggen, to alleviate, from O. F. alegar, 
alegier, L. alleuiare ; and with old forms 
of alloy. See N. E. D. 

Allege. (F.-L.) M.'K.alegen, aleggen. 
In form, the word answers to A. F. alegier, 
aligier=0.¥. esligier (see Godefroy) ; 
from A. F. a- = 0. F. es-, and ligier. — 'L. 
ex- ; and litigdre, to contend (Ducange), 
from L. lis (gen. llt-is), strife. Latinised 
as adtegiare (Ducange), and treated as if 
allied to L. allegdre (F. alUgiier) ; hence 
the sense usually answers to that of L. 
allegare, to adduce. -L. al- (for ad), to ; 
legd7-e, to dispatch, to tell, from leg-, base 
of lex, law. 

Allegiance, the duty of a subject to 
his lord. ( F. - O. H. G.) M. £. alegeaunce. 
Formed from F. a ( = L. ad), to; O. F. 
ligance, ligeance, homage, from O. F. Hge, 
liege, liege. See Liege, f The form 
ligance (Godefroy) was due to a supposed 
connexion with L. ligdre, to bind. 

Allegory. (L.-Gk.) XVI cent. L. 
allegoria. ~Gk. dWijyopia, a description 
of one thing vmder the image of another. — 


Gk. aM.rjfoptTi', to speak so as to imply 
something else ; Galat. iv. 24. •- Gk. oAAo-, 
stem of dWos, other ; and dyopfveir, to 
speak, from ayopa, a place of assembly ; cf. 
uytlpuv, to assemble. Gk. aWos — L. alius;- 
see Alien. 

Allegro, lively. (Ital.-L.) lta.\. alle- 
gro. — L. alaerem, ace. of alacer, brisk. 

Alleluia. (Heb.) See HaUelujah. 

Alleviate. (E.) From pp. of Late L. 
alleiiidre, used for L. alleiidrCy to lighten. 
L. al- (for ad), to ; lendre, to lift, lighten, 
from leuis, light. 

Alley, a walk. ( F. - L. ?) M. E. aley. 
— O. F. alee, a gallery ; a participial sb.-** 
O. F. aler, to go : F. aller. p. The ety- ; 
mology of aller, much and long discussed, ' 
is not yet settled ; the Prov. equivalent is 
anar, allied to Ital. andare, to go. 

Alliance ; see Ally. 

Alligator. (Span. - L.) Lit. ' the 
lizard.' — Span, el lagarto, the lizard, i.e. 
the great lizard. -L. ille, he, that; lacerta, 
a lizard. See Lizard. 

Alliteration, repetition of initial : 
letters. ;L.) Coined from L. al- (for ad), 
to ; and litera, a letter ; see Letter. 

Allocate, to set aside. (L.) From 
pp. of Late L. allocdre, to allot. — L. al- 
i^ — ad), to ; locdre, to place, from locus, a 
place. Cf. Allow (i). 

Allocution, an address. (L.) From v 
L. allocntio, an address. — L. al- (for ad), '■ 
to ; locfiiid, a speaking, from locHtus, pp. 
of loqui, to speak. 

Allodial. (LateL.-O.Frankish.) Late 1 
L. allodidlis, from allodium, alodiuvi^.^ 
derivative of alSdis, a free inheritance 
(Lex Salica). It means f entirely (one's) 
property,' from O. Frank, alod; where al- 
is related to E. all, and od signifies 'pro-j! 
perty ' or ' wealth.' This O. Frank, a/is]., 
cognate with O. H. G. ot, A. S. ead, Icel." 
autir, wealth. Cf. Goth, audags, blessed. 

Allopathy, a treatment by medicines^ 
which produce an opposite effect to that of 
disease. (Gk.) Opposed to homaopathy, 
q- v. — Gk. aX\o-, for aWai, other ; and 
7ra9-er>', to suffer ; see Alien and Pathos. 

Allot, to assign a portion to. (F.-L. 
and E.) A. F. aloter. — A.. F. a, from I. 
ad, to ; and M. E. lot, A. S. hlot; see Lot, 

Allow (1), to assign, grant. (F.-L) 
F. allouer, to let out for hire, assign for 
an expense. - Late L. allocdre, to allot. - 
L. al- (for ad), to ; and locdre, to place, 
from locus, a place. 


Allow (2), to approve of. (F. - L.) 
M.E, alouen. — O. F. alouer, later alhtter, 
to approve of. — L. allauddre. — L. al- (for 
ad\, to; lauddre, to praise, from laud-, 
stem of laus, praise. 

Alloy, a due proportion in mixing 
metals. (F.-L.) Formerly a//«y ; M. E. 
alay. — O. F. alay, aley, alloy. — O.F. aleier, 
aleyer, to combine. — L. alligdre, to bind 
together ; see Ally. The O. F. alei, sb., 
became cUoi, which was misunderstood as 
being h hi = L. ad legem, according to rule 
or law (Littre). 

Allude. (L.) L. alliidere, to laugh, at, 
allude to (pp. allnsus). — 'L,. al- { = ad), 
at ; ludere, to sport. Der. allus-ion. 

Allure, to tempt by a bait. (F. — L. 
and G.) A. F. alurer ; from F. a leurre 
= to the bait or lure. — L. ad, to ; M. H. G. 
luoder (G. luder), a bait. See Lure. 

Alluvial, washed down, applied to 
soil. (L.) L. alluuius, alluvial. — L. al- 
( = ad), to, in addition ; Iture, to wash. 

Ally, to bind together. (F.-L.) M. E. 
alien. — O. F. alicr, to bind up. — L. ad, 
to ; ligdre, to bind. Der. alli-ance, M. E. 

Almanac, Almanack. (Late L.) 
Late L. almanack. ^ Origin unknown ; 
not of Arab, origin (Dozy). 

Almighty. (E.) O. Merc, almcxhiig, 
A. S. celmihtig. The pre6x is O. Merc. 
al-, O. Sax. alo-, O. H. G. ala-, related to 
All. And see Might. 

Almond. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. al- 
maund.—O. F. almandre, more correctly, 
amandre ; the al being due to Span, and 
Arab, influence ; mod. F. amande. — 
L. amygdala, amygdalum, an almond ; 
whence the forms amygiVla, amyd''la, 
amynd'la, amyndra (see Brachet). — Gk. 
apLV-^hoKr], afiiLiySaXov, an almond. 

Almoner ; see Aims. 

Almost. (E.) A. S. ealmasl ; see All. 

Alms. (L.'— Gk.) M.E. almesse, later 
alines. A. S. almasse. — Folk-L. *ali- 
inosina (whence O. F. almosne, P'. au- 
mSne, Ital. limosina) ; Late L. eleemosyna. 

— Gk. k\friiu>aivri, pity; hence alms. — 
Gk. iKtiiiuav, pitifiil. — Gk. iXeeiv, to pity. 

— Gk. iK(os, pity. % Thus alms is a 
singular form. 

almoner. (F.—L.—Gk.) O.¥.al?nos- 
nier, a distributor of alms. — O. F. almosne, 
alms ; F. aumdne. — Folk-L. *alimosina 
Almng, the same as Algum, q. v. 


Aloe, a plant. (L. - Gk.) L. aloe 
(Pliny). -Gk. i.K6Ti ; John xix. 39. 

Aloft. (Scand.) Icel. a lopt (pron. 
loft), aloft, in the air. -Icel. a ( = A. S. 
on), in ; lopt, air. See Loft. 

Alone. (E.) M.E. al one, al oon, 
written apart ; here al, adv., means ' en- 
tirely,' and oon is the M. E. form 'of one. 
Cf. Du. alleen, G. allein. See All and 

Along (i), lengthwise of. (E.) M. E. 
along. A. S. andlang, along, prep, with 
gen.; orig. (like O. Sax. antlang) an adj., 
meaning complete (from end to end).— 
A. S. and-, prefix (allied to Gk. Avri, 
Skt. anli, over against) ; lang, long. The 
sense is ' over against in length,' or ' long 
from end to end.'+G. entlang, along. See 
A- (3) and Iiong (i) ; and see Anti-. 

Along (2) ; in phr. all along of you, 
&^c. (E.) Equivalent to M. E. ilotig, 
Layamon, 15502.-A. S. ^fi/(z«^, 'depend- 
ing on,' as in oil Sam gelang, along of 
that. — A.S. ^£-, prefix; lang, long. 

Aloof, away. (E. and Dn.) For on loof; 
answering to Du. te loef, to windward. 
Cf. Du. loef houden, to keep the luff or 
weather-gage, Dan. holde luven, lo keep to 
the windward ; which suggested our phrase 
' to hold aloof,' i. c. to keep away (from 
the leeward shore or rock). See Luff. 

Aloud, loudly. (E.) From a-, prefix, 
due to A. S. on, prep. ; and A. S. kliid, 
loud. See A- (2) and Loud. 

Alp. (L.) L. Alpes, the Alps; of 
Celtic origin. Connected with L. albus, 
white (Stokes). Der. trans-alp-ine, i. e. 
beyond the Alps. 

Alpaca. (Span. — Peruvian.) Span, al- 
paca; itompaco, the Peruvian name, with 
the Arab. def. art. al prefixed. 

Alphabet. (Late L. - Gk. - Phoe- 
nician. ) Late L. alphabetum. — Gk. aA<^a, 
&Tfra, the names of o and /3, the first two 
letters of the alphabet ; Heb. dleph, an ox, 
the name of the first letter; and beth, a 
house, the name of the second letter. 

Already. (E.) M.E. al redy, quite 
ready; from al, quite, representing the 
neut. of O. Merc, al, all, used adverbially, 
and Eeady. 

Also. (E.) M.E. al so, quite so; A. S. 
ealswd ; see above. 

Altar. (L.) A. S. altdre. Matt. v. 24. 
— L. altdre, an altar, high place. — L. 
alius, high. 

Alter. (L.) Late L. alterdre, to alter. 



— L. aller, other. — L. al- (as in al-ius); 
with comparative suffix -tero-. 

altercation, a dispute. (F. — L.) 
M. E. altercation. — O.^. altercation. — \j. 
a'.tercStioiiem, ace. of altercatio. — lj. alter- 
catus, pp. of altercdrl, to dispute, speak in 
turns. — L. aller, other, another. 

alternate. CL ) L. alterndtns, pp. 
of alterndre, to do by turns. — L. alter- 
nns, reciprocal. — L. alter (with suffix 

Althougll. (E.) M. E. al thogh ; see 
Already and Though. 

Altitude. (K.-L.) XIV cent. -F. 
altitude, — L. altiludo, height. — L. alius, 

alto, high voice. (Ital. — L.) lta\. alto. 

— L. alius, high. 

Altogether. (E) M.'E. al together, 
quite together. .See Already. 

Altruism, regard for others. (Ital.— 
L. ; ivith Gk. suffix.') Coined from Ital 
altriii, another, others, a form of altro, 
another, when preceded by a preposition. 
Orig. a dat. case. — L. altcri huic, to this 
other ; datives of alter, other, and hie, 

Alum. (F. - L.') M. E. alum. - O. F. 
alum ; F. alun. — L. alitmen, alum. 

Alvray, Always. (E.) See AU. 

Am. ;E.) See Are. 

Amain. (E.) For on main, in strength, 
with strength ; see A- ( 2) and Main, sb. 

Amalgam. (F. or Late L. - Gk. ?) F. 
amalgame. Late L. amalgama, a mixture, 
esp. of quicksilver with other metals. 
Origin unknown ; said by some to be a 
corruption or an alchemist's anagram of 
malagma, a mollifying application ; per- 
haps with Arab, al ( = the) prefixed. -Gk. 
liaXa-jiin,, an emollient. — Gk. liaKaaaftv 
({OT*/^aKaic-yui>), to soften. — Gk. fiaKaicos, 

Amanuensis, one who writes to dic- 
tation. (L.) L. amanuensis. — L. n manu, 
by hand ; with suffix -ensis. 

Amaranth, an unfading flower. (L.- 
Gk.) Properly amarant, as in Milton ; 
but -anth is due to confusion with Greek 
avim, a flower. - L. amarantus. — Gk. 
afjLapuvTos, unfading, or as sb. unfading 
flower. — Gk. d-, not ; and ftapaivuv, to 
fade. (V-MEK.) 

Amass, to heap up. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. amasser, to heap up. — F. <{ masse, into 
a mass. — L. ad, to ; mnssa, a mass. — Gk. 
/joft, a barley-cake. See Mass (1). 



Amatory. (L ) L- amatorius, lovin". 

— L. amator, a lover. — L. amdre, to love ; 
with suffix -tor-, -tor, of agent. 

Amaze, to astound. (E.) M.E. amasen. 
A. S. dmasian, pp. dmasod; Wulfstans 
Horn. p. 1.^7, 1. 23. From A.S. d- 
(prefix); and *i^asian, to perplex. Soe 

Amazon, a female warrior. (Gk.) Gk. 
a.\m^iiv, one of a warlike nation of women 
in Scythia. % To account for the name, 
the Greeks said that these women cut rff 
the right breast to shoot better; from Gk. 
a-, not ; and >/afoj, the breast. Obviously 
an invention. 

Ambassador, Embassador. (F. 

— Late L. — C.) F. ambassadeur. — Y, 
ambassade, an embassy ; prob. borrowed 
from Ital. a/«iaraate. — Late L. ambascia 
(Lex Salica) ; more correctly *ambacti(t ;', 
a mission, service. — L. ambactus, a servai:t, 
emissary; Cjesar, de Bell. Gall. vi. 15. 
The L. word is borrowed from an O.L 
Gaulish (Celtic) word {ambactos ?) a slave,;/ 
lit. one driven about, a pp. form fromi; 
ambi-, prefix, about, and the verb ag-,i 
cognate with L. agere; cf. O. Irish imm- 
agim, I drive al'out, send about. (Fick^S 
1894, ii. 34; Brugm. ii. § 79.) Cf. W.*' 
amaeth, a husbandman. 

Amber. (F. - Span. - Arab.) M. E. 
aumbre. — F. ainbre. — Span, ambar. - 
Arab, 'anbar (pronounced 'ambar), am- 
bergris, a rich perfume. % The resinous - 
amber was so called from a resemblance to 
ambergris, which is really quite a different 

ambergris, i. c. gray amber. Called 
gris amber in Milton, P. R. ii. 344. The 
F. gris, gray, is from O. H. G. gris, gray ; 
cf. G. greis, hoary. 

Ambi-, Amb-, prefix. (L.) L. ambi-, _, 
about ; cf. Gk. a-iiipi, on both sides, when«i 
E. prefix amphi: Related to L. ambu^ 
Gk. a/i0cu, both. Cf. A. S. ymb, Irish im, 

Ambient, going about. (L.) L. amh- 
tent-, stem of pres. part, of amb-Jre, to go 
about, from ire, to go. 

Ambiguous, doubtful. ^L.) L. ami- 
igutts, doubtful, lit. driving about (with 
-ous ( = L. ■osus'; in jlace of L. -us).-li. 
amb-, about; and agere, to drive. 

Ambition. (F.-L.) F. ambition.~\j. 
ambitionein, ace. oiambitio, a going round,' 
esp used of going round to solicit votes ; 
hence, a seeking for preferment. - L. amli- 


ttum, supine at ami- ire, to go about (but 
note that ambitio retains the short i of 
ilum, the supine of ire , the simple verb). 

AmMe. (F.-L.) M. E. «»/«««. -O.F. 
ambler, to go at an easy pace. — L. ambti- 
lore, to walk. 

ambulance, a moveable hospital. (F. 
— L.) F. amlmlance. — L. ambulant-, stem 
of pres. part, of ambuldre, to walk. 

ambulation, a walking about. (L.) 
From L. ambulatio, a walking about. — L. 
ambuldlus, pp. of ambulare. 

Ambrosia, food of the gods. (Gk.) 
Gk, aii$po<rla ; fem. of d/iPpoaios, length- 
ened form of dii$poTos, immortal. ■- Gk. d-, 
not (E. a»-) ; and *ii0poT6s, for *fipor6s 
(Gk. PpoToi) , mortal ; see Mortal. Cf. 
Skt. a-mrta. Immortal. See Amaranth.. 

Ambry, Axunbry, a cupboard. (F. - 

L.) M. E. aivmebry, awmery. Prompt. 
Parv. ; the b is excrescent. — O. F. aumaire, 
almaire, armarie, a repository ; properly, 
for arms ; but also a cupboard. — Late L. 
armaria, n cupboard ; armarium, a re- 
pository for arms. — L. arma, aims. 

Ambulance, -ation ; see Amble. 

Ambuscade. (Span. — Late L.) From 
Span, emboscada, an ambush. Orig. 
pp. of emboscar, to set in ambush. — Late 
Lat. imboscare, lit. to set in a bush or 
thicket. — L. im- (for ?'»), in ; and Late L. 
boscum, a bush. See Bush. 

ambush. (F.-Lale L.) Formerly 
embush. — OF. eynbuscher, emhuissier, to 
set in ambush. •- Late L. imboscare; as 

Ameer, the same as Emir, q. v. 

Ameliorate. (F. — L.; within. suffix.) 

Formed with suffix -ate ( = L. -aius) from 
F. amiliorer, to better, improve. — F. h 
( = L. act), in addition ; -meliorer (=Late 
L. meliordre), to make better. - L. melior-, 
from vielior, better. 

Amen. (L. — Gk. - Heb.) L. amen. — 
Gk. d/t7)y, verily. — Heb. amen, verily, so be 
it. — Heb. amen, firm, true. - Heb. dman, 
to confirm ; orig. ' to be firm.' 

Amenable, easy to lead. (F.-L.) 
From F. amener, to lead to, bring to. — 
F. h, to ; mener, to conduct, drive. — L. ad, 
to ; Late L. piindre, to conduct, lead about, 
alfo to drive out, chase away ; L. mindri, 
to threaten. — L. mina, threats. 

Amend. (F. — L.) yi.E. avienden.— 
F. amender. — 'i-,. emenddre, to free from 
fault. - L. e, from ; mendum, a fault. 
amends. (F. - L.) M. E. amendes. 


sb. pi. — O. F. amende, reparation. — O.F. 
amender (above). 

Amenity, pleasantness. (F.-L.) M F. 
and F. amenild. — 'L. amecnitdietn, ace. of 
amtenitds. — h. amo'nus, pleasant. Cf. L. 
amdre, to love. 

Amerce, to fine. (F. - L.) A. F. (not 
O. F.) amercier, to fine. - O. F. a ( = L. ad), 
to ; mercier, to pay, acquit, bi.t usually to 
thank ; cf. Late L. mercidre, to fix a fine. 
Cf O. F. mercit (F. mcrci^, thanks, pardon. 

— L. mercedem, ace. of merces, reward, 
wages, also pity, indulgence, thanks 
(passing into the sense of 'fine'). — L. 
mere-, stem of merx, merchandise, trr.ffic. 

Amethyst, a gem. (L. - Gk.) L. ame- 
thyslus. — iiV. a/icBvoTos, an amethjst ; so 
called because supposed to prevent drunk- 
enness. — Gk.d/iefii/<iTos,not drunken. — Gk. 
d-, not; and pitSvav, to be drunken, from 
/ieOv, strong drink; see Mead. 

Amiable. (F.-L.) O.F. amiable, 
friendly ; also loveable, by confusion with 
aitnable (from L. anidl'ilis). — 'L.aiiiual>ilis, 
friendly. — L. amicus, a friend. — L. aviare, 
to love. 

amicable. (L.) L. amicibiUs, friendly ; 
as above. 

Amice (i), an oblong piece of linen, 
variously worn by priests. (F. — L.) M.E. 
amyse, and (earlier) amit. — O. F. amis, 
amit {Bmgny}. — !^. amici-us, a covering. 

— L. amiclus, pp. of aviicire, to throw 
round. — L. am- tfimb-'), around ; iacere, to 

Amice (2), a pilgrim's hood. (,0. F.— 
Span. ? — Teut. ?) 'In ffw»/«gray;' Milton, 
P.R. iv. 427. — O. F. aumiice i,F. ai/mtisse); 
Late L. almucia. — Span, ahnucio (Pineda) ; 
where al seems to be the Arab. def. art^ 
(cf. Port. w«»-fa). — G. miiiae, a cap (cf.: 
Lowl. Sc. mutch). But G. viiltze may be 
from Late L. 

Amid, Amidst, in the middle of. (E.) 
Amids-t is lengthened from M. E. amiddes. 
Again, amidde-s was due to adding the 
adv. suffix -.f to amidde- A. S. on middan, 
in the middle ; where tniddan is the dc.t. of" 
midde, sb., the middle. -A. S. mid, midd,^ 
adj., middle. Amid= A. S. on middan (as 
before). See Mid. 

Amiss, adv. wrongly. (E. or Scand.) 
M. E. on misse, i. e. in error. - Icel. d mis, 
amiss. - Icel. o ( = A. S. o«\ in ; ti2is, adv., 
wrongly (due to an older lost pp.). See 
Miss (i). 

Amity. (F. - L.) O.F. amiste, amisted. 



amistet. — Late L. *amicttdiem, ace. of *amT- 
citds, friendship. — L. amicus, friendly. — 
L. avidre, to love. 

Ammonia, an alkali. (L. — Gk. — 
Egyptian.) Suggested by L. sal am- 
moniacum, rock-salt. — Gli. a/iiioiviaKov , 
sal ammoniac, rock-salt. — Gk. d/ifian'ias, 
Libyan. — Gk. afiiiimi, the Libyan Zeus- 
Ammon ; a word of Egyptian origin ; 
Herod, ii. 43. ^ It is said that sal am- 
moniac was first obtained near the temple 
of Ammon. 

ammonite, a fossil shell. (Gk.) Coined 
with suffix -ite (Gk. -iTrji) from the name 
Ammon ; because the shell resembles the 
twisted ram's horn on the head of the 
image of Jupiter Ammon. 

Ammunition, store for defence. (F. — 

L.) From Mid. F. amunitio7i, a soldier's 

corruption oi munition, due to substituting 

Vamunition for la munition (Littre). — L. 

ace. munitionem, a defending. — L. miinl- 

tus, pp. of mumre, to defend. 

Amnesty, lit. a forgetting of offences. 

(F. — L. — Gk.) F. amnestie. — 'L. amnes- 

tia. — Gk. aiivrjaTia, forgetfulness, esp. of 

wrong. — Gk. a/iyTja-ros, forgotten. — Gk. d-, 

not ; and nvaoixm, I remember. (.^MEN.) 

Among, Amongst. (E.) The earliest 

M. E. form is amonge, whence amonges 

with added s (a common adverbial suffix); 

■ and hence amongs-t with excrescent t.— 

A. S. onmang, prep., among. — A. S. on, in ; 

mang, a mixture, crowd. Cf. Mingle. 

Amorous. (F.-L.) O.Y. afmros;'?. 

• amoureux. — 'L. amorosus. — 'L. amor, love. 

Amorphous, formless. (Gk.) From 

"Gk. d-, not ; and fiopcp'li, shape, form. 

A.monnt, to mount up to. (F.-L.) 

D. F. amonter, to amount to. — O. F. a 

mont, towards a mountain or large heap. 

— L. ad, to; montem, ace. of inons, a 

Amour. (F.-L.) F. amour. — 'L. 
amorem, ace. of amor, love, 

AmpM-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. d/*^i, on 
both sides, around ; see Ambi-. 

AjtupMbious. (Gk.) Gk. dfupiPtos, 
living a double life, on land and water. 

— Gk. &ti<p't, on both sides ; 0ios, life. 
Amphibrach, a foot in prosody. 

(Gk.) The foot composed of a short 
syllable on each side of a long one (u-u). 
Gk. dii(pt0paxvs. — Gk. dpupi, on both sides ; 
and Ppaxvs, short; see Ainphi> and 

Amphitheatre. (Gk.) Gk. &tupie4d- 



Tpov, a theatre with seats all round' the 
arena. — Gk. d/npi, around; Btarpov, a 

Ample, full. (F.-L.) T.amfle.~t. 
amplus, spacious. 

Amputate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
amputare, to cut off iround about.— L. am-, 
short for amb-, ambi-, round about; 
putdre,io cleanse, also to lop or prune trees, 
— L. putus, clean. 

Amulet. (F.-L.) F. amuktle.-h. 
amulctum, a talisman hung round the neck. 
[Once thought to be of Arabic origin ; but 
now given up.] 

Amuse, to divert. (F.-L.) "S.amuser, 
' to amuse, make to muse or think of, to 
gaze at;' Cot.-F, a ( = L. atf), to, at; 
O. F, muser, to gaze at, stare at, muse; see 
Muse (i). 

An, A, indefinite article. (E.) A is 
short for an ; and a» is an unaccented form 
of A. S. an, one ; see One. 

An-, A-, neg. prefix. (Gk.) Gk. w-, 
d-, cognate with L. in-, and E. un- ; see 
TTn-, In-, A- (9). 

An, if. See And. 

Kxi?u-,£La.-, prefix. (Gk.) Q,\.dxa-,w-; 
from Gk. dva, upon, on, up, back, 
cognate with E. on ; see On. 

Ana, Anna, a sixteenth of a rupee. 
(Hind.) Hind, ana, a sixteenth part, esp, 
of a rupee. (H. H. Wilson.) 

Anabaptist. (Gk.) One who baptizes 
again. Coined from Gk. dva., again ; and 
baptist. See Baptize. 

Anachronism, error in chronology. 
(Gk.) Gk. dyaxpo^KT/iiSs. — Gk. dvaxpovi- 
ffiy, to refer to a wrong time.— Gk. dpa, 
up, back (wrong) ; XP<5''0S) time. 

Anaconda, a large serpent. (Ceylon.) 
Now a S. American boa ; at first applied 
to a large snake in Ceylon. But wrongly; 
it was really a swift whipsnake,; Cingh,,- 
henakatulavd, lit. ' lightning stem.' 

Anaemia, bloodlessness. (L. — Gk.) A 
Latinised form of Gk. dvaiiua, want of 
blood. — Gk. dv-, not ; aT/ia, blood. 

Anaesthetic, rendering insensible to 
pain. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. di*-, not ; 
and ai(Tfl)7Ti«os, full of perception; see An- 
and .Esthetic, 
Anagram, a change in a word due to 
transposition of letters, t F, - L. — Gk.) F. 
anagramme.-h. anagramma. — Gk. ivi- 
ypa/i/M. — Gk. dva, \ip, here used distribu- 
tively ; yp&iiiia, a letter of the alphabet.- 
Gk. ypaxpfiv, to write. 


Analogy, proportion. (F.-L.— Gk.) 
F. analogie. — L. analogia. — Gk. i.vaKo-f.a, 
equality of ratios. — Gk. ova, upon, 
throughout ; -A.0710, from \6y-os, a word, 
statement, from Kiyeiv, to speak. 

Analysis. (Gk.) Gk.dvoA.ums, a resolv- 
ing into parts, loosening. — Gk. avaKvciv, to 
undo, resolve. — Gk. avd, back ; and \vttv, 
to loosen. (y'LEU.) Der. a/ialyse, verb, a 
coined word. 

Ananas, the pine-apple plant. (Span. 

— Braz.) Span, ananas (Pineda) ; mod. 
Span, anana. — Brazil, nanas or nana. 
•J The Peruv. name is achupalla. 

Anapeest, Anapest, a foot in pros- 
ody. (Gk.) L. anapiBstus. — Gk. ava- 
vaiBTos, struck back, rebounding ; because 
it is the reverse of a dactyl. — Gk. di/OTraifij', 
to strike back. - Gk. ma, back ; and naUiv, 
to strike. 

Anarchy. (F.-L.-Gk.) XVI cent. 
F. anarchie. — 'L. anarchia. — Q)s.. dvapx'a, 
lack of government. — Gk. avapxo^t without 
a ruler. -Gk. dv-, neg. prefix; dpxos, a 
ruler, from dpxf'v, to rule, to be first. 

Anathema, a curse. (L.— Gk.) L. 

anathema. — Gk. dvdBeim, a thing devoted 
or accursed. — Gk. avariBrini, I devote.— 
Gk. dvd, up ; Tierjiu, I place, set. Of. 

Anatomy. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. ana- 
iomie. — 'L,. analomia. — Gin. dvaTofua, the 
same as di/OTo/jij, dissection. — Gk. dvariii- 
vftv, to cut up. — Gk. dra, up ; Ttjuruv, to 
cut. Cf. Tome. 

Ancestor. (F.— L.) M.E. {i)ameslre, 
O. F. ancestre, from L. antecessor, nom.-, 
a predecessor, foregoer ; and M. E. (2) an-' 
cessour, O. F. aitcessour, from L. ante- 
ussorem, ace— L. ante, before; cess-us, 
pp. of cedere, to go. 

Anchor. (L.-Gk.) The current spell- 
ing imitates the false L. form, anchora. 
A. S. ancor. — L. ancora (wrongly anchora). 
— Gk. aymipa, an anchor, lit. a bent hook ; 
cf. Gk. dyidiiv, a bend. (y'ANQ.) 

Anchoret, Anchorite, a recluse. 
(F.-Late L.-Gk.) F. anachorete (Cot.). 
-Late L. anachoreta.-QV.. dvax<oe^rr\i, 
one who retires from the world. — Gk. dva- 
XeipeTv, to retire. -Gk. dvd, back; and 
Xoipeiv, to withdraw, from x""?"') space, 
room. (VGHE, GHO.) 

Anchovy, a fish. (Span. -Basque?) 
Span. ancAava;cf. Bisque anchoa,anchtia, 
an anchovy. Perhaps ' dried fish' ; from 
Basque antzua, dry- 


Ancient (i), old. (F.-L.) With 
excrescent t. M. E. auncien. — F. ancien. 
— Late L. antianus, old, belonging to 
former time. Formed with suffix -anus 
from ante, before. 

Ancient (2) , a banner, standard-bearer. 
(F. — L.) Confused with ancient (i) ; but 
from O. F. enseigne, m. ' ensigne, auncient, 
standard-bearer ; ' Cot. ; also for O. F. en- 
.r«^»f, f., ' a banner;' Cot. See Ensign. 

And. (E.) A. S. a7id, end. + O. Fries. 
anda, ende; O. H. G. anti, unta, G. und. 
Prob. related to L. ante, before, Gk. dvTi, 
over against. 

■ an, if. (E.) Formerly also and; 
Havelok, 2861, &c; the same word as the 
above. An if= if if, a reduplication. Bui 
and if =hnt if if; Matt. xxiv. 48. 

Andante, slowly. (Ital.) Ital.andante, 
moving slowly, pres. pt. of andare, to 

Andiron, a fire-dog. (F.-L.) Not 
connected with i}-on, but corrupted from 
M. E. anderne, aunderne, aundire. — O. F. 
andier ; mod. F. landier, put for Vandier, 
where t is the def. art. C^. Late L. ande- 
lius, andena, a fire-dog. 
Anecdote. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. anec- 
dote.— \-s.\.e L. anecdota, orig.— 
Gk. axkahoTa, neut. pi. of dr^ffSoTos, 
unpublished ; hence an unpublished story, 
story in private life. — Gk. dv-, not; Ik, 
out ; and SoT(5r, given, allied to Sidaiu, I 
Anemone, a flower. (Gk.) Gk. dve- 
liiivri, lit. wind-flower. — Gk. di/e/tos, wind. 
Anent, regarding, with reference to. 
(E.) M.E. anent, anentis; older form 
onefent, where the t is excrescent. A. S. 
anefen, onefen, near ; later form onemn. 

— A. S. »«, on ; efen, even. Hence onefn = 
even with, on an equality with. Cf. G. 
neben, near (for in eben). See Even. 

Aneroid, dry, applied to a barometer 
having no liquid mercury in it. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. a-, not; v-qpo-i, wet; 
ei8-os, form, kind. 

Aneurysm, a tumour due to dilata- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. dvfvpvafia, a widening. 

— Gk. dv-, for dvd, up; and evpvveiv, to 
widen, from fifws, wide. Also aneurism. 

Anew. (E.) M. E. of-newe. A. S. of- 
niowe, John iii. 7 (Rushworth). From Of 
and New. 

Angel. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.Y. angtle. 

— L. angelus. — Gk. a-yye\oi, a messenger. 
Cf. Gk. a77apos, a mounted courier, from 



O. Persian. Der. arch-angel, q. v., ev- 
angcl-ist, q.-v. f The A. S. form was 
engd, directly from L. angelus. 

Aagex. (Scand.) M. E. anger, often 
Avith tlie sense of vexation, trouble. — Icel. 
aiigr, grief; Dan. anger, Swed. anger, re- 
gret. + L. angor, a strangling, anguish. 
(VANGH.) See below. 

Angina, acute pain. (L.) L. angina, 
quinsy, lit. choking. - L. a/j^'-e;-^, to choke. 

Angle (i), a corner. (K.-L.) M.E. 
angle. — V. angle. — L. angulus, an angle. 
Cf. Gk. d7KiiA.(.s, bent. 

Angle (2), a hook, fish-hook. (E.) A. S. 
angel, a fish-hook ; dimiii. of auga, onga, 
a sting, prickle ; cf. Icel. angi, a prickle, 
Gk. a-fKvpa, a bent hook, Skt. ahka'J), 
a hook. -f- Dan. angel ; G. angel, dimin. of 
O. II. G. ango, a prickle, fish-hook. Allied 
to Anchor. Dec. angle, verb, to fish. 

Anguish. (F.-L.) M.E. anguise, 
angoise. — O. F. anguisse ; F. angoisse. — L. 
aiigustia, narrowness, poverty, perplexity. 
— L. angiisliis, narrow. — L. angere, to 
choke. (VANGH.) 

Aniline, a substance which furnishes 
a number of dyes. (F. — Span. — Arab.— 
Pers. — Skt.) Formed, with suffix -«««,from 
anil, a dye-stuff. — F. a«//. — Span, ailil, 
azure. — Arab. an-Jiil; for al-nil, where al 
is the def. art., and ml is borrowed from 
Pers. nil, blue, or the indigo-plant. — Skt. 
nila, blue ; nlli, the indigo-plant. 

Animal. (L.) L. animal, a living crea- 
ture. — L. an; ma, breath, life. (VAN.) 

animadvert, to censure. (,L.) L. 

animaduertere, to turn the mind to, hence, 
to criticise. — L. anim-, for animus, the 
mind (allied to animfi, breath) ; ad, to ; 
and uerlere, to turn (see Verse). 

animate. (L.) L. animatns, pp. of 
aniiiidre,to endue with life. — L. anima, 
life. Der. in-animate, re-animate. 

animosity. (F. — L.) F. animosili. 
•— L. animosilaleni, ace. of animosilas, 
veliemence. — L. animosus, vehement, full 
of mind or courage. — L. animus, mind, 
courage, passion. 

Anise, ii herb. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
anese, anys.-Y. anis (Cot.). — L. anisum \ 
also anetlium. — OV.. dviaov, iivriauv, orig. 
dv7]6ov, anise. 

Anker, a liquid measure. (Du. — Late L.) 
Du. anker, the same. — Late L. anceria, 
the same. + Swed. ankare ; G. anker; from 
the same. 

Ankle. (.E.) M.E. ancle; also an- 


clowe. — O. Fries, ankel; also A.S. anclmv, 
with a longer suffix (cf. O. Fiies. onklef)..\. 
Dan. and Swed. ankel; Icel. okkla (for 
d)ikla = *ankula'; I3n. and G. enkel. Per- 
haps allied to Skt. aiiguli, a finger, aitga, 
a limb. 

Anna, a small coin ; see Ana. 

Annals. (F.— L.) F. annates, pi. sb. 

— L. annates, pi. adj., for libri annates, 
yearly books, chronicles ; from annalis, 
yearly. — L. annus, a year. 

Anneal, to temper by heat, ((i) E.; 
(2 ) F. — L.) Two distinct words have b?en 
confused. 1. M. E. anelen, to inflame, 
kindle, heat, melt, burn. A. S. onSlan, to 
burn, kindle; from on, prefix, and Stan, to 
burn. Cf. A. S. reled, fire. 2. M.E. anelen, 
to enamel glass. — Prefix a- (perhaps = F. h, 
L. ad) ; and O. F. neeler, nieler, to enamel, 
orig. to paint in black on gold or silver. — 
Late L. nigellare, to blacken. — L. nigellus, ; 
blackish ; from iiiger, black. 

Annex, (F. — L.) F. amiexer. — L. an- 
nexus, pp. of annectcre, to knit or bind to. 

— L. an- (for ad), to ; and nectere, to bind. 
Annihilate. (L.) h. annihilatus,-^^. 

of annihildre, to reduce to nothing. — L. 
an- (for cut), to ; and nihil, nothing. 

Anniversary. (L.) For ' anniver- 
sary memorial.' — I,, anniuersdrius, re- 
turning yearly. — L. anni- (from anno-), 
from annus, a year ; and uersus, pp. of 
uertere, to turn ('^ee Verse). ,. 

Annotate, to make notes on. (L.) ' 
From pp. of L. annotdre, to make notes 
on. — L. an- (for ad), to, on; noldre, to 
mark, from nota, a mark. See Note. 

Announce. (F. — L.) Y.annoncer.- 
L. annuntidre, to announce. — L. an- (= 
ad), io; nuntidre, to bring tidings, from 
mtntius, a messenger. See Wunoio. • 

Annoy, to vex. (F. — L.) M.'E.atwien, 
anuien. — 0. F. anoier, anuier, to annoy.— 
O. F. anoi, anui (F. ennuis, vexation. Cf 
Span, enojo. O. Venetian inodio, vexation. 

— L. in odio, lit. in hatred, common in the 
Late L. phr. in odio habui, lit. I had in 
hatred, 1 was annoyed with ; cf. L. in odio 
esse, to be hated by (Cicero). — L. in, in; 
odio, abl. oi odium, haired. 

Annual, yearly. (,F. — L.) M. E. a«- 
nueL — F. annuel. — 'L. annudlis, yearly. - 
L. annus, a year. 

annuity. (A. F.-L.) KY.anmdU; 
A. D. 1304. — Late L. annuitdlem, ace. of 
anmtitds. — \j. annus, a year. 

Annul. (L.) L. annulldre, to bring to 



nothing. — L. an- (for «</), to; nullus, no 
one ; see ITuU. 

Anunlar, like a ring. (L.) L. annu- 
Ithis, adj. ; I'rom ammlus, a ring, earlier 
spelling anulus ; dirain. of L. anus, a 
rounding, a circular form (Lewis). 

Anodyne, a drug to allay pain. (L.— 
Gk.) XVI cent. Late L. anpilynus, a 
drug relieving pain. — Gk. uvuSwos, free 
from pain. — Gk. av-, not ; and uiCvr), 

Anoint. (F. — L.) M. E. «?;««;, used 
as a pp. = anointed.— O.F. enoini, pTp. of 
enoindie, to anoint. — O. F. en, upon; 
oindre, to smear. — L. in, upon ; ungere, 
to anoint. See TJnguent. 

Anomaly. (Gk.) Gk. dvajiahia, de- 
viation from rule. — Gk. di'cufiaAor, uneven. 

— Gk. av-, not ; and byaxKi%, even, related 
to d^os, one and the same. 

Anon, immediately. (E.) M. E. anon, 
anoon ; also onan. A. S. on an, lit. ' in 
one moment.' — A. S. on, on, in ; an, one. 

Anonymous, nameless. (Gk.) Gk. 
avwvv/A-os, nameless; with -ous added.— 
Gk. olv-, neg. prefix ; and ovofia, name. 

Anotlier. (E.) For an other, one 

Ansinrer, to reply. (E.) A. S. and- 
swerian, andsivarian, to answer, speak in 
reply ; a weak verb. — A. .S. andswaru, a 
reply. — A. S. and-, against, in reply ; 
swerian, to speak, to The A. S. 
and-^G. ant- (in ani-worten') = Gk. avTi; 
see Anti- and Swear. 

Ant. (E ) M. E. amte, short for ameie. 
A. S. cemette, an emmet, ant. Doublet, 
emmet, x^.y. 

Antagonist, an opponent. (L.-Gk.) 
Late L. antagdnista. — Q>V. avTa-^aviaTris, 
an opponent. — Gk. dyr-, for avri, against ; 
and dywvi^oijat, I struggle, from 07011', a 
contest. (VAG.) 

Antarctic. (L. — Gk.) 'L. antarcticus. 

— Gk. dvTapKTLKos, southern, opposite to 
arctic. — Gk. avr-, for avri, opposite to; 
and dpKTiKos arctic. See Arctic. 

Ante-, prefix, before. '(L.) L. ante, 
before. Allied to Anti-, q. v. 

Antecedent. (I-) -L- antecedent-, 
stem of pres. part, of antecedere, to go 
before. — L an'e. before; cedere, to go. 

Antediluvian, before the flood. (L.) 
L. ante, before; diluuium, deluge, a 
washing away. — L. di lucre, to wash 
away. — L. di-, apart ; luere, to wash. 

Antelope. (F.- L.-Gk.) In Spenser, 


F. Q. i. 6. 26. - O. F. antelop. — Late L. 
antalopus.—l^aie Gk. di'9o\oir-, the stem 
of avDoKml/, used by Eustathius of Antioch 
to signify some uncertain quadruped. Of 
unknown origin. 

Antennae, feelers of insects. (L.) L. 
antenna, )^\. of fl«^e«»a, properly theyaid 
of a sail. 

Antepenultima, the last syllable but 
two in a word. (L.) L. ante, before ; 
pcenullima, fem. adj., last but one, from 
pa:n-e, almost, ultima, last. 

Anterior. (.L.) L. anterior, former, 
m.ore in front, compar. adj. fiom ante, 

Anthem. (L. — Gk.) Formerly «?!/«;«. 
A. S. ffTC/f/w. — Late L. antiphona, an an- 
them.— Gk. dvTi^ctjra, considered as fem. 
sirg., but really ncut. pi. of diTi({avos, 
sounding in response to ; from the alternate 
singing of the half-choirs. — Gk. avri, over 
against ; <paivi], voice, sound. 

Anther, the summit of the stamen of 
a flower. (Gk.) From Gk. dj/flT/pos, bloom- 
ing. — Gk. avBiiv, to bloom ; avBos, a ycung 
bud or sprout. 

anthology, a collection of choice 
poems. (Gk.j Lit. a collection of flowers. 

— Gk. uvBoXoyia, a gathering of (loweis. — 
Gk. d.v6oKi,yos, flower-gathering. — Gk.. 
avBo-, for avBos, a flower; and >i~/fiv, to 

Anthracite, a kind of haid coaL 
(Gk.) Gk. dvBpaxiTrjs, resembling coals. 

— Gk. avBpaK-, stem of dvBpal, coal. 
Anthropophagi, cannil als. (Gk.) 

Lit. ' men-eaters.' — Gk. dvBpmTOtpdyos, 
man-eating. — Gk. dvBpaiiros, a man ; and. 
ipayfTv, to eat. (y'BHAGw ; Brugm. i. 
§ 641.) 

Anti-, Ant-, prejix, against. (Gk.) 
Gk. dvTi, against ; allied to L, ante,. 
before. Cf. Skt. anti, over against, allied 
to a7ita, end ; see End. ^ In anti-cipate, 
the prefix is for L ante. 

Antic, fanciful, odd ; as sb. a trick, 
lltal. -L.) Grig, an adj. Adopted in 
the XVI cent, from Ital. antico, with the 
sense of ' grotesque ' ; lit. antique, old. - 
L. antiquns, old. See Antique. 

Antichrist. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
Antecrist.-'L. Antichristiis (Vulgate). 

— Gk. dvTixpiaTO^ (i John ii. 18). — Gk. 
lij/Ti, against; xpiaros, Christ. 

Anticipate. (L.) From the pp. of I . 
anticipare, to take beforehand. — L. anti-, 
before ; and capere, to take. 



Anticlimax. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antidote. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. anti- 
dote. — L. antidotum, a remedy. — Gk. cani- 
BoToi/, a remedy; a thing given as a 
remedy. — Gk. avti, against ; SorSv, neut. 
of SoTos, given, from SiSw/it, I give. 

Antimony, u metal. (Late L.) Late 
L. antimoaium. (XI cent.) Origin iin- 

Antipathy. (Gk.) From Gk. dv-md- 
Seia, antipathy, lit. ' a suffering (feeling 
strongly) against.' — Gk. avTi, against ; 
•naSfiv, to suffer. See Pathos. 

Autiphon. (L. -Gk.) La.teL.anti- 
pkona, an anthem ; see Authem. 

Autiphrasis. (Gk.) See Anti- and 
Antipodes. (Gk.) Gk.dvTtnoSfSjpl., 
men with feet opposite to ours, from nom. 
sing. avTiTTovs. — Gk. dvTi, opposite to ; and 
TToEs, foot, cognate with Foot. 

Antique, old. (F.-L.) F. antique.— 
L. anttquus, also anticus, formed with 
suffix -Icus from ante, before ; as posticus is 
bom post, behind. Doublet, antic. 

Antiseptic, counteracting putrefac- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. dvTi, against ; and 
(rriirTiK6i, putrefying, cjjirT-Ss, rotten, from 
<TTiTreiv, to rot. 

Autistrophe. (Gk.) From Anti- 
and Strophe. 

Antithesis. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antitype. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antler. (F.) M. E. amitekre, for 
aimtolier (?). - O. F. antoillier, said to 
have been once in use (Littre). In this 
case the O. F. word is supposed to be 
equivalent to a Late L. *antocularem, ace, 
i. e. the branch (of the horn) in front of 
the eyes ; cf. G. atigen-sprosse, a. brow- 
antler (lit. eye-sprout). See Romania, iv. 
349. From ante, before, and ocuhis, the 

Anus, the lower orifice of the bowels. 
(L.) L. anus. 

Anvil. (E.) M. E. anvelt, anfeld, an- 
felt. A.S. anfilte, onflti.-K.S. an, on, 
on, upon; and a verb *fieltan (see below), 
causal of *fealtan, to infix, redupl. verb 
cognate with O. H. G. *fahan, M. H. G. 
vahen, whence G.falz, a groove. % Some 
derive it from on and fealdan, to fold ; 
however, the O. H. G. anafdlz, an anvil, 
is not derived from ana, on, and /«/«'««, 


to fold up, but from M. H. G. valzen, as 
above. Cf. L. inciis, an anvil, from in, 
on, and cudere, to strike ; and note the 
A.S. gloss: ' Cudo, percutio, anfilte;' 
Voc. 217. ,1;. 

Anadons. (L.) L. anxi-us, distressed; 
with suffix -ous. — L. angers, to choke, 

Any. (E.) A. S. Snig, any ; from an, 
one, with suffix -ig (E. -y). + Du. eenig, 
from een, one; G. einiger, from ein, one. 
See One. 

Aorta. (L.-Gk.) Late L. aorta. - 
Gk. doprfi, the great artery 'rising' from 
the heart. — Gk. ddpeaSai, to rise up ; 
dupeiv, to raise. 

Apace. (E. and F.) For a pace, i. e. 
at a (good) pace ; where a is put for 
on (cf. a-/ooi); see A- (2). /"ace, M.E. 
pas, is from F. pas (L. passus). See 

Apart, aside. (F.-L.) F. h part, 
apart, alone, singly; Cot. — L. ad partem, 
lit. to the one part or side, apart.— L. ad, 
to ; partem, ace. oipars, a part. 

apartment, a separate room. (F.- 
Ital. — L.) F. cippartement. — Ital. appar- 
tamento, an apartment,a partition,lit. sepa- 
ration. — Ital. appartare, to separate. — 
Ital. a parte, apart. — L. ad partem ; see 

Apathy. (Gk.) From Gk. dTnifcio, 
want of feeling. -Gk. d-, not ; iiaBav, to 
suffer. See Pathos. 

Ape. (E.) M. E. ape ; A. S. ajSa.+Du.. " 
aap; Icel. api; Swed. apa; G. affe; 
Irish apa (from E.) ; O. Bohem. op. 

Aperient. (L.) XVII cent. Lit. 

' opening.' — L. aperient-, stem of pres. pt. 
of aperire, to open. Perhaps from a/-, old 
form of ab, from, away, and -aer-=Lith. 
wer- in werti, to move (to and fro), 
whence Lith. at-werti, to open. Bnigni. 
i. § 361. 

Apex. (L.) L. apex, summit. 

&.^\i.-, prefix. (Gk.) See Apo-. 

Aphseresis, the taking away of a 
letter or syllable from the beginning of 
a word. _ (L. - Gk.) Late L. aphceresis.-A^ 
Gk. a<paipe<Tis, a takingaway. — Gk.d0-,f0r 
dirS, away ; a'lpeais, a taking, from a'lpeiv, 
to take. See Heresy. 

Aphelion, the point in a planet's orbit 
farthest from the sun. (Gk.) Coined from 
Gk. (5(f-, for diri!, from ; ijKios, the sun. 

Aphorism, a definition. (Gk.) Gk. 
d^opiffiids, a definition. — Gk. dfopiifiv, to 


define, limit. — Gk. d<t>-, for diro, off; 
o/M'Cfi", to limit, from opos, a boundary. 

Apiary, a place for bees. (L.) L. a/s- 
drium, neut. of apidrius, belonging to 
bees. — L. api-, stem of apis, a bee. 

Apiece. (E. and F.) Orig. (at so 
much) a piece, where a is the indef. article. 

A.po-, prefix, off. (Gk.) Gk. dTrcS, off, 
from ; cognate with E. of, off; see Of. It 
becomes aph- before an aspirate. 

Apocafypse. (L.-Gk.) M.E. apo- 
calips (Wyclif). — L. apocalypiis. — Gk. 
diroKaXvjfns, a revelation. — Gk. diroKaAuir- 
Tciv, to uncover, reveal. — Gk. dird, off; 
and KoXviTTftv, to cover. Cf. Ka\id, a cot, 

Apocope. (L. — Gk .) L. apocope. — Gk. 
diroKonri, a cutting off (of a letter). — 
Gk. dirii, off ; and Kotnetv, to hew, cut. 

Apocrypha. (Gk.) Lit. 'hidden 
things ; ' hence, uncanonical books of the 
Old Testament. — Gk. dir(5/cp«(/ja, neut. pi. 
of dTt6icpx}<pos, hidden. — Gk. diroKpivTav , 
to hide away. — Gk. dTro, from, away; 
KpvnTCLV, to hide. 

Apogee, the point of the moon's orbit 
furthest from the earth. (F.-L.-Gk.^ F. 
apogee (Cot.). — L. apogciiim. — Gk. ani- 
yaiov, neut. of drrSyaios, away from earth. 
— Gk. diTo, away from ; 7^, earth. 

Apologue, a fable, story. (F.— L.- 
Gk.) F. apologue. — L. apologus. — Gk. 
dirdAo7os, a fable. — Gk. dir<5, off; A.670S, 
speech, from \^ynv, to say. 

apology, a defence. (L. — Gk.) L. 
apologia. — Gk. d7roXo7ia, a speech made in 
defence. — Gk. diro, off; Aii70s, a speech 

Apophthegm, Apothegm. (Gk.) 

Gk. dm^0iyiia, a thing uttered, a terse 
saying. — Gk. dird, off, out ; and (peifyojuu, 
I cry aloud, utter. 

Apoplexy. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) _ F. 
apopleme. — L. apoplexia. — Gk. dno- 
v\iilia, stupor, apoplexy. — Gk. dTroirAija-- 
attv, to cripple by a stroke. — Gk. diro, off; 
TtK-qaativ, to strike. 

Apostasy. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) F. 
apostasie. — Late L. apostasia. — Gk. d-no- 
oraaia, late form for drrdaToffis, revolt, lit. 
'a standing away from.' — Gk. dird, off, 
away ; araxiis, a standing, from ara.-, 
base allied to 'iaTi]ju, I place. Cf. Statics. 
apostate. (Late L. - Gk.) M. E. 
apostaia. — Late L. aposiata. — Gk. avo- 
ffTOTT/r, a deserter, apostate. — Gk. dird, off ; 
ardrris, standing, from ara- (see above). 

Apostle. (L.-Gk.) A.S. apostol." 


L, apostolus. — Gk. dTrdoroAo?, one who is 
sent off. — Gk. dird, off; <rreA.\£ii', to send. 
Apostrophe. (L. — Gk.) L. apo- 
strophe. — Gk. dTTOffTpoi/)!?, a turning away ; 
in rhetoric, a turning away to address 
some one else. — Gk. dno, away ; aTpe<peiv, 
to turn. ^ In the sense of a mark used to 
denote an omission, it should be apostroph 
(L. apostrophus, Gk. drrSarpocpos). 

Apothecary. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) 

M. E. apotecary, potecary. — O. F. apote- 
caire. — L,a.te L. apotliecarius, lit. a store- 
keeper. —Late L. apotheca, a store-house 
(esp. for drugs). — Gk. dvo6T]Kt\, a store- 
house. — Gk. d-no, away ; Ti-dTj-pti, I put. 

Apotheosis, deification. (L. — Gk.) 
L. apotheosis . — Q]ii. dnoBiaaii, deification. 

— Gk. diroSidw, I deify, set aside as a god. 

— Gk. dTi6, away, fully ; 6(6s, a god. 
Appal, to terrify. (P\ — L.) The present 

sense is late ; the M. E. apalled meant 
' rendered pale ' ; cf. Chaucer, C. T., 10679 
(F365). — O. F. apallir, apalir, appalir, 
to wax pale, also to make pale (Cot.).— 
O. F. a-, prefix; O. F. pale,palle, pale. — 
L. ad, to ; pallidus, pale. Cf. Pale. 

Appanage, Apanage, provision for 

a dependent, &c. (F. — L.) O.'?. apanage 
(also appanage), properly, a provision for 
maintenance. — O. F. apaner, lit. to supply 
with bread (Late L. appandre). — !^. ap- 
(for ad), to, for; pan-is, biead. 

Apparatus, gear. (L.) L. apparatus, 
preparation. — L. appardlus, pp. of appa- 
rare, to prepare for. — L. ad, for ; pardre, 
to get ready. 

Apparel, to clothe. (F.-L.) M.E. 
aparailen. — O. F. apareiller, to dress, 
apparel. - O. F. «, to ; pareiller, parailler, 
to assort, put like things with like, to 
arrange, from pareil, like, similar. — L. 
ad, to; Med. L. pariculus (Ducange 
has paricla, paricula^, similar, from L. 
pari-, stem oipar, equal. Cf. Par. Der. 
apparel, s. 

Apparition. (F.— L.) F. apparition. 

— L. ace. appdritionem. — 'L. appdrere, to 
appear. See Appear. 

apparitor, an officer who attends 
magistrates to execute their orders; an 
officer who serves the process of a spiritual 
court. (L.) L. apparitor, an attendant, 
lictor. — L. appdrere, to appear as attend- 
ant, wait on. See Appear. 
Appeal. V. (F.-L.) U.'E. apelen. - 
O. F. apeler, to call. - L. appelldre, to 
address, call upon, speak to ; from L. ap- 


(for aif), to i and *pcUdrc, to speak, allied 
to A. S. spell, a talc. 

Appear, to become visible. (F. — L.) 
M. Ji. aperen. — O. F. aper-, tonic stem (as 
in pres. subj. apere) of O. F. apareir, 
aparoir, to appear. — L. apparere. — L. ap- 
(for ad\ to, forth ; pdrere, to come in 
sight, also spdt parrei-e. Cf. Apparition. 

Appease. (F. — L.) M. E. apesen, 
apaisen. — A. F. apeser, apeiser, O. F. 
apeser (F. apaisei-), to bring to a peace. — 
O. F. a pels, u pais, to a peace. — L. ad 
pdcein, to a peace. See Peao3. 

Appellant. (F.-L.) F. appellant, 
pres. pt. of appeller, O. F. apeler, to 
appeal ; see Appeal. 

Append, to attach. (F. — L.) Formerly 
also M. E. apenden, to pertain to. — O. F. 
apendre, to depend on. — L. appendere, for 
L. appendere, to hang to or npo.i. — L. ap- 
(for ad) , to ; pendere, to hing. 

appendix, an addition. (L.) L. 
appendix. — L. appendere, to suspend upon. 
— L. ap- (for aJ), to ; pendere, to weigh. 

Appertain. (F.-L.) M. E. aper- 
ienen. -OF. apartenir (F. appartenir), 
to belong to. — L. «/- (for ad), to ; /«f- 
tinere, to belong. See Pertain. 

Appetite. (F.-L.) O. F. appetit.- 
L. appetitus, an appetite ; lit. ' assault 
upon.' — L. appetere, to attack. — L. ap- (for 
ad), to ; petere, to seek, attack. 

Applaud. (L.) L. applaudere, to 
applaud. — L. a/- (for ad?), at ; plaudere, to 
applaud, clap (hands). Der. applause, 
from pp. applausus. 

Apple. (E.) M. E. «//<;/. A. S. «//«/, 
<z//.+ Du. appel; Icel. «//z; Swed. fl^/i» ; 
Dan. «i/« ; G. apfel ; Irish ffMn/ ; Gael. 
ubhal ; W. a/5z/ ; Russ. iabloko ; Lithuan. 
obolys. Origin unknown. Some connect 
it with Abella in Campania ; cf. Verg. 
.^n. vii. 740. 

Apply. (F.-L.) M. E. a//)'fi«.-O.F. 
aplier. — \u. applicare, to join to, turn or 
apply to. — L. ap- (for ad), to ; plicdre, to 
fold, twine. Der. appli-ance ; also appli- 
cation (F. application). 

Appoggiatnra, a grace-note orpassing 

tone prefixed, as a support, to an essential 
note of a melody. (Ital. — L. and Gk.) 
Ital. appoggiatura, lit. a support. — Ital. 
appoggiare, to lean upon. — Ital. ap- (for 
o«/), to, upon ; poggio, a place to stand or 
lean on, &c. — L. ad, to; podium, an ele- 
vated place, a balcony, from Gk. vuhiov. 
See Pew. 


Appoint. (F. — L.) lA.'E. apointen- 
O. V. apoinler, to prepare, arrange, settle. 

— Late L. appunctdre, to repair, appoint, 
settle a dispute ; Ducange. — L.a/- (for ad); 
Late L. puiutdre, to mark by a point, from 
Late 'L.puncta, a prick, feni. oi punctus, 
pp. ; see Point. Der. disappoint. 1 > 

Apportion. (F.-L.) F. apportiomr^l 
to portion out to. — F. ap- (put for a before^ 
p, in imitation of L. ap- =ad), to ; portion, 
a portion ; see Portion. 

Appose. (F. — L.) F. apposer ; formed 
to represent L. apponere, on the analogy of 
composer, exposer, and other presumed re- 
presentatives of compounds of L. ponere ; 
but really formed on F. poser (Irom L. 
pausdre). Sea Pose. 

Apposite. (L.) L. appositus, suitable ; 
pp. of apponere, to put near. — L. ap- (for 
ad) , to ; pCmere, to put. See Position. 

Appraise. (F.-L.) M. E. apraisen, 
to value. — O. F. *apreiser (cf. O. F. «/«-, 
tier in Roquefort). — O. F. a-, prefix; 
Preiser, to value, iioTn preis, value, price. 

— L. ai^, at ; pretium, a price. 

appreciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

appretidre, to value at a price. — L. ap- 
(for ad), at ; pretium, a price. 

Apprehend. (F.-L.) V . apprehendre 
(Cot.). — L. apprehendere, orig. to lay hold 
of. — L. ap- (for ad), to, &\; prehendere, 
to grasp. See Prehensile. 

apprentice. (F.-L.) O. F. apreittis, 
nom. of aprentif (see Godefroy, s.v. 
aprentic). The O. F. aprentis, aprentif, 
represent Late L. *apprenditivus, nom., 
and * apprendilwum, ace, from a Late L. 
*apprenditus, used as a pp. of L. 
apprendere, to learn, short for L. «//«- 
hendcre, to lay hold of (above). 

apprise, to inform. (F.-L.) From 
the M. E. sb. aprise, information, teach- 
ing. — O. F. aprise, instruction. — 0. F. 
appris, apris, pp. oi aprendre, to leara.- 
L. apprendere (above). ' 

Approacll. (F.-L.) M. ^.apprtchen, 
aprochen. — O. F. aprochier, to approach. - 
L. appropidre, to draw near to (Exod. iii. 
S).- L. ap- (for ad), to; prope, near. 

Approbation. (F:-L.) i'. approba- 
tion.— \j. ace. approbdtionem, approval.— 
L. approbatus, pp. olapprobdre, to approve. 
See Approve. • 

Appropriate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
appropridre, to make one's own. — L.fl/- 
(for aiC), to; proprius, one's own. See 


Approve. (F.-L.) O.'?. approver. — 
L. approbare, to approve. — L. ap- (for ad'), 
to ; probare, to test, try, esteem as good. 
Der. approval; dis-approve. 

Approximate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
approximdre, to draw near to. — L. ap- 
(for ad^, to ; proxijniis, very near, superl. 
adj. ixoxa prope, near. 

Appnrtenance. (F.— L.) K.'S.apur- 

tenaunce (O. F. apartenance), that which 
belongs to. — O. F, apartenir, to belong to. 
See Appertain. 

Apricot. (F.-Port. - Arab. - Gk.- 
L.) Formerly also apricock, from Port. 
alhricoque directly. Also abricot. — F. 
abricot, ' the abricot, or apricock plum ; ' 
Cot. — Port, albncoque. — Arab, al barquq, 
where al is the def. art. — Mid. Gk. irpai/co- 
Kiov (Dioscorides) ; pi. TtpaiKUKLa. The 
pi. irpmicixia was borrowed from L. prce- 
coqiia, apricots, neut. pi. of pracoquus, 
another form of prcecox, precocious, early 
ripe (Pliny; Martial, 13. 46). — L. pra, 
beforehand ; and coquere, to cook, ripen. 
See Preoooious and Cook. i|f Thus the 
word reached us in a very Indirect manner. 

April. (L.) L. Aprilis ; said to be so 
named because the earth then opens to 
produce new fruit. — L. aperire, to open ; 
see Aperient. 

Apron. (F.— L.) Formerly «a^?-o«. — 
O. F. «o/e«», a large cloth ; augmentative 
form of O. F. nape, a cloth (F. nappe). — 
L. mappa, a napkin, cloth (with change of 
m to n, as in F. natte, a mat). See 

Apse. (L. — Gk.) Now used of a recess 
at the end of a church ; formerly apse, 
apsis, a turning-point of a planet's orbit. — 
L. apsis, pi. apsides, a bow, turn. — Gk. 
oaf/is, a tying, fastening, felloe of a wheel, 
curve, bow, arch. — Gk. dirTciv, to tie, bind, 

Apt^ fit. (L.) XIV cent. L. apiiis, 
used as pp. of apiscT, to reach, get, but 
really pp. of O. Lat. apere, to fit or join 

Aquatic. (L.) L. aqudticus, pertain- 
ing to water. — L. aqua, water. 

aqua-fortis.-L. aqua fori is, sUong 

aquarium. — L. aquarium, a water- 
vessel. — L. aqua, water. 

aqnarins. — L. aqudrius, a water- 
bearer.— L. aqua, water. 

aqueduct. — L. aquaductus, a con- 
duit ; from aqus, gen. of rt?«a, water, and 
ductus, a duct ; see Duct. 


aqueous. As if from L. ^aqueus, adj., 
a form not used. — L. aqua, water. 
AquiUne, like an eagle. (F.-L.) F. 
aquilin \ hence nez aquilin, ' a nose like 
an eagle ; ' Cot. — L. aquiliiius, adj. from 
aquila, an eagle. Cf. Eagle. 

Arabesque. (F.-Ital.-Arab.) XVII 

cent. F. Arabesque, Arabian-like ; also 
fall of flourishes, like fine Arabian work. 

— Ital. Arabesco; where -esco ='E. -is/i.— 
Arab, 'arab, Arabia. 

Arable. (F. - L.) F. arable. - L. 
ardbilis, that can be ploughed. — L. ardre, 
to plough. (v'AR.) See Ear (3).. 

Arbiter. (L.) In Milton. — L. arbiter, 
a witness, judge, umpire. 

arbitrary. (L.l In Milton. - L. 
arbitrdrius, orig. like the decision of an 
umpire. — L. arbitrdre, to act as umpire. 

— L. arbiter (above). 

arbitrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

arbitrdre, to act as umpire (above). 

Arboreous, belonging to trees. (L.) 
L. arboreus, adj. from arbor, a tree ; with 
suffix -ous. 

Arbour, a bower. (F. — L.) The word 
seems to be really due to M. E. herbere, 
also erbere, from O. F. herbier, L. her- 
bdnuin, a herb-garden, also an orchard. — 
L. herba, grass, herb. The special sense 
was due to confusion with L. arbor, a 

Arc. (F.-L.) XIV cent. Y.arc.- 
L. arcum, ace. of arms, a bow, arch, arc. 
arcade. (F. — Ilal. — L.) F. arcade. 

— Ital. areata, an arched place; fem. of 
pp. of arcare, to arch. — Ital. arco, a bow, 

— L. ace. arcum (above). 

Arcana. (L.) L. arcdna, things kept 
secret, secrets. — L. arcire, to keep. 

Arcb (i), a vault, &c. (F.-L.) O. F. 
arc he, a chest, box (L. area, see Ark) ; 
also, by confusion, an arch, owing to the 
use of Med. Lat. area with the sense of 
L. areus, a bow, arch. See Are. 

Arch. (2), roguish, waggish. (L. — Gk.) 
'Boarc/i a leer;' Tatler, no. 193. The 
examples in the New E. Dictionary prove 
that It is nothing but the prefix Aroh-, 
chief (for which see below\ used separately 
and peculiarly. Cf. ' The most arch act ' 
in Shak. Rich. III. iv. 3. 2 ; 'An heretic, 
an arch one;' Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 102. 
Also ' Byends . : . a very arch fellow, a 
downright hypocrite'; Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress. A. S. arce-, O. F. arche-, L. 
archi; Gk. d/JX'- (prefix). See below. 



Arch-, prefix, chief. (L.-Gk.) The 
form arch- is due to A. S. arce-, as in arce- 
hisceop, an archbishop, and to O. F. arche-, 
as in aj-che-diacre, an archdeacon. This 
form was borrowed from L. archi-=^GV. 
dpxt', as in dpx^-^'f^tffKoiTos , an archbishop. 

— Gk. apxfiy, to be first, to rule ; cf. Gk. 
apxv< beginning. Der. arch-bishop, arch- 
deacon, Sec. ; but, in arch-angel, the ch 
remained hard (as k) in the Romance 
languages, on account of the following a. 
Cf. Ital. arcangelo. Span, arcangel. 

arclieeology. i^Gk.) Gk. d/ixaioXoYia. 

— Gk. apx^ios, ancient, which is from 
dpxVi the beginning ; and the suffix -/ogy, 
Gk. -\oyla, due to \6yos, discourse, from 
\4yeiv, to speak. 

archaric. (Gk.) Gk. dpxai«os,a.ntiqae, 
primitive. — Gk. dpxaios, old. — Gk. dpxv, 
a beginning. 

arcliaism. (Gk.) Gk. apxaiffis, an 
antiquated phrase. — Gk. dpxai^f^v, to 
speak antiquatedly. — Gk, dpx<uos, old 

Archer. (F. — L.) M. E. archer.— 
A.F. archer; O. F. archier, a bow-man. 

— Late L. arcdrius, a bow-man ; from 
arcits, a bow. 

Arclietype, the original type. (F.— 
L. — Gk.) F. archetype, 'a principall 
type ; ' Cot. — L. archetypmi, the original 
pattern. — Gk. apxtrvirov, a. model ; neut. 
of dpxirviTos, stamped as a model. — Gk. 
dpx^-—°^PX'-i prefix (see Archi-) ; riiiros, 
a type. 

Arclli-, prefix, chief. (L. — Gk.) L. 
archi-, for Gk. dpxi- ; see Aroh-. 
archimandrite. (L.-Gk.) ' 

mandrita, a chief or principal of monks, 
an abbot. — Late Gk. dpx'favSp'tfriS, the 
same. — Gk. dpxi-; chief; ptivSpa, an en- 
closure, fold, afterwards a monastery. See 

archipelago, chief sea, i. e. Aegean 
sea. (Ital. — Gk.) llaX.arcipelago, Taoiifiei 
to archipelago. — Gk. dpx'-, chief; and 
7r^Aa70s, sea. 

architect. (F.- L.-Gk.) 
tecte. — 'L. architectus, the same as archi- 
tecton. — G^a. dpxniicToiv, a chief builder 
or artificer. — Gk. dpxi-, chief (see Arclii-) ; 
risToiy, a carpenter, builder. 

architrave. (F. — Ital. - L. and Gk.) 
In Milton. — F. archiiiave. — ltal. archi- 
trave, the part of an entablature resting 
immediately on the column. A barbarous 
compound ; from Gk. d/>X'-i prefix, chief. 


principal, and Lat. trabem, ace. of trabs, 
a beam. See Trave. 

Archives, s. pi., public records ; but 
properly an archive is a place where re- 
cords are kept. (F.— L.— Gk.) F. ar- 
chif, pi. archives ; Cot. — L. arcAiuutn, 
archium. — Gk. dpxtiov, a public building, 
residence of magistrates. — Gk. dpx7, a 
beginning, a magistracy. 

Arctic. (F.- L.-Gk.);*.- 
O. F. artique; F. antique. — h. arcticus. 

— Gk. dpKTiK6s, near the constellation of 
the Bear, northern. — Gk. apKTos, a bear. 
Cognate with L. ursiis ; see Ursine. 
Der. ant-arctic. 

Ardent. (F.-L.) XIV cent. M.E. 
ardaunt. — O. F. ardant, pres. part, of 
ardre, to burn. — L. ardent-em, ace. of 
pres. pt. of ardere, to bum. 

ardour. (F.— L.) 0.¥. ardour, ardor, 
heat. — L. ardorem, ace. of ardor, a burn- 
ing, fervour. — L. ardere, to burn. 

Arduous. (L.) L. ardu-its, steep, 
difficult, high ; with suffix -tf»j.+Irish ard, 
high ; Gk. Dp06s, upright. 

Are, pres. pi. of the verb substantive. 
(E.) O. Northumbrian aron, O. Merc. 
earun, as distinguished from A.S.(Wessex)' 
sint, sind, sindon. Cf. Icel. er-u, they are. 
From the Idg. V^S, to be ; from whence 
also are Skt. s-anti, Gk. ela-iv, L. s-tint, 
G. 5-ind, Icel. er-u (for *ef-K), they are. 

am. O. Northumb. am, O. Merc, eant, 
A. S. «c»?.+Skt. as-mi, Gk. ti-/u', Goth. 
i-m, Icel. e-m ; &c. 

art. O. Northumb. ai^, O. Merc, eari ; 
A.S. eart (with t due to -t in sceal-t, shalt, 
&c.). Icel. est, ert. 

is. A. S. iV.+Icel. es, later er. Cf. also 
Goth, and G. is-t, Skt. as-ti, Gk. (tt-i'i, L. 
es-t. See also Be, "Was. 

Area. (L.) XVI cent. L. area, an 
open space. 

Areca, a genus of palms. (Port.-- 
Canarese.) Port, areca. — Canarese aAiki, 
a&ike, areca-nut ; r being substituted for 
the cerebral d (H. H. Wilson). Accented 
on the first syllable. 

Arefaction ; see Arid (below). 

Arena. (L.) L. arena, sand; the 
sanded space in which gladiators fought.; 
Orig. harena ; cf. ^z!oxa&fasena, sand. 

Argent. (F.-L.) White; in heraldry. 

— F. argent. — Ij. argentum, silver; from 
its brightness. Cf. Gk. apyvpos, silver, 
Skt. arjuna(s), white. (^ARG, to shine.) 
Brugm. i. §§ 529, 604.. See below. 



Argillaceous, clayey. (L.) L. ar- 
gillaceus, adj. from argiHa, clay, esp. 
white clay. Cf. Gk. dpyos, white. 

Argonaut. (L. -Gk.) "L. argonaut a. 

— Gk. apyovavTTjs, one who sailed in the 
ship Argo. — Gk. dpyii, the name of Jason's 
ship (lit. swift, from ipy6s, swift) ; and 
vavTTis, a sailor ; see STautical. 

Argosy, a merchant-vessel. (Dalma- 
tian.) Formerly spelt arguze and ragusy 
(see N. and Q. 6 S. iv. 490 ; Arber's Eng. 
Garner, ii. 67). The orig. sense was ' a 
ship of Ragusa,' which is the name of a 
port in Dalmatia. Ragusa appears in 
XVI cent. E. as Aragouse. 

Argne. (F-— L.) M. E. aiguen.— 
O. F. ar^<e;-. — Late L. argiitdre {l^. ar- 
^///arJ), frequent, of arguere, to prove by 
argument, lit. to make clear; cf. argi'ilus, 

Arid, dry. (L.) XVII cent. L. dridus, 
dry. — L. drere, to be dry. 

arefaction. (L.) XVI cent. Coined 
from L. drefacere, to make dry. — L. dre-re, 
to be dry ; xaAfacere, to make. 

Aright, (E.) For on right, in the right 

Arise. (E.) M. E. arisen. A. S. 
drisan. — A. S. d-, prefix ; risan, to rise. 
See Bise. 

Aristocracy. (Gk.) Modified from 
Gk. apiaTOKparia, government by the 
nobles or 'best' men. — Gk. apiuTo-, for 
apiaros, best ; and xpareiv, to be strong, 
govern, from Kparvs, strong. Tiie form 
ap-iaros is a superlative from the base 
dp- seen in dp-fTq, excellence. Der. aristo- 
cratic; whence aristocrat, for ' aristocratic 

Arithmetic. (F.-L.-Gk.) In Sh 

— F. arithmStique ; Cot. - L. anthmetica. 

— Gk. apiBiafTiKi], the science of numbers; 
fem. of dpieiaiTiKis, adj., from dptefu-iiv, 
to number. — Gk. dpt9fi6s, number, reckon- 

Ark, a chest, box ; hence a large float- 
ing vessel. (L.) A. S. arc. — 'L. area, a 
chest, box ; cf. L. arceie, to keep. 

Arm(i), part of the body. (E.) M.E. 
arm. A S. earm. +Du. arm ; Icel. armr; 
Dan., Swed., and G. arm; Goth, arms; 
L. annus, the shoulder ; Russ. ramo, 
shoulder. See Brugm. i. 5 524. 

A-mri (2), to furnish with weapons. (F. 
— L.) F. armer. — L. armdre, to fur- 
nish with arms. — L arma, arms. 

armada, a fleet. (Span.-L.) Span. 


armada, an armed fleet ; fem. of armada, 
pp. of armar, to arm. — L. ai mare, to arm 
(above). Doublet, army. 

armadillo, an animal. (Span. — L.) 
Span, armadillo, lit ' the little armed one,' 
because of its hard shell. Dimin. of ar- 
mado, pp. of armar, to arm ; as above. 

armament. (L) L. anndmentum, 
an equipment. — L. armdre, to arm, equip. 
— L. arma, arms. 
arm,ature, doublet of armour. 
armistice. (F.— L.) Y .armistice. — 
Mod. L. *armistiiium, coined on the 
analogy of sol-stitium, i. c. solstice. — L. 
armi-, for arma, aims; and -stitium , {or 
-statitim (through atonic position'), from 
statiim, supine of stare, to stand. (Cf. 

armour. (F. — L) T^l.^. armour, ar- 
mtire. — O. F. armure, armeure. — l^. ar- 
mdtura, armour. — L. armdtus, pp. of 
armdre,\.oti.xm. — 'i-,.arma,aTWi. Doublet, 

arms, s. pi. weapons. (F. — L.) M.E. 
armes. — O.'i'.armes,-^. — !^. arma, nent. 
pi., arms, lit. ' fittings.' ( yAR, to fit.) 

army. (F. -L.) O. F. a;?-/«e«, fem. of 
pp. of armer, to arm. — L. armdta, fem. 
of pp. of armdre, to arm. — L. arma, 

Aroint thee ! begone ! Origin un- 
known. The usual reference to ryntye in 
Ray does not help ns. 

Aroma, a sweet smell. (L. — Gk.) 
Late L. aroma. — QV. dpaifia, a spice, 
sweet herb. Der. aromat-ic, from the 
Gk. stem dpaipiaT-. 

Around, P^P- and adv. (E. andV.— 
L.) M. E. around; for on round; see 
A- (2) and Kound. 

Arouse. (li-''»'^Scand.) From A- (4) 
and Bouse. 

Arquebus, a kind of gun. (F.-Du.) 
F. arquelmse, 'an harquebuse, or hand- 
gun,' Cot. ; Walloon harkibuse, dialectal 
variation of Mid. Du. haeckbusse, Du. 
haaklnis, lit. ' a gun with a hook.' This 
refers to the hook whereby it was attached 
to it point of support. - Mid. Du. haeck, 
Du. haak, a hook ; and Mid. Du. busse, 
Du. bus, a hand-barrel, a gim. See 

Arrack, an ardent spirit. (Arab.) 
Arab, 'araq, sweat, juice, essence, distilled 
spirit. - Arab, root 'araqa, to sweat. 
% Sometimes shortened to J\ack; cf. Span. 
raque, arrack. 



Arraign. (F.— L.) M.E.aramen.— 
O. F. areisnier, to speak to, discourse 
with, cite, arraign. — O. F. a (L. ad), to ; 
rcisner, reisoner, to reason, from O. F. 
reson, raison, reason, advice, from L. ace. 
rationem ; see Keason. 

Arrange. (F. - L. and O. H. G.) 

M. E. arayngen, arengen. — O. F. arengier, 
to put into a ranlf . — O. F. a (L. ad) , to ; 
rangier, rengier, to range, from O. F. 
ra7ig, reng, a rank. See Bank. 

Arrant, knavish, notoriously bad. (F. 
— L.) This word is now ascertained to 
be a mere variant of errant (cf. parson for 
person). Chancer has theef erraunt , arrant 
thief, C. T. 1 71 73; and see Piers Plow- 
man, C. vii. 307. See Errant. 

Arras, tapestry. (F.) So named from 
Arras, in Artois, north of France. 

Array, verb. (F. — L. and O. Low G.) 
O. F. arraier, to array. — O. F. arrai, 
arroi, preparation. — L. ad (becoming ar- 
before r), to, for ; O. Low G. and O. Fries. 
rede (cf. Goth, garaid-s), ready, A. S. 
rSde, ready ; so that to array is ' to get 
ready.' See Beady. 

Arrears, sb. pi. (F.-L.) FromM.E. 
arere, adv., in the rear.— O. F. arere (F. 
arriVre), behind. -Late L. ad retro, h&x^- 
ward.-L. arf, to; «/;-ip, behind, fl What 
we now call arrears answers to M. E. 
arerages, s. pi. formed from M. E. arere 
with F. suffix -age. 

Arrest, to stop. (F.— L.) O.Y.ares- 
ter (F. arriter), to stay. — O. F. a ( = L. 
«rf),to; "L. restore, \o stay, remain, from 
re-, back, and stare, to stand ; see Best 

Arrive. (F.— L.) Y. arriver. — ljAe 
L. arripare, adrifSre, to come to shore, 
land. — L. ad, to ; ripa, shore, bank. Der. 

Arrogate. (L.) From pp. of L. arro- 
gare, to ask, adopt, attribute to, add to. - 
L. ar- (for ad), to ; rogare, to ask. Der. 
ai~rogant, from the pres. pt. 

Arrow. (E.) M. E. arcwe, arwe. A.S. 
arwe, and earh (rare).+ Icel. or, an arrow 
(gen. orvar) ; allied to Goth, arhwazna, 
an arrow. From Teut. base arlnv- ; cog- 
nate with L. arc-US, a bow. 

arrow-root. (E.) So called, it is said, 
because the tubers of the Maranta were 
vised as an antidote against poisoned 

Arse. (E.) M. E. ars, ers. A. S. cers. 
+Gk. opfios, the rump. Idg. type *orsos. 



Arsenal. (Span. -Arab.) Span, ar- 
senal, a magazine, dock-yard, arsenal; 
longer forms, atarazanal, atarazana, where 
the a- answers to Arab, al, def. article. 
Cf. Ital. darsena, a wet dock. — Arab. dSr 
Of-find'ah, a house of construction, place 
for making things, dock-yard. — Arab, dar 
a house ; al, the ; and finSah, art, trade 

Arsenic. (L. — Gk. — Arab. - Pers.) 
Late L. arsenicum. — Gk. ipdiVMov, arsenic; 
seemingto mean a male principle(thealohB- 
mists had a strange fancy that metals were of 
different sexes). But really borrowed from 
Arab, az-zemikh ; where az is for al, the, 
def. art., and zernikh, orpiment, is from 
Pers. zerni, orpiment, yellow arsenic (from 
zar, gold). See Devic, p. 4. 

Arson, incendiarism. (F.— L.) 0. F. 
arson, incendiarism.- Late L. ace. ar- 
sionem, a burning. — L. ars-us, pp. of 
ardere, to bum. See Ardent. 

Art (i), 2 p. s. pres. of verb. (E.) See 

Art (2), skill. (F.-L.) M.E. art.- 
O. F. art. — L. artem, ace. of ars, skill. 

Artery. (L.— Gk.) L.arZ/Wa, properly 
the wind-pipe; also, an artery. - Gk. dpr;;- 
pia, wind-pipe, artery. 

Artesian, adj. (F.) Artesian wells sltc 
named from F. Artisien, adj. formed from 
Artois, a province in the north of France,'! 
where these wells were early in use. 

Articlioke. (Ital. -Arab.) Ital.izr/i- 
ciocco, a corrupt form ; Florio also gives 
the spellings archiciocco, archicioffo; also 
(without the ar, which answers to the 
Arab. def. art. al, the) the forms carcioccoi 
carcioffo. Cf. Span, alcachofa, an arti. 
choke. — Arab, al kharshuf, or Ifarsliaf, an 
artichoke. % Not Arab, ar'di shau^ 
(Diez), which is a modern corrupt foria 
borrowed from Italian. 

Article, a small item, part of speech. 
(F. — L.) F. article. — L. articulus, ajoint, 
knuckle, article in grammar ; lit. ' a small 
joint.' Dimin. of artus, a joint, limb. 

articulate. (L.) L. articulstus, dis- 
tinct; pp. of artictildre, to supply with 
joints, divide by joints. — L. articulus, fc 
joint (above). 3 

Artifice. (F.-L.) In Milton.-F. 
artifice. — \j. artificium, a trade, handi- 
craft ; hence skill. — L. arti-, stem of an, 
art ; and -fie-, for facere, to make. Der. 
artific-cr, a skilled workman. 

artillery. (F.-L.) O.'B.artitteriek 


equipment of war, machines of war, in- 
cluding cross-bows, &c., in early times.— 
O. P". artillery to equip. -Late L. *arlil- 
lare, to make machines: a verb inferred 
from the sb. artillator, a maker of machines. 
Extended from arti-, stem of ars, art. We 
also find artilliator, answering to an older 
Articulator; also LateL. articulum, arti- 
fice ; articula, art. 

axtisan, a workman.- (F.— Ital. — L.) 
F. artisan. — Ital. artigiano, a workman. — 
Late L. *artitidnus, not found, but formed 
from L. artitus, cunning, artful. — L. arti-, 
stem oiars, art. 

As, conj. (E.) M. E. as, als, alse, also, 
al so. As is a contraction of also. (Proved 
by Sir F. Madden.) See Also. 

Asafoetida, Assafoetida, a gum. 
(Med. L.— Pers. and L.) From Pers. dzd, 
mastic ; the L. fcctida, fetid, refers to its 
offensive smell. See Fetid. 

Asbestos, a mineral. (Gk.) Gk. a- 
(TjSto-Tos, unquenchable ; because it is in- 
combustible. — Gk. d-, neg. prefix; and 
-afifOTOs, quenchable, from aPivvv/u, I 
quench, extinguish. See Brugm. i. § 653. 

Ascend. (L.) L. ascendere, to climb 
up. — L. ad, to ; scandere, to climb. See 
Scan. Der. ascens-ion, from pp. ascensus. 

Ascertain. (F. - L.) From O.F. 
acertainer, acertener, to make certain 
(with J inserted) . — F. a ( = L. ad, to) ; and 
certain, certain. See Certain. 

Ascetic. (Gk.) Gk. aaKTfTiRis, given 
to exercise, industrious ; applied to hermits, 
who strictly exercised themselves in reli- 
gious devotion. — Gk. d(r«rjTris, one who 
practises an art, an athlete. — Gk. da«eiv, 
to work, exercise ; also, to mortify the 
body, as an ascetic. 

Ascititions, incidental. (L.) Coined, 
as if from L. *ascitTcius, from ascitus, pp. 
of asciscere, or adsciscere, to receive, learn. 
— L. ad, to; sciscere, to learn ^ inceptive 
form of scire, to know. 

Ascribe. (L.) L. ascrlbere, to write 
down to one's account. — L. a- (for ad), to ; 
scribere, to write. 

Ash, a tree. (E.) M. E, asch. A. S. asc. 
+ Dn. esch ; Icel. askr ; Dan. and Swed. 
ask ; G. esche. Teut. type *askiz. Of. 
Rhss. iasene, Lith. tisis, ash. 
Ashamed. (E.) K.S.dscamod,-p^.oi 
dscamian, to put to shame. — A. S. a-, ex- 
tremely ; scamian, to shame, from scamu, 
shame, p. Or for A. S. ofscamod, with the 
same sense (with prefix of-, off, very). 


Ashes. (E.) The pi. of ash, which is 
little used. M. E. asche, axe, sing. ; the 
pi. is commonly ascken, axen, but in North- 
ern E. it is ascites, askes. A. S. asce, pi. 
ascan, axan, arra«.+Du. asch \ Icel. and 
Swed. aska; Dan. aske; Goth, azgo, pi. 
azgon ; G. asche. Teut. stems *askdn-, 

Ashlar, Ashler, a facing made of 
squared stones. (F.-L.) It consists of 
thin slabs of stone for facing a building ; 
formerly applied to a square hewn stone ; 
and, probably, so called because it took 
the place of the wooden beams used for 
the same purpose. — O. F. aiseler (Livre 
des Rois), extended from O. F. aiselle, 
aisiele, a little board, dimin. of ais, a 
plank. — L. axilla, dimin. of L. axis an 
axis, also, a board, a plank. 

Ashore. (E.) For on shore. 

Aside. (E.) For on side. 

Ask. (E.) M. E. asken, axien. A. S. 
dscian, dhsian, dcsian ; the last answers to 
prov. E. ax. + Du. eischen ; Swed. dska ; 
Dan. aske ; G. heischen, O. H. G. eiscon. 
Teut. types *aiskon, *aisidjan. Cf. Russ. 
iskate, Lith. jeskoti, to seek ; Skt. ichchha, 
a wish, desire, esh, to search. 

Askance, obliquely. (Friesic). Spelt 
Orscance by Sir T. Wyat ; ascan(he by Pals- 
grave, who gives -de trauers, en lorgnant, 
as the F. equivalent. Hardly from Ital. 
scansare, ' to go a-slope or a-sconce, or 
a-skew, to go sidelin ; ' Florio. Rather from 
Friesic aa Skands, obliquely, to one side 
(Outzen); from j/Ja», oblique. Cf.E. Fries. 
schiin, oblique, schiins, obliquely; Low G. 
schiins ; Du. schuin, oblique (whence Dan. 
paa skiins). O. Fries. « = Teut. au. 

Askew, awry. (O. Low G.) For on 
skew ; Hexham gives M. Du. scheef, ' askew, 
awry ; ' see Skew. 

Aslant. (Scand.) For on slant. 

Asleep. (E.) For on sleep ; Acts xiii. 


Aslope. (E.) For 011 slope. 

Asp, Aspic, a serpent. (F.-L. - Gk.) 
F. aspe, aspic — Li. aspidem, ace. of aspis. 
— Gk. aairis (gen. aamSos), an asp. 

AsparagnS, a vegetable. (L.-Gk.- 
Ptrs. V) L. asparagus. — Gk. dandpayos. 
Supposed to be of Pers. origin ; cf. Zend 
fparegha, a shoot, a piong; Lithuan. 
spurgas, a shoot (Fick, Prellwitz). 

Aspect. (L.) L. aspectus, look. — L. 
aspectus, pp. of aspicere, to look. — L. a- 
(for ad), to, at ; specere, to look. 



Aspen, Asp, a tree. (E.) M. E. asp, 
Chaucer, C. T. 2923 ; aspen is an adj. (like 
golden), and is used for aspen-tree ; cf. Ch. 
C. T. 7249. A. S. (sspe, ffi/j. + Du. esp; 
Icel. asp, Dan. and Swed. asp ; G. espe, aspe. 
Cf. Lichnan. apusiis ; Russ. osina. 

Asperity. (F. - L.) F. asperite. — L. 
asperitatem, ace. al asperitas , roughness. — 
L. asper, rough. 

Asperse, to cast calumny upon. (L.) 
From L. aspersus, pp. of aspergere, to 
besprinkle. — L. as- (for ad) ; spargere, to 

Asphailt. (Gk.) Gk. cia<l)a\TOS, aatjiaK- 
Trij', asphalt, bitumen. A foreign word. 

Asphodel. (Gk.) Gk. aa(j>6Se\os. a 
plant of the lily kind. Der. daffodil, 
q. V. 

Asphyxia, suffocation. (Gk.) Gk. a- 
aipv^ia, a stopping of the pulse ; cf. a- 
aipvKTOs, without pulsation, — Gk. d-, not ; 
and (Tcf i)£is, the pulse, from atpv^fiv, to pul- 
sate ; cf. a^vyiws, pulsation. 

Aspire. (F.— L.) F.nj/zV-sr, to breathe, 
covet, aspire to. — L. asplrdre, lit. to breathe 
towards. — L a- (for ad), to; spirare, to 
breathe. Der. aspir-ate,-v. to pronounce 
with a full breathing. 

Ass. (C.-L.) yii.'E.asse. A.S. assa. 

— Irish assan. — \,. asinus; whence also 
W. asyn, Swed. dsna, Icel. asm. Hence 
also (or from L. dimin. asellus') came Irish 
asal, Du. e%el, Dan. and G. esel, Golh. 
asilus. Prob. of Semitic origin ; cf. Arab. 
atan, Heb. athon, a she-ass. 

Assail. (F. - L.) M. E. asailen. - O. F. 
asaillir, to attack. — Late L. assalTre ; L. 
assillre. — L. ad, to ; salire, to leap, rush 
forth. See Salient. 

Assart, the offence of grubbing up trees 
and destroying the coverts of a forest. (F. 

— L.) From A. F'. assarier, F. essarler, to 
grub up, clear ground of shrubs. — L. ex, 
out, thoroughly ; Late L. sartdre, frequent, 
of L. sarrire, sarire, to grub up weeds. 

Assassin, a secret murderer.. (F. — 
Arab.) V. assassin. From Arab, liashas/im, 
pi., eaters of ' h.ashish,' the name of a 
sect in the 13th century ; the ' Old Man of 
the Mountain ' roused his followers' spirits 
by help of this preparation, and sent them 
to stab his enemies, esp. the leading cru- 
saders. — Arab, hashish, an intoxicating 
preparation from the dried leaves of Can- 
nabis indica, a kind of hemp. Cf. Arab. 
hashiy, dry. 

Assault. (F.-L.) O. F. assalt.-l.. 


ad, to ; salt us, a leap, attack, from saltus( 
pp. of salire, to leap. See Assail. 

Assay, s. ; the same as Essay, q. v. . 

Assemble. (F.-L.) O.'F. assembler, 
— Late L. assimulare, to collect (different 
from L. assimulare, to feign). — L. as- (for 
ad^, to ; simul, together. 

Assent. (F. — L.) O.F.asscn/ir.-L. 
assentire, to assent, agree to. — L. as- (for 
a<i), to ; sentirCj to feel, perceive. 

Assert. (L.) From L. asserius, pp. 
of asserere, to add to, claim, assert. — L. 
as- (for ad), to ; serere, to join, connect. 

Assess, to fix a tax. (F.-L.) O. F. 
assesser. — hate L. assessare, to sit as as- 
sessor, to assess ; cf. L. sb. assessor, one 
who adjusted taxes ; orig. a judge's assis- 
tant, one who scit by him. — L. assessus, 
pp. of assidere, to sit near. See Assize (i). 

Assets, sufficient effects of a deceased 
debtor. (F.-L.) O.V.assez(pjan. assets), 
sufficient (to pay with) ; properly an adv., 
but, in E., mistaken to be a pi. sb. — L. ad 
satis, up to what is enough. 

Asseverate. (L.) L. asseuerStus, pp., 
of asseuerdre, to speak in earnest. — L. as- 
(for ad), to ; seiierus, earnest. 

Assiduous. (L.) L. assidu-ns, sittingi 
down to, applying closely to; with suffix 
-ous. — L. assidere, to sit near. — L. as- (for 
ad), at, near ; sedSre, to sit. See Sit. 

Assign. (F.-L) O.F. assig/ier.-L. 
assigndre, to assign, mark out to. — L. as- 
(for ad), to ; signdre, to mark, from signum, 
a mark, sign. 

Assimilate. (L.) Frompp.ofL. «f- 

simildre, to make like to. — L. as- (for arf), 
to ; similis, like. See Similar. 

Assist. (F.-L.) F . assister. — 'L. as- 
sjstere, to step to, approach, assist. — L. as- 
(for ad^, lo ; sistere, to place, stand, from 
stare, to stand. 

Assize ( I ), a session of a court of justice. 
(F.-L.) M. E. assise. — 0.¥. assise, an 
assembly of judges ; also a tax, an impost. 
Probably fem. pp. of O. F. asseoir, to sit 
near, assist a judge. — L. assidere, to sit 
near ; see Assiduous, Assess. 

assize (2), fi fixed quantity or dimen- 
sion. (F. — L.) O. F. assise, a tax, impost; 
the Late L. asstsa was also used in the 
sense of a fixed allowance of provisions. 
The same word as the above. Another 
form is Size, q. v. 

A.SSOciate. (L.) From pp. ofL. HJ- 
socidre, to join to. — L. as- (for ad-\ 10 ; 
socidre, to join, associate. — L. socius, a 



companion, lit. follower. — L. seqiii, to 
follow. See Sequence. 

Assoil, to absolve, acquit. (F. — L.) 
M. E. assoilen. — O. F. as{s)o!lle, pi es. subj. 
of assoudre, asoldre, to absolve. — L. ab- 
soluere, to absolve. — L. ab, from ; sohiere, 
to loosen. See Solve. Boublet, absolve. 

Assonant. (L.) L. assonant-, stem of 
assonans, sounding like ; pies. pt. of nsson- 
nre, to respond to. — L. as- (for aii-), to ; 
sonare, to sound, from sonus, soimd. 

AsSOirfc. (F. — L.') O. F. assortir, to 
sort, assort, match (i,t;th century). — O. F. 
as- ( = L. as-, for L. arf),to ; sort-, stem of 
L. son, lot. See Sort. 

Assuage. (F. — L-) O- F- asonagier, 
asoagier, to soften, appease ; . (Prov. astta- 
viar}. — F. a ( = L. ad), to ; and L. siidiiis, 
sweet. See Sua^^^e. 

Assume. (L) L- assumere (pp. as- 
stwiptus), to take to oneself. — L. as- (for 
ad), to; sumers, to take, which is from 
eniere, to take, wilh a prefix of doubtful 
origin. Der. assumpt-ion (from the pp.). 

Assure. (F. — L.) M.E. assuren.— 
O. F. aseiirer, to make secure. — O. F. a 
( = L. ad), to ; seiir, sure, from L. seciirus, 
secure, sure. See Sure. 

Aster, a flower. (Gk.) Gk. aariip, a 
star. See Star. 

asterisk. (Gk.) Gk. aaTepiaxos, a 
little star, also an asterisk *, used for dis- 
tinguishing fine passages in MSS. — Gk. 
darfp-, stem of darrjp, sl star. 

asteroid, a minor planet. (Gk.) Pro- 
perly an adj., signifying ' star-like.' — Gk. 
dffTepo-eiS^s, star-like. — Gk. aarfpo-, for 
aarnp, a star ; and itS-os, form, figure. 

AsUuna, difficulty in breathing. (Gk.) 
Gk. aa6pia, panting. — Gk. aa^av, to breathe 
hard. Of. Gk. aij/zi, I blow. See Air. 

Astir. (E.) For on stir; Barbour's 
Bruce, xix. S77- 

Astonisli, Astound. (F.-L.) The 
addition of ish, as in exlingit-ishi is due 
to analogy with other verbs in -ish. M.E. 
aslonicn, astiinien, astonen ; whence later 
aslony, afterwards lengthened to astonish ; 
also astound, by the addition of excrescent 
d after n, as in sound, from F. son. All 
from O. F. estoner (mod. F. etonner), to 
amaze. — Late L. *extonarf, to thunder 
out, from ex, out, and tonare, to thunder. 
Cf. L. attonare, to thunder at, astound (with 
prefix at- for L. ad, at). 

Astray. "S ox on stray; Barbour s Bruce, 
xiii. J 95. See Stray. 


Astrictiou. (L.) From L. ace. as- 
trtctionem, a drawing together. — L. asl ric- 
tus, pp. of astringere ; see Astringent. 

Astride. (E.) For on {the) stride. 

Astringent. (L.). From stem of pres. 
pt. of astnngere, to bind or draw closely 
together. — L. a- (for ad), to ; stringere, to 
draw tight. 

Astrology. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y.astro- 
logie. — \,. astrologia, (i) astronomy; (2) 
astrology, or science of the stars. — Gk. 
d(rT/)o\o7ia, astronomy. — Gk. aarpo-, for 
darpov, a star ; and -Koyia, allied to \6yoi, 
a discourse, from Xiyetv, to speak. 

Astronomy. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. as- 

tronotnie. — L. astronomia. — Gk. darpo- 
vopia. — Gk. darpo-r, a star ; and -vopia, 
allied to vo/ios, law, from vipLUv, to dis- 

Astute. (L.) L. astutus, crafty, can- 
ning.— L. astus, craft. 

Asunder. (E.) For on sunder. A. S. 
on-sundran, apart. See Sunder. 

Asylum. (L. — Gk.) L. asylum. — Gk. 
aavKov, an asylum ; neut. of davKos, adj. 
unharmed, safe from violence. — Gk. d-, 
not ; and avXr], a right of seizure ; cf. 
avXaa, I despoil an enemy. 

Asymptote, a line which, indefinitely 
produced, does not meet the curve which it 
continually approaches. (Gk.) Gk. daip.- 
1TTOUT0S, not falling together, not coincident. 

— Gk. d; not ; ain, for ffw, together ; and 
iTTOiTos, falling, from iri-nTuv (pt. t. irc- 
irraiica), to fall. (VPET.) 

At. (E.) M. E. at, A. S. <?/. + Icel. at ; 
Goth, at ; Dan. ad; Swed. at ; L. ad. 

Atabal, a kettle-drum. (Span.— Arab.) 
Span, atabal. — Arab, at (for al, def. article) ; 
tabl, a drum. 

Ataglian ; see 7ataghan. 

Atheism. (Gk.) Coined . from Gk. 
ofle-os, denying the gods,- without a god ; 
with suffix -«>/«.- Gk. a-, negative prefix ; 
0COS, a god. 

Atllirst. (E.) M. E. ofthurst, athurst, 
very thirsty ; orig. pp. of a verb. A. S. 
ofPyrsted, very thirsty ; pp. oiofpyrstan, to 
be very thirsty. - A. S. of, very (prefix); 
xa& Pyrstan, to thirst ; see Thirst. 

Athlete. (L.-Gk.) L. athleta.-QV. 
dSKriTTif, a combatant, contender in games. 

— Gk.deA£-«£i',to contend for a prize. — Gk. 
ae\os (for dftflXos), a contest ; a9\ov (for 
oftflA.oi'), a prize. See "Wed. 

Athwart, across. For on thwart, on 
the transverse, across ; see Thwart, 



Atlas. (Gk.) Named after Atlas, the 
demi-god who was said to bear the world 
on his shoulders ; his figure used often to 
appear on the title-page of atlases. — Gk. 
"ArXaj (gen. 'ArXavTOs), prob. 'the sus- 
tainer ' or bearer, from y'TEL, to bear. 

atlantic, au ocean, named after Mt. 
Atlas, in the N.W. of Africa. (Gk.) From 
'ArXavn-, stem of 'AtAos ; with suffix 


Atmosphere. (Gk.) Lit. 'a sphere 
of air round the earth.' Coined from 
arfid-, stem of driios, vapour, air ; and 

Atoll, a group of coral islands forming 
a ring. (Maldive Islands.) ' We derive the 
expression from the Maldive islands . . . 
where the form of the word is aiolu. It is 
prob. connected with the Singhalese prep. 
aiul, inside.' (Yule.) 

Atom. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. aiome (Cot.). 
— L. atomus. — Gk.. aro/ios, sb.,an indivisi- 
ble particle; allied toaro/ios, adj., indivisi- 
ble.— Gk. d-, not ; TOfj.-, o-grade oinfi-, as 
seen in riii-veiv, to cut, divide. 

Atone, to set at one, to reconcile. (E.) 
Made up from the words at and one, and 
due to the frequent use of the phrase at 
ooit, at one (i. c. reconciled) in Middle 
English. Al at on = aW agreed; Rob. of 
Glouc. p. 113. Tya.da.ll has aloaemaier, 
i. c. reconciler. Works, p. 158. Der. atone- 
ment, i. e. at-one-ment ; we actually find 
the word onement, reconciliation, in old 
authors; see Hall, Satires, iii. 7. 69. 

Atrocity. (F.-L.) Y.atrociti, Cot.- 
L. atrocitdtein, ace. of atrocitds, cruelty. — 
L. atroci-, from atrox, cruel. 

Atrophy. (Gk.) Gk. dTpoipia, want of 
nourishment or food, hunger, wasting away 
of the body, atrophy. — Gk. a-, not ; and 
rp€(peLv (pt. t. Tc-Tpoip-a), to nourish. 

Attach. (F.-Teut.?) O. F. attacker, 
to attach, fasten. — O. F. a, for L. ad, to ; 
and (perhaps) a Low G. word with the 
sense of E. tack, a nail. See Tack. Cf. 
Picard attaker, to attach ; Bret, tacha, to 
fasten, from tack, a tack, nail ; and see 
Detach, Attack. Der. attach-ment. 

attack. (F. -Ital.-Teut.?) F.atta- 
quer. — lXiiL attaccare, to fasten, attach; 
attaccare battaglia, ' to ioyne battell,' 

Florio. Cognate with F. attacker ; so that 
attack is a doublet of attach. 

Attain. (F.-L.) M. E. ateinen.- 

O. F. atcign-, pres. stem of ateindre, 

ataindre, to reach to.— L. oW/«^cre, . to 


attain. -L. at- (for ad), to; tangere, to 

attainder. (F.-L.) From the O.F. 
ateindre, verb, to convict; used substan; 
tively ; see above. 

attaint, to convict. (F. - L.) From 
M. E. atteynt, ateynt, convicted, whence 
the verb has been evolved; prig. pp. of 
O. F. ateindre (above). ^ Confused with 
L. attinctus ; whence E. taint. 
Attar of Roses. (Arab.) Also, less 
correctly, otto of roses, i.e. perfume. — Arab. 
'itr, perfume. — Arab, root 'atara, to smell 

Attemper. (F.-L.) O.F. atemprer 
to modify. — O.F. a ( = L. ad), to ; iempret, 
temperer, to temper. — L. temperare, to 
apportion, regulate, qualify. See Temper. 
Attempt. (F.-L.) 0.7. atenipter, 
to undertake. — L. attentdre, to attempt.— 
L. at- (for ad), to; tentdre, to try; see 

Attend. (F.-L.) O.F. atendre, to 
wait. — L. attendere (pp. attentus), to 
stretch towards, give heed to. — L. at- (for 
ad), to ; tendere, to stretch. Der. attent- 
ion (from the pp.) ; attent, adj., 1 Chroni 
vi. 40, vii. 15. 

Attenuate. (L.) From pp. of L. at- 
tenudre, to make thin. — L. a/- lioxad),to\ 
tenu-is, thin. See Thin. 
Attest. (L.) L. attestdri, to be witness 
to. — L. at- i = ad), to ; testdrv, to be 
witness, from L. testis, a witness. 
Attic, a. small upper room. (L.— Gk.) 
It orig. meant the whole of a parapet wall, 
terminating the upper facade of an edifice. 
Named from the Attic order of architecture; 
see Phillips, ed. i'ja6. — L. Atticus. — Gk. 
'ATTwds, Attic, Athenian. Cf. F. altigue, 
an attic; Attitiue, Attic. 
Attire. (F.^Teut.?) U.E.atir,atyr, 
sb. ; atiren, alyren, verb. — O.F. atirierl 
to adorn (Roquefort). - O. F. a (=L. <*/, 
prefix) ; and O. F. tire, iiere, a row, file ; 
so that atirier is properly ' to arrange.' Cf. 
O. Prov. tiera, arow (Bartsch). See Tier. 
Attitude. (Ital.-L.) Grig, a painter's 
term, from Italy. — ItsH-attitudine, aptness, 
skill, attitude.— L. aptitHdinem, ace. of 
aptitado, aptitude. — L. aptus, apt. 
Attorney. (F.-L.) U.F.. attourM. 
— 0. F. atome [i. e. atomi], lit. ' one ap- 
pointed or constituted ; ' pp. of atomer, to 
direct, prepare, constitute. — F. o ( = L. ad\ 
to.; O.F. tomer, to turn, from L. tor- 
ndre. See Turn. 



Attract. (L.) From L. attractus, pp. 
of attrahere, to attract. — L. at- {=aii), 
to ; trahere, to draw. 

Attri1)nte. (L.) FromartW*«/«j, pp. 
of L. cUtribuere, to assign. —L. at- ( =ad), 
to ; iribuere, to assign ; see Tribute. 

Attrition. (L.) From L. ace. attrl- 
iionem, a rubbing or wearing away. — L. 
attrJt-us, pp. of atterere, to rub away. — L. 
at' ( = ad), at ; terere, to rub. See Trite. 

Attuuei to bring to a lilce tune. (L. 
and L.— Gk.) From L. at- ( = ad), to; 
and E. Tune, q. v. 

Auburn. (F. - L.) M. E. abome, au- 
bume, orig. citron-coloured or light yellow. 

— O. F. ttlbome, atibome, blond (Godefroy). 

— Late L. alburntts, whitish, light- 
colouied. Torriano explains Ital. albumo 
by ' that whitish colour of women's hair 
called an abum colour.' Cf. L. alburnum, 
the sap-wood or inner bark of trees 
(Pliny). — L. albus, white. 

Auction. (L.) L. auctionem, ace. of 
atictio, a sale by auction, lit. 'an increase,' 
because the sale is to the highest bidder. — 
L. aitctus, pp. of atigere, to increase. See 

Audacious. (F.— L.) F. audacUux, 
bold, audacious. — L. *auddcidsus, not 
found ; extended from L. auddci-, from 
atidax, bold. — L. attdere, to dare. 

Audience. (F. — L.) F. audience,' an 
audience or hearing ; ' Cot. — L. audientia, 
a hearing. — L. audient-, siera of pres. pt. 
ofa»(fi>-e, tohear. For *auisdtre; cf. Gk. 
alaBiaSai, to perceive, for afta$ta9ai. 
Biugm. i. § 240. 

audible. (L-) Late L. audibilis, that 
can be heard. — L. audire, to hear. 

audit. (L.) From L. audilus, a 
hearing. — L. audire, to hear ; whence also 

Angev. (E.) For nauger. M.E. naue- 
gar {=navegar), nauger, a tool for boring 
holes.— A. S. nafogar, an auger, lit. nave- 
piercer, tor boring holes in the nave of a 
wheel. — A. S. nafu, a nave ; gar, a piercer, 
that which gores; see Wave (i) and 
Gore (3). + Du. avegaar (for tmvegaar) ; 
Icel. na/hrr; T>a.n.naver; Swe&.nafuare; 
O. H. G. nabager. 

Aught. (E.) M. E. aht, aght, aught. 
A. S. dht, earlier dwiht ; from a, ever, and 
■wM, a creature, wight, whit ; lit. ' e'er a 
whit.' See "Whit. 

Augment. (F.-L.) F. augmenter.— 
L. augme/f (are, ioealarge. — L. augmentum, 



an increase. — L. augere, to increase. See 

Augur. (L.) M.E. augur. — L. augur, 
a sooth-sayer ; said to mean a diviner by 
the flight and cries of birds. Hence a sup- 
posed etymology (not certain) from am's, a 
bird, and -gur, telling, aUied to garrire, to 
shout. Cf^ L. au-ceps, a bird-catcher. 

August. (L.) L. augustiis, venerable; 
whence E. august, venerable, and August, 
the month named after Augustus Caesar. 
Cf. Skt. SJas, strength. Brugra. i. § 213. 

Auk, a sea-bird. (Scand.) Swed. alka ; 
Dan. alke ; Icel. alka, dlka, an auk. 

Aunt. (F.— L.) M. E. «««/«.- A. F. 
aunte; O. F. ante (mod. F. t-ante). — L. 
amita, a father's sister. Cf. G. avime, nurse. 

Aureate. (L.) Late L. aureatus, gilt, 
from aureus, golden; in place of L. au- 
rdtus, gilded, pp. of aurdre, to gild. — L. 
aurum, gold ; O. L. ausum. Der. aur- 
elia, a gold-coloured chrysalis ; aur-e- 
ola, aur-e-ole, the halo of golden glory 
in paintings; auriferous, gold-producing, 
ixoxaferre, to bear. 

Auricula, a plant. (L.) L. auricula, 
the lobe of the ear ; used to mean the 
' bear's ear,' a kind of primrose ; see below. 
auricular, told in the ear, secret. (L.) 
Late L. auriculdris, in the phr. auriculdris 
eonfessio, auricular confession. — L. auri- 
cula, the lobe of the ear ; double dimin. 
from auri-s, the ear. See Ear. 

Aurora, the dawn. (L.) L. aurora, 
the dawn ; from prehistoric *aiisdsa..\.GV.. 
.(Eolic avoK, Ion, ^iis, dawn, from pre- 
historic *aiJ<Tws. See East. 

Auscultation, a listening. (L.) L. 
auscultationem, ace. of auscultdtio, a 
listening; from the pp. of auscultdre, to 
listen.— L. *a2«-, base of auris, the ear. 
See Ear. 

Auspice, favour, patronage. (F.-L.) 
F. auspice, a token of things by the flight, 
of birds, an omen, good fortune. — L. au- 
spicium, a watching of birds for the pur- 
pose of augury. Short for *auisptcium. — 
L. aui; for auis, a bird; and spicere, 
specere, to spy, look into. 

Austere. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
austere. — O. F. austere. — L. austerus, 
harsh, severe. — Gk. aiarrjpbs, making the 
tongue dry, harsh. — Gk. autii', to dry. 

Austral. (F.-L.; orh.) We find F. 
australe, 'southerly;' Cot. — L. Austrdlis, 
i southerly. —L. Auster, the South wind. 


Authentic. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E.aa- 
tenlike, auUnUk. — O. F. autentique, later 
aulhenlique (Cot.). - L. authenticus, 
original, written with the author's own 
hand.-Gk. aieevmcSs, vouched for, war- 
ranted. -Glc. aiielvTTjs, also aiiTO-ivTTis, one 
who does things with his own hand, a 
'self-worker'; see Auto-, p. Gk. 'ivTfjS 
(for *<r£Vriji) is prob. allied to L. sons 
(gen. sontis), guilty, responsible. 
Author. (.F. - L.) M. E. aulour, 
autor ; later author (with ih once sounded 
as /, but now as th in thin).-0. F. autor 
(.Bartsch).-L. auctorem, ace. o{auctar,a.n 
originator, lit. ' increaser, grower.' — L. 
auglfre, to increase. Cf. Auction. 
Auto-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. airo-, stem 
of aurJs, self. Der. auto-biography,^ a 
biography written by oneself (see Bio- 
graphy) ; autograph, something in one's 
own handwriting, from Gk. ypafuv, to 
write (see Graphic). 

autocracy. (Gk.) Adapted (with 
suffix -cji for Gk. -reia) from Gk. ai/ro- 
iipaTii", absolute power. — Gk. airo-, self ; 
■upaTeia (in compounds), power, from 
KpaTieiv, to rule. — Gk. aparvs, strong; 
cognate with E. Hard. 

automaton, a self-moving machine. 
(G.) Gk. airdpiaTov, nent. of avTunaros, 
self-moving. — Gk. airS-, for avrds, self; 
and -piaTos, cognate with Skt. matds, 
thought, considered, known, pp. of man, 
to think. (VMEN.) 

autonomy, self-government. (Gk.) 
Gk. auTovofia, independence. — Gk. auTiS- 
vo/ios, free, living by one's own laws. — Gk. 
auTO-, self; and vonos, law, from vipioiuu, 
1 sway, vipmv, to distribute. 

autopsy, personal inspection. (Gk.) 
Gk. airoipia, a seeing with one's own eyes. 

— Gk. o6to-, self; o\pis, sight (see Optic). 
Auto-da-fe. (Port.— L.) Lit. ' decree 

of faith ; ' a judgment of the Inquisition, 
also, the execution of such judgment, when 
the decree or sentence is read to the 
victims — Port, auto, action, decree; da, 
short for rf« a, of the;/?, faith. [The Span, 
form is auto de fi, without the article 
/a = Port. a.l—L. actum, ace. of actus, 
act, deed ; de, prep. ; ilia, fern, of iUe, he ; 
/idem, ace. ol fides, faith. 
Autumn. (F.— L.) M.E. autumpne. 

— O.K. autofiipne. — L. autunmus, auctum- 
nus, autumn. (Perhaps allied to tmgfre, 
to increase.) 

Auxiliary. (L.) L, auxiliarius. 


helping, assisting. - L. aaxiliuw, help.- 
L. augere, to increase. 
Avadavat, a finch-like E. Indian bird. 
(Arab, and Pers.) Formerly- oOTflrfoz-a/ 
(N. E. D.) ; or amudavad, N. and Q. 6 
S. ii. 198. Named from the city oi Ahmed- 
dbdd, whence they were imported. -Arab. 
Ahmed, a proper name ; Pers. abad, a city, 
Avail. (F. — L.) M.E. auailen (= 
availen). Compounded of O. F. a, to; 
and vail-, toniq stem of O. F. valoir {valer), 
to be of use. — L. ad, to ; ttalere, to be 
Avalanche. (F. — L.) F. avalanche, 
the descent of snow into a valley, -.F, 
avaler, to swallow ; but the old sense was 
'to let fall down.' — F. aval, downward, 
lit. 'to the valley.' -F. a ( = L. ad),io; 
val, vale, from L. uallem, ace. of rnllis, a 
Avarice. (F. — L.) M. E. auarUe 
(with u for v). — Y. avarice. — \„ auaritia, 
greediness. — L. audrus, greedy; cf. L. 
auidus, greedy. — L. auere, to wish, desire. 
Avast, stop, hold fast. (Da.) Du. hoa 
vast, houd vast, hold fast. — Du. hou, short 
form of houd, imper. of hoiiden, to hold 
(see Hold) ; and vast, fast (see Past). 
Avatar. (Skt.) Skt. avatara, descent; 
hence, the descent of a Hindu deity in 
incarnate form. -Skt. ava, down; and/n, 
to pass over, pass. 
Avaunt, begone! (F. - L.) A.F, 
avaimt ; O.F. avant, forward ! See Ad- 
Ave, hail. (L.) Short for Aue Maria, 
hail, Mary (Luke i. 28). -L. aue, haill 
imper. sing, of auere, to fare well. 
Avenge. (F. — L.) O.'S.aven^er,\0 
avenge. — S.a (L. ad), to ; vengier,' to 
avenge, from L. uindicdre, to lay claim 
to, also, to avenge. See Vindicate. 
Aventail, the mouth-piece of a visor. 
(F.-L.) A. F. aventaille ; O.F. esvmtwi, 
air-hole. — O.F. esventer, toexpose to air,- 1 
L. ex, out ; uentus, wind. See Tentail. 
Avenue. (F.— L.) V. avenue, adoem, 
access ; hence an approach to a house (^p. 
one shaded by trees) ; fem. oiavenu, pp. of ! 
F. avenir, to come to. — L. ad, to ; MViiix 
to come. 
Aver. (F.-L.) A.F.andO.F.aM* 
— Late L. auerdre, aduerare, to affirm t» 
be true. — L. ad, to ; uerus, true. . ™bi 
Average, an equalised estimate. Vn 
Formerly a duty, tax, impost; then, !«• 
extra charge on goods, the incidenc6j|| 



such a charge, the general estimate or 
apportionment of loss of goods, &c. 
Formed, with suffix -age, from F. avar-ie, 
now usually ' damage ' (cf. Span, averia, 
haberia, ' the custom paid for goods that 
are exported' (Pineda), Port, and Ital. 
avaria, Late L. avaria, averia). A 
Mediterranean maritime term, orig. signify- 
ing ' duty charged on goods ' (G. P. Marsh, 
in N. E. D.). Origin unknown ; perhaps 
from Ital. avere, havere, goods, chattels 
(F. avoir), a sb. use of havere, liaver (L. 
hablre), to possess. ^Or from Arab. 
'avdr, damage, the relationship of which is 

Avert. (L.) L. a-uertere, to turn away. 
— L. a (^—ab), off, away; tiertere, to turn. 
Der. averse, from L. pp. duersus. 
Aviary. (L.) L. auidrium, a place 
for birds ; neut. of adj. auidrius, belonging 
to birds. — L. aui-, stem of «««>, a bird. 
Avidity. (F.-L.) F. am'^iV^, greedi- 
ness, eagerness.— L. auiditdte?n, ace. of 
auiditds, eagerness. — L. auidus, greedy, 
desirous. — L. attire, to crave. 
Avocation. (L.) From L. diiocd- 
tidnem, ace. of duocdtio, a calling away of 
the attention, hence a diversion, amuse- 
ment ; afterwards used in Ihe sense of 
employment. — L. auocdtus, pp. oid-uocdre, 
to call away. — L. a {^ab), from, away; 
uocdre, to call. See Vocation. 
Avoid, to shun. (F.-L.) M. E. 
auoiden {^avoideti), to empty, empty out, 
get rid of; later, to keep away from, shim. 

— O. F. esvuidier, to empty out, get quit 
of. — O. F. es-, prefix (L. ex, out); and 
O. F. vuit, vuide (F. vide), empty, void. 
See Void. 

Avoirdupois. (F. — L.) Formerly 
avoir de pais (Anglo-F. aveir de peis), 
goods of weight, i. e. heavy articles. — F. 
avoir, goods, orig. 'to have;' de, of; 
O. V.pois, A. F. peis, weight. — L. habere, 
to have ; de, of ; pensum, that which is 
weighed out, neut. of pensus, pp. of pen- 
dere, to weigh. If The F. pais is now 
misspelt /»«■«!>. See Foise. 

AvOTlcll. (F. — L.) M. E. avouchen. 

— O. F. avochier, to call upon as guarantor 
(Godeiroy).- L. aduocdre, to call to or 
summon (a witness). — L. ad, to ; uocdre, 
to call. Cf. Vouch. 

avow, to confess, to declare openly. 
(F. — L.) M. E. avowen. — O.Y. avouer, 
avoer. — L. aduocdre, to call upon ; Med. L. 
to call on as patron or client, to acknow- 


ledge, recognise. - L. ad, to ; mcdre, to 
call, f Another M.E. avowen, to bind 
with a vow, to vow, is obsolete ; see Vow. 
Doublet, avouch (above). 
Await. (F. - L. and O. H. G.) O. F. 
awaiiier, agaitier, to wait for.-O. F. a 
( = L. ad), for; waitier, to wait, from 
O. H. G. wahten, to watch, from the sb. 
wahta (G. wacht), a watching. See ViTait. 
Awake, Awaken. (E.) M.E. 
awakien, awaken; and awaknen, awake- 
nen ; both orig. intransitive. Two A. S. 
verbs are confused ; dwacian, wk. vb. ; 
and onwcecnaH, with wk. pres. t., but 
strong pt. t. onwoc, pp. onwacen. The 
prefix is either A- (2) or A- (4). ■ See 
Wake, Waken. 
Award, vb. (F.-L. and O. Low G.) 
M.E. awarden. — K.Y. awarder; O. F. 
eswarder, esgarder, to examine, adjudge. - 
O. F. «j-- ( = L. ex), out ; O. F. warder, to 
ward, guard, from O. Low G., as in O. Sax. 
warden (gf. G. warten), to watch, guard. 
See Ward, Guard. 
Aware. (E.) A corruption of M. E. 
ixvar,ywar, aware (common) ; from A. S. 
gewcer, aware. — A.S. ge-, a common 
prefix, not altering the sense ; war, ware, 
wary ; see Wary. 
Away. (E.) For on way, i. e. on 
one's way, so as to depart. A.S. onweg, 
away. See AVay. 
Awe. (Scand.) M. E. a\e, aghe, awe. 
[Also tje, eghe, eye; all orig. dissyllabic. 
The latter set are from A, S. ege, awe.] ^ 
Icel. agi, awe, fear; Dan. ave.^h. S. ege; 
Goth, agis, fear, anguish ; Irish eagal, 
fear, terror; Gk. axes, anguish, affliction. 
Awkward, clumsy. (Scand. and E.) 
Orig. an adv., signifying ' transversely,' or 
' in a backhanded manner.' M. E. awk- 
ward, awkwart ; ' aukwari he couth him 
ta ' = he gave him a backhanded stroke, 
Wallace, iii. 175. p. The suffix -ward is 
E. , as in for-ward, on-ward, &c. The 
prefix is M. E. atik, awk, contrary, perverse, 
wrong ; this is a contraction of Icel. bfug- 
[Swed. afvug, in Widegren], like hawk 
from A. S. hafoc. -r Icel. bfugr, often con- 
tracted to bfgu, adj., turning the wrong 
way, back foremost, contrary. 7. Here 
of- is for of-, off, from, away ; and -ug- is 
a suffix. Cf. O. H. G. ap-uh, M. H. G. eb- 
ich, turned away, perverse ; from apa — 
G. ab, off, away, and the suffix -K. 8. 
Thns the sense of awk is ' turned away ' ; 



from Icel. af-, cognate with E. of, off, 
Gk. aTTo. 

Awl. (E.) Aule in Sh.ik. ; M. E. alle, al, 
Wyclif, Exod. xxi. 6. A. S. al, al; Exod. 
xxi. 6 ; Levit. xxv. lo.+Icel. air; O. H. G. 
ala, G. a/ile ; Du. aal. Tent, types *alaz, 
*ala. % Distinct from M. E. mile, flesh- 
liook, A. S. awel, grappling-liook. (Phil. 
Soc. Trans. 1906; p. 261.). 

Awn. (Scand.) M.E.n^5«»c( 13th cent.), 
awene, awne. A. S. pi. agnan, Corp. Gl. 

— Icel. ogn, chaff, a husk ; Dan. avne, 
chaff; Swed. agn, only in pi. agnar, 
husks.+ Goth, ahana ; O. H. G. agana, 
chaff. Cf. Gk. pi. ax""'. chaff; O. L. 
agtia, a straw. 

Awning. (O. F. ?) In Sir T. Herbert's 
Travels, ed. 1665, p. 8 ; the proper sense 
seems to be ' a sail or tarpauling spread 
above a ship's deck, lo keep off the sun's 
heat.' Perhaps from O. F. auvan, auvant, 
mod. F. auvent, ' a pent-house of cloth 
before a shop-window ; ' Cot. • Cf. Prov. 
anvan. Late L. antevanna, auvanna, 
avanna. Perhaps from L. ante, before ; 
uannus, a fan (fem. sb.l. 

Awry. (E.) For tf« le/r)/, on the twist; 
Barbour, Bruce, iv. 705. See Wry. 

Axe, Ax, (E.) M. E. ax, ex. A. S. cex, 
older forms actis, (SfUJ.+Du. aaks; Icel. 
ox, iixi ; Swed. yxa ; Dan. oxe ; Goth. 
akiuizi ; O. H. G. acchus ; G. axt ; L. ascia 
(if for *acsia) ; Gk. of iV^. 

Axiom. (Gk.) XV cent. - Gk. d£icu/ra 
(gen. dfieu/uiiTos), worth, quality; in science, 
an assumption. — Gk. a^toa, I deem worthy. 

— Gk. of £os, worthy, worth, lit. ' weighing 
as much as.' — Gk. d-iur, to drive ; also, to 
weigh. (VAG.) 

Axis, axle. (L.) L. axis, an axis, axle- 
tree. + Gk. a^uv ; Skt. aksha, an axle, 
Wheel, cart. Cf also A. S. eax, an axle ; 
Du. as ; G. achse ; Russ. os' ; Lith. aszis. 
(VAG, to drive.) See below. 

axle. (Scand.) M. E. axel [A. S. has 
eaxl, but only with the sense of shoulder.] 
•-Icel. 'oxull, axis; whence oxul-tre, an 
axle-tree ; Swed. and Dan. axel, axle. 
p. It is a dimin. of the form appearing 
in L. axis; see Axis. Cf W. echel, axle. 
iJer. axle-tree, where tree is a block of 

Ay! interj. (E.) M. E. ey ! A natural 
interjection. % The phr. ay me is French ; 
O. F. aymi, alas for me ! Cf Ital. ahitni, 
Span, ay di me, Gk. oi)u>t. See Ah. 

Ay, Aye, yea, yes. (E. ?) Spelt I in 


old edd. of Shak., &c. Origin xincertain; 
perhaps a variant of Yea. 

Ayah, a native waiting-maid, in India. 
(Port. — L.) Port, aia, a nurse, governeiis 
(fern, of aio, a tutor). Prob. from L. auia, 
a grandmother. — L. auus, a grandfather. 

Aye, adv., ever. (Scand.) M.E. «/.- 
Icel. ei, ever.+A. S. a, ever, also awa; 
Goth, aiw, ever, case-forms from Teut. 
*aiwo!i (Goth, aims), an age, which is 
iiUied to L. ceuum, Gk. aXim, an age. Cf. 
Gk. aiel, ail, ever. 

Aye-Aye, a kind of lemur. (F. - Mada- 
gascar.) F. aye-aye, supp. to Littre. 
From the native name ai-ay in Madagas- 
car ; said to be named from its cry. 

Azimuth. (Arab.) Animuthal circles 
are great circles on the sphere that pass 
through the zenith. Properly, azimuth is 
a pi. form, answering to Arab, as-samitt, 
ways, or points ^or quarters) of the horizon; 
from al samt, sing., the way, or point (or 
quarter) of the horizon. — Arab, al, the; 
and saint, a way, quarter, direction ; whence 
also E. zenith. See Zenith. 

Azote, nitrogen. (P".— Gk.) So called 
because destructive to animal life. — F. 
azote. — Gk. d-, negative prefix ; foirutis, " 
preserving life, from fai-17, life, {aav, to 

Azure, blue. (F.-Arab.-Pers.) M.E. 
asur, azure. — O. F. azur, azure ; a cor- 
rupted form, standing for lazur, which was 
mistaken for I'azur, as if the initial / 
indicated the def. article ; Low L. lazur, 
an aznre-coloured stone, also called lapis 
lazuli. — Arab, lazward (see Devic). — Pers. 
lajuvaard, lapis lazuli, a blue colour. So 
called from the mines of Lajwurd, where 
the lapis lazuli was found (Marco Polo, 
ed. Yule). 

, to bleat. (E.) In Shak.; an imita- 
tive word. 

Babble. (E.) M. E. te&/««, to prate, 
mumble, chatter. The suffix -le is fre- 
quentative ; the word means ' to keep ofi 
saying ba, ia,' syllables imitative of a child's 
attempts to speak.-{-Du. habbelen; Dan. 
bable ; Icel. babbla ; G. bappeln ; and cf. F. 

Babe. (E.) M. E. bab, earliest form 
baban. Probably due to infantile atterasce; 
cf. Babble. 


Babirnsa, Babiroussa, a kind of 

wild hog. (Malay.) Malay bdU nisa, 
lit. ' deer-hog,' or ' hog like a deer ' ; from 
riisa, deer, and bdbt, hog. 

Baboon. (F. or Low L.) O. F. babuin, 
F. babouin ; we also find M. E. babion, 
babian, babeivine; Low L. babewynus, a 
baboon (A.D. 1295). Origin uncertain. 
Cf. O. F. baboti, a grimace (Godefroy). 
Prob. from the motion of the lips. Cf. 

Baccbaual. (L. — Gk.) 'L.BacchdndHs, 
a worshipper of Bacchus, god of wine. — 
Gk. BiMxoi, god of wine. 

Bachelor. (F.-L.) U.'E.bacheler.- 
O. F. bac/ieler. — 'Lnle L. *baccaldris, but 
only found as bacfaldriiis, a holder of a 
small farm or estate, called in Late L. 
baccaldria. Remoter origin unknown, and 
much disputed. Hardly from Late L. 
bacca, for L. uacca, a cow. 

Back. tE.) M.E. iflA. A.S. fef.+ 
Icel. bak; O. Sax. bak\ O. Fries, bck. 
Der. a-back, q. v. ; back-bite, M. E. bak- 
biien (P. PI. B. ii. 80) ; back-ward, M. E. 
bacward (CmsoT Mnndi, 2042). 

backgammon, a game. (E.) In 
Butler's Hndibras, pt. iii. c. 2. The sense 
is ' back-game,' because the pieces, when 
taken, are put back. See gammon (2). 

Bacon. (F. -Teut.) M. E. bacon. - O. F. 
bacon; Low L. baco. — O. H. G. backo, 
M. H. G. bache, buttock, ham, a flitch of 
bacon. Cf. G. bache, a wild sow ; M. Du. 
bak, a pig; M. Dap. bakke, a pig. 

Bad. (E.) 'iA.'S.. badde. Formed from 
A. S. bcEddel, s., a hermaphrodite ; and 
allied to A. S. bcedling, an efTeminate 

Badge. (Unknown.) M. E. bage; Prompt. 
Parv. Low L. bagia, bagea, ' sigmjm, in- 
signe qnoddam ; ' Ducange ; apparently, 
a Latin version of the E. word. Origin 

badger. (Unknown.) Spelt bagf.ard 
in Sir T. More ; a nickname for the brock. 
Dr. Murray shews that badger =^\msi^ with 
a batige or stripe. See above. 

Badinage, jesting talk. (F.— Prov.— 
L.) F. badinage. — F. badiner, to jest. — 
F. badin, adj., jesting. — Prov. bader ( = F. 
^ay^r), lit. to gape; hence, to be silly.— 
Late L. baddre, to gape; prob. of imitative 
.origin, from ba, expressive of opening the 
mouth. Cf. Babble. 

Baffle, to foil, disgrace. (r.?-G.?) A 
Scotch word, as explained in Hall's Chron. 



Hen. VIII, an. 5. To baffull is ' a great 
reproa:ch among the Scottes ' ; it means to 
disgrace, vilify. Cf. Lowland Sc. bauchle 
(XV cent, bachle), to vilify. Origin doubt- 
ful ; but cf. F. beffier, to deceive, mock 
(Cot.), bafouer (Cot. baffouer, to baffle, 
revile, disgrace) ; allied to Ital. beffare, to 
flout, scolTe (Florio), from beffa, a scoff; 
N'orman F. baffer, to slap in the face ; 
Prov. bafa, a scoff. Prob. from M. H. G. 
heffen, to scold ; cf. G. hajff'en, Du. baffen, 
to bark, yelp ; of imitative origin, like 
Du. paf, a pop, a box on the ear. 
Bag. (,Scand.) yi.-'^.bagge. — laA.baggi, 
O. Swed. bagge, a bag, pack, bundle. Not 
found elsewhere in Teutonic. (Gael, bairvi 
from E.) 

bagatelle, atrifle,agame. (F.-Ital. 

— Teut.) F. bagatelle, a trifle. - Ital. bagat- 
tella, a trifle, dimin. of Parmesan bagata, 
a little property ; from Lombard baga, 
a wine-skin, of Teut. origin; see Bag, 
baggage (i). 

baggage (i\ luggage. (F.-Scand.) 
yi.K. baggage, bagage.—O.F.bagage,s.col- 
lection of bundles. — O. F. bague, a bundle. 

baggage (2), a worthless woman. (F. 

— Scand.) The same as Baggage (1), in a 
depraved sense. Perhaps influenced by F. 
bagasse, 'a baggage, quean,' Cot.; Ital., 
bagascia, ' a baggage-wench ; ' Florio. 

Bail (i), security : as verb, to secure. 
(F. — L.) O. F. bail, a. custody; from 
bailler, a law term, to secure, to keep in 
custody. — L. bdiuldre, to carry a child 
about, to take charge of a child. — L. 
bdiulus, a porter, carrier. 

bailiff. (F.-L.) M..Y..bailif.-o:Y, 

baillif. Cot. — Lale L. bdjullvum, ace. of 
bdjulivus, a custodian, &c. — L. bdiuldre 

bailiwick. (F.-L.; andY.^ From 
M. E. baili, short for bailif (above) ; and 
M. E. Toik, A. S. wic, a district ; hence, 
' district of a bailiff; ' later, ' office ' of the 

Bail (2), a bucket. See Bale (3). 

Bail (3), at cricket. (F. - L. ?) O. F. bail, 
an iron-pointed stake ; Godefroy adds that 
' in the arrondissements of Vervins and 
Avesnes, bail is the name of a horizontal 
piece of wood fixed upon two stakes.' 
Perhaps from L. baculuin, a stick. 

Bairn, a child. (E.) M. E. bam. A. S. 
beam. + Icel., Swed., Dan., and Goth. 
bam. Lit. 'that which is born;' Teut. 


type *harnom, neut. sb., from bar, 2nd 
grade of ber-an, to bear ; with suffix -no-. 
See Bear (i). 

Bail;, to feed. (Scand.) Lit. ' to make 
to bite ; ' a bait is ' an enticement to bite.' 
M. E. baiten, ieiien. — Iceh beita, to make 
to bite, causal of bita, to bite ; Swed. beta, 
to pasture ; Swed. bete, Dan. bed, a bait. 
See Bite. 

Baize, coarse woollen stuff. (F. — L.) 
An error for bayes, pi. of F. baye, ' the 
cloth called bayes ; ' Cot. — O. F. bai, bay- 
coloured. — L. badhts, bay. From the orig. 
colour. Cf. Span, bayo, bay, bayita, 
baize; &c. See Bay (i). 

Bake. (E.) M. E. baken. A. S. bacan, 
pt. t. hoc, pp. baceit. + Icel. and Swed. 
baka ; Dan. bage ; Da. bdkken ; G. backen ; 
cf. Gk. tpiiiyeiv, to roast. (./ BHOG.) 

Bakshish,, Backsheesh, a present, 

small gratuity. (Pers.) Pers. bakhshish, 
a gratuity ; from bakhshidan, to give ; 
baksh, a share, portion. Cf. Zend, baksh, 
to distribute ; Skt. bhaj, to divide. 
Balance. (F. — L.) M,.^. balance. — 
F. balance, ' a ballance, pair of weights or 
ballances;' Cot. Cf. Ital. bilancia. — L. 
bilancem, ace. of bilanx, having two scales. 

— L. bi-, for bis, double, twice ; and lanx, 
a dish, platter, scale of a balance. 

Balas-raby, a variety of ruby, of a 
pale rose-red or orange colour. (F. — 
Low L. — Arabi— Pers.) Formerly balais. 

— F. balais ; Med. L. balascus, balascius. — 
Arab, balakhsh, a luby (Devic). — Pers. 
badakhshi, a ruby; named from Badakh- 
shaa, N, of the river Amoo (Oxus). 

Balcony. (Ital. — Teut.) Ital. balcone, 
falcone, orig. a stage. — O. H. G. balcho, a 
bcam.4-O.Sax.^a//^i7, a beam. SeeBalk(i). 

Bald. (C.) U.'E.. balled; the orig. 
sense was ' shining, white,' as in ' bald- 
faced sXa.g,'' a stag with a white streak on 
its face ; cf. prov. E. ball, a white-faced 
horse. — Gael, and Irish bal, ball, a spot, 
mark, speckle (properly a white spot or 
streak); Bret, bal, a white streak on an 
animal's face; W. bali, whiteness in a 
horse's forehead. Cf. Gk. ipaKtos, white, 
<j)a\aiep6s, bald-headed ; Lith. baltas,white. 

Baldachin {pronounced baoldakin or 
bseldakin), a canopy over an altar, throne, 
&c. (F. or Ital. — Arab.) F. baldaquin ; 
Ital. baldacchino, a canopy, tester, orig. 
hangings or tapestry made at Bagdad. ■- 
Ital. Baldacco, Bagdad. — Arab. Baghdad, 


Balderdash, poor stuff. (Scand. ?) It 
formerly meant a jnmbled mixture of 
liquors. Cf. Dan. balder, noise, clatter; 
and daske, to slap, flap. Hence it appears 
(like slap-dash) to have meant a confused 
noise; secondarily a hodge-podge (Halli- 
well) ; and generally, any mixture. (Un- 

Baldric, a girdle. (F.-M. H. G.- 
L.) O. F. *baldric (not recorded), older 
form of O. F. baldret, baldrei ; Low L, 
baldringus. — M. H. G. balderich, a girdle; 
extended from O. H. G. balz, a belt.-L, 
balteus, a belt. See Belt. 

Bale (i), a package ; see Ball (2). 

Bale (2), evil. (E.) M.E. ^a/c. A.S. 
bealu, balu, evil. + O. Fries, and 0. S. 
balu ; Icel. bbl, misfortune ; 0. H. G. 
balo, destruction. Teut. *balwom, neut. of 
*balwoz, adj. evil; cf. Goth, balwawesei, 
wickedness. Der. bale-ful. 

Bale (3), to empty water out of a ship. 
(F.-Teut.) XVII cent. It means to 
empty a ship by means of bails, i.e. 
buckets. — F. bailie, a bucket. Cf. Dn. 
balie, a. tub ; Swed. balja, Dan. bailie, G. 
balje, a tub. — Late Lat. *bacula (Diez), 
dimin. from Du. bak, M. Du. back, a trough. 

Balk (i), a beam, ridge of land. (R) 
M. E. ba.lke. A. S. balca, a ridge, heap ; 
which explains balked — laid in heaps, 
I Hen. IV, i. i. 69. + O. Sax. balio, a 
beam ; Du. balk, a beam, bar ; Swed. bali, 
a beam, partition ; G. balken. Teut. stem 
*balioti-, a bar. Cf. Shalanz. 

halk (2), hanlk, to hinder. (E.) 
M. E. balken. To put a balk or bar in a 
man's way. 

Ball (i), a spherical body. (F. — 
O.H. G.) M. E. bal, balle.-¥. balle.- 
M. H. G. balle, O. H. G. ballo (G. ball), 
a ball, sphere. + Icel. biillr. 

bale (i), a package. (F.-O. H.G.) 
M. E. bale. — F. bale, a ball, also a pack, 
as of merchandise ; Cot. The same as F. 
balle, a ball ; hence, a round package. ■ 

Ball (2), a dance. (F.-Late L.) F. 
bal. — F. bailer, to dance. - Late Li ia//«>«, 
to dance. -^Gk. ^oKKi^iiv, to dance. 

ballad. (F. -Prov.- Late L.). M.E. 
balade. — O.F. balade; F. ballade. — V101. 
balada, a song for dancing to. — Late L. 
balldre, to dance. 

Ballast, a load to steady a ship. (Scand. 
or O. Low G.) Three forms are found; 
(i) O. Dan. barlast, i.e. bare load, mere 
weight, Swed. barlast; (2) O. Low G. 



lallast, i.e. ' bale last,' useless load, Dii., 
Dan., K. Fries, ballast ; (3) Dan. bag-last, 
i.e. back load. Of these, (3) seems due to 
popular etymology ; and (2) arose out of 
(i). See Last (4) ; also Bare, Bale (2), 
Baek. Cf. M. Du. bal-daedt, evil deed 

Ballet. (F.-LateL.) F. *o&/, dimin. 
of *«/, a dance. See Ball (2). 
Balloon, a large ball. (F.— O. H. G.) 
Formerly baloon, a ball used in a game like 
football ; (also ballone, from Ital. ballone, 
in Florio).-O.F. baton, 'a little ball, or 
pack ; a football or baloon ; ' Cot. Mod. 
F. ballon • Span, balon ; Ital. pallone ; 
augmentative form of F. balle, &c., a ball. 
See Ball (i). 

ballot. (Ital. -O. H. G.) Ital. ballot- 
tare, 'to cast lots vfith bullets, as they 
vse in Venice;' Florio. - Ital. ballotta, a 
little ball used for voting ; dimin. of Ital. 
balla, a ball. See Ball fi). 
Balm. (F. _ L. - Gk.) A modified 
spelling ; M. E. fiasme, bame, baume. — 
O. F. basme. — 'L. balsatimni. — Gk. 0d\aa- 
ftov, fragrant resin of the /3aA.o-a^os, or 
balsam-tree. I'rob. Semitic; cf. Heb. 
bttsdm, balsam. 

balsam. (L. — Gk.) 1.. balsavmm ; 
as above. 

Baluster, a rail of a staircase, small 
column. (F.-Ital.-L.— Gk.) F. balus- 
tre ; balustres, ' ballisters, little, round, 
and short pillars, ranked on the outsides of 
cloisters, terraces,' &c. ; Cot. — Ital. balaus- 
tro, it baluster ; so called from a fancied 
resemblance to the flower of the wild 
pomegranate. — Ital. balattsto, balaustra, 
the flower of the pomegranate. — L. balaus- 
tium. — Gk. 0a\avaTiov, the flower of the 
wild pomegranate. Der. balustr-ade, F. 
balustrade, from Ital. balausirata, furnished 
with balusters. 

Bamboo. (Port. — Malay.) Spelt otbot- 
bu (1662). — O. Port, mambii (Garcia).— 
Malay semdmbu, a rattan like bamboo. 
Bamboozle, to hoax. (Unknown.) 
Ban, a proclamation. (E.) Chiefly in 
the pi. ban/is (of marriage). M. E. ban. 
A. S. gebanii, a proclamation (the prefix 
ge- making no difference). Cf. A. S. dhan- 
nan, to summon, order out. Influenced 
by O. F. ban, of G. origin (as below). + 
Du. ban, excommunication; Icel. and 
Swed. bann, Dan. band, O. H. G. ban, a 
ban. All from Tent, strong vb. Hannan-, 
to proclaim ; as in O. H. G. bannan. Cf 


'L.favia, a rumour. (yBHA.) Brngm. 
i- § 559- 

Banana, the plantain-tree. (Span.) 
Span, banana, fruit of the hanano ; said to 
be of African origin (from Guinea). 

Band (1), Bond. (Scand.) M.E. 

band; variant, bond. — \z.A. band; Swed. 
band; Dan. baand; cf. Du. and G. hand. 
Tent. Handom, n. ; from band-, 2nd grade 
oibind-an, to bind ; see Bind. Allied to 
A. S. bend, Goth, bandi, a band. Cf Skt. 
bandha, a binding. Der. bandage (F. 
bandage) ; band-box ; bandog, q. v. 

band (2), a company of men. (F.— 
Tent.) F. baitde ; Cot. ; whence G. bande, 
a gang, set. - Low Lat. banda, a gang ; 
allied to Low L. Imndum, a banner. See 
Banner and Bind. 

Bandanna, a silk handkerchief with 
white spots. (Hind.) 'R\n&. bondhnii , ' a. 
mode of dyeing in which the cloth is tied 
in different places, to prevent the parts tied 
from receiving the dye ... a kind of silk 
cloth ; ' Shakespear's Hind. Diet. 

Bandicoot, a large Indian rat.(Te1ugu.) 
Tehigu fandi-kokku, lit. pig-rat (Yule) — 
Te\.pandi, a pig, kokku, a rat. 

Bandit. (Ital.-O. H. G.) In Sh.- 
Ital. bandito, outlawed, pp. of bandire, to 
proscribe. — Low L. lanmre, to proclaim. 

— O. H. G. bannan, to summon; whence 
O. H. G. ban, cognate with E. ban. 

Bandog, a large dog. (E.) Orig. 
banddog, a dog that is tied up. See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 43. See Band (1). 

Bandy, to beat to and fio, contend. 
(F. — Tent.) Oiig. to band (Turbervile).— 
F. bander, ' to bind ; also, to bandie, at 
tennis ; ' Cot. Se bander, to league against. 

— F. bande, a band ; see Band (2). 

bandy-legged, bow-legged. (F.- 

Teut. and Scand.) Prob. from bandy, for- 
merly the name of a bent stick for playing 
a game called bandy, in which a ball was 
bandied about. See above. 

Bane, harm. (E.) A. S. bana, a mur- 
derer, bane.+O. Sax. and O. H. G. bono; 
Icel. bani, Dan. and Swed. bane, death, 
murder. Teut. stem *banon-, m. Cf Goth. 
banja, a wound. Der. hane-ful. 

Bang (i), to beat. (Scand.) In Sh. 
— Icel. banga, Dan. banke, to beat ; O. 
Swed. b8ng, Icel. bang, a hammering. Cf. 
G. bengel, a cudgel. 

Bang (2), a narcotic drug. (Pers.— 
Skt.) Pers. bang. — Skt. bhanga, hemp ; the 
drug being made from the wild hemp. 



Bangle, a kind of bracelet. (Hind.) 
Hind, iattgri, a bracelet, bangle. ^H. H. 

Banian ; see Banyan. 

Banish. (F.-O. H.G.) M.E.ianis- 
t/nn. — Q. F. hattis-, stem of pres. part, of 
banir, bannir, lo proscribe. — Low L. ban- 
nire, to proclaim ; see Bandit. 

Banisters; a corruption of Balusters. 

Banjo, a six-stringed musical instiu- 
ment. ^Ital. — Gk.) A negro corruption 
of bandore, bandora, or panitore. — \\.z\. 
pandora, a musical instrument, usually 
with three strings. — Gk. naviovpa, the 
same. Perhaps of Egypt, orig. 

Bank (l), a mound of earth. (Scand.) 
M. E. banke. — O. Scand. *banke, orig. 
form of Icel. bakki, ridge, eminence, bank 
of a river; cf. Dan. bakke, Swed. backe, 
bank ; whence also Norman F. banque, a 
bank. Teut. stem *bankon-. Cf. O. Sax. 
and Du. bank, O H. G. banch, A. S. bene, 
a bench (see Bsnch). 

Tjank (2),for money. (F. — Teut.) F. 
banque, a money-changer's table or bench. 

— M. Du. banck, M. H. G. banc, a bench, 
table. See above. 

bankrupt. (F. — Ital. — Teut. and 
L.) Modified from F. banqneroute, bank- 
ruptcy, by a knowledge of the relation of 
the word to L. ruptus, broken. — Ital. banca 
rotta, a broken bank, due to the money- 
changer's failure. — M. H. G. banc, a bench 
(see above) ; and L. rupta, fcm. of mplus, 
pp. of runipere, to break. 
Banner. (F. — Teut.) M. E. banere. 

— O. F. banere (supp. to Godefroy, s. v. 
haniere), also baniere. — \.ovi 'L.*banddria 
(Ducange gives banderia), a banner. — Low 
L. banditm, bannwn, a standard. From 
a Teut. (Langobardic) source ; cf. Goth. 
bnndwa, a sign, token. ' Uexillum, quod 
banditm appellant ; ' Paulus, de Cestis 
Langob. i. 20. Prob. allied to Ban ; see 
Skt. bhanati in Uhlenbeck. 

banneret, orig. a knight who had 
men under his own banner. (F. — Teut.) 
'M.,'E..banerel. — O. F. baneret ( F. banneret) ; 
lit. ' bannered.' — O. F. banere (above) ; with 
suffix -«/ = L. pp. -at us. 

Bannock, a cake. (C.-L. ?) Gael. 
lannach, a cake. Perhaps from L. pani- 
ciiim, a thing baked ; from pani-s, bread. 

Banns, pi. of Ban, q.v. 

BanCLuet. (F.- Ital. -Teut.) Y. ban- 
quet. —\\.r\. bancheito (Torriano), ii feast; 
also a bench ; dimin. oi banco, a bench.— 


M. H, G. banc, a bench, table; see bank, a female spirit supposed to 
warn families of a death. (C.) Gael. 
beanshith, a banshee, from Gael, bean, a 
woman; sith, a fairy; O. Irish ban-side, 
fairies (Windisch, s. v. side), from O. Ir. 
ben (= E. quean), a woman, side, fairies. 

Bantam. (Java.) AioviXbom Bantam, 
in Java. 

Banter, raillery. (Unknown.) 

Bantling, an infant. (G. ?) Prob. 
considered as band-ling, one wrapped in 
swaddling bands ; with double dimin. 
suffix -l-ing; but really an adaptation of 
G. bdnkling (with the same sense as bank- 
art), an illegitimate child; from bank, a 
bench ; i. e. ' a child begotten on a bench,' 
not in the marriage-bed (Mahn). Cf. 
bank (2). 

Banyan, a tree. (Port. — Skt.) An 
English, not a native name for the tree. So 
called because used as u market-place for 
merchants or ' bannyans,' as we termed 
them ; see Sir T. Herbert, Travels, ed. 
1665, pp. 51, 123. — Port. iia«;a«, an Indian 
merchant. — Skt. banij, a merchant. 

Baobab, a tree. (African.) The native 
name in Senegal (Adanson). 

Baptise, Baptize. (F.-L.-Gk.) 

Formerly baptise; M. E. baptisen. — 0.¥. 
haptiser. — 'L,. baptizdn. — Gk. ^airri^eiv^ 
from $a.TTTeiv, to dip. Der. baptist, Gk. 
^aTrrHTTijs, a dipper ; baptism, Gk. fiavTia- 
fia, HaTTTKr/ios, a dipping. 
Bar, a rail. (F. — Late L.) M. E. barre. 

— O. F. barre. — Late L. barra, a bar. 
Barb (i), hook on an arrow. (F. — L.) 

F. barbe. — L. barba, a beard. Hence O. F. 
flesche barbelie, ' a bearded or barbed 
arrow ;' Cot. See Beard. 

barbel, a fish. (F.-L.) M.E. bar- 
belle. — O. F. barbel. — F. barbeau. — L. bar' 
bellus, dimin. of barbus, a barbel. — I^. 
barba, a beard. % Named from four 
beard-like appendages near the mouth. 

barber. (F.-L.) M.E. barbour.- 
A. ¥. barbour, with suffix -our= Lat. ace. 
-dtorem ; cf. O. F. barbier, a barber. 

— F. barbe, a beard ; from L. barba, 
beard . 

Barb (2), a horse. (F.-Barbary.) F. 
barbe, a Barbary horse; named from the 

Barbarous. (L.-Gk.) L. barbar-us; 
with suffix -ous. — Gk. /SapSopoj, foreign, 
lit. stammering ; a name given by Greeks 



to express the strange sound of foreign 
■ languages. Cf. L. balbus, stammering. 
' Barbed, accoutred, armed; said of 
horses. (F. — Scand. ?) Also (more cor- 
rectly), barded. — F. bardi, ' barbed as a 
horse,' Cot. — F. barde, horse-armour.— 
Icel. barS, a brim, edge ; also, a bealc 
6t armed prow of a warship (cf. barSi, a 
shield) ; whence it may have been applied 
to horses (Diez). 

Barbel, Barber; see Barb (i). 
Barberry, Berberry, a shrub. 

(Med. L.) From Med. L. barbaris, a bar- 
berry-tree ; of unknown origin. Hence 
also M. F. berberls, Sp. berberis, and even 
mod, Arab. barbdrJs. ^T The spelling 
should be berbery or barbary ; no con- 
nexion with berry. 

Barbican. ^.F.) M. E. barbican. — F. 
harhacane, a barbican or outwork of a 
castle ; also, a loop-hole ; also, an outlet 
for water. Prob. from Eastern bdb-khaiiah, 
gate-house (Yule). 

Bard. (C.) W. bardd, Irish and 
Gael, bard, a poet. Cf. Gk. tppi^uv, to 

Bare. (E.) M. E. bar. A. S. bar. + 
Icel. berr; G. bar, baar. Teut. type 
*basoz ; cf. Litli. basas, O. Slav, bosii, 

Bargain. (F. - Late L.) M. E. bar- 
gayn, sb. — O. F. bargaignier, bargenir, to 
chaffer. — Late L. barcanidre, to change 
about. Remoter origin unknown. 

Barge. (F.-LateL.-C?) yi.^.barge. 
— F. barge. — "LaXA L. barga, variant of 
barca ; see Bark (i). 

bark (i), barque. (F.-Late L.- 

C. ?) Bark is an E. spelling of F. barque, 
a little ship. — Late L. barca, a sort of ship 
or large boat, a lighter. Perhaps of Celtic 
origin (Thurneysen). -O. Irish bare (fem. 
o-stem), a bark. 
' * Bark (2), the rind of a tree. (Scand.) 
M.E. /5a;-/6.-Swed. bark; Dan. bark; 
Icel. bSrkr. Teut. type *barkuz. 

Bark (3), to yelp as a dog. (E.) M.E. 
berken. — K. S. beorcan, to bark. Cf. Icel. 
berkja, A.S. borcian, to bark. Perhaps 
of imitative origin. 

Barley. (E.) M."E..barli.- h.S.bierHc. 
Cf. A. S. here, barley (,Lowl. Sc. bear) ; and 
-lie, for lie, like. Cf. also Goth, barizeins, 
made of barley ; "L.far, corn. 

barn. (E.) M. E. berne. A. S. bern, 
contr. form of ber-ern (Luke iii. 17).- 
A. S. bere, barley ; and em, am, a place 


for storing. A.S. «;-» is for "raniii), 
cognate with Icel. rann ; see Bansack. 

Barm (i), yeast. (E.) M.E. berme. 
A.S. beorma. + 'La-w G. bami; Swed. 
bdrma ; G. bdrme. Teut. stem *bermon- ; 
perhaps allied to Ferment. 

Barm (2), the lap. (E.) M. E. barm. 
A. S. bearm, lap, bosom. +0. Sax., Swed., 
Dan. barm; Icel. barmr; Goth, barms. 
Teut. type *harviot ; from bar-, 2nd grade 
of ber-ait, to bear ; see Bear (1). 

Barn. (E.) See Barley. 

Barnacle (i), a kind of goose. (F.— 
Med. L.) Diniin. from F. bernaque (Cot.) ; 
Med. L. bei naca. ' Bernacce, aues aucis 
palustribus similes ; ' Dncange. Used by 
Giraldus Cambrensis. Cf. Port, bernaca, 
bernacha; i-pan. i«-K/r/a (Nenman). (See 
Max Miiller, Lectures, 2nd Series.) 

barnacle (2), a sort of shell-fish. (F. 

— Med. L.) The same as Barnacle (1), 
See N. E. D. ; and Max Miiller, Lect. on 
Science of Language, ed. 7, ii. 583. 

Barnacles, spectacles, orig. irons put 
on the noses of horses to keep them quiet. 
(F.) The sense of 'spectacles' is late, 
and due to a humorous allusion. M. E. ber- 
nak, dimin. bernaliill. ' Bcrnak for hors, 
bemakill, Cliamns' (i.e. L. cavnis); Prompt. 
Parv. \Ve find bemac in A. F. (in an 
Eng. MS.) ; Wright's Vocab. i. 100, 1. ^. 
Origin unknown. 

Barometer, an instrument for measur- 
ing the weight of the air. (Gk.) Gk. Bapo-, 
for /Sopor, weight ; and nirpov, a measure ; 
see Metre. 

Baron, a title. (F.-Late L.) M.E. 
baron. — b'. baron; older form ber, nom. 
(Prov. bar), the suffix -on marking the ace. 
case (Diez). Cf. Ital. barone, Sp. varon. 
Port, vardo. — Late L. baro, ace. -onem, a 
man, a male. Origin unknown. 

Barouche, a carriage. (G. -Ital. -L.) 
G. barutsche. — \\.a\. baroccio, biroccio, a 
chariot, orig. a two-wheeled car. — L. 1^2- 
rotus, two-wheeled ; with suffix -occio 
asslmiliated to that of carr-occio, a chariot 
^Diez\ — L. bi-, double ; and rola, a wheel. 

Barracks. (F.-Ital.) F. baraqwe. 

— Ital. baracca, a tent for soldiers ; cf Sp. 
barraca. Prob. connected with Late L. 
barra, a bar, pale. 

Barrator, one who incites to quarrels 
and lawsuits. (F.) Formerly barratour, 
baratour ; from M. E. barat, deceit, strife. 

— F. barat, ' cheating, deceit, guile, aUo 
a barter,' Cotgrave. Allied to Bart^y. 



f Influenced by Icel. laratta, a fight, a 

Barrel. (F.) M. E. /;««/. -O.F. (and 
F.) haril. Perhaps from Late L. barra, a 
bar, pale ; from the staves of it. 

Baxren. (F.) M. E. barain. — K.'? . 
barain, -e; O.F. brehaing, fern, bre- 
haingne, baraigne; F. brihaigne, sterile. 
Of unknown origin. 

Barricade. (F.-Span.) _F. ferrz"- 
(■«(/«•. — Span . barricaiia, a barricade, lit. 
one made with barrels full of earth. — Span. 
barrica, a barrel. Perhaps from Span. 
barra, a bar ; see Barrel. 

Barrier. (F.) M.E. barrere. — O.V. 
barrere ^Goieiroy, s.v. bassein); F. bar- 
riire. — F. barrer, to bar up. — F. barre, a 
bar. See Bar. 

barrister. (Low L.) A barbarous 
word ; formed with suffix -ister {^Low L. 
-istdrius) from the sb. bar. Spelman gives 
the Low L. form as barrasterius. 

Barrow (i), a burial-mound. (E.) For 
berrmv (like parson for person, Sec). 
M. E. bergh, benv, a hill, mound. O. 
Merc, berg; A. S. beorg, beorh, a mountain, 
hill, mound. + O. Sax., Du., G. befg. 
Teut. type *bergoz, a hill. Cf. O. Irish bri, 
a mountain ; Skt. brhant, large. 

Barrow (2) , a wheel-barrow. (E.) M.E. 
barewe. — K.'Si. bar-, 2nd grade oi ber-an, 
to bear, carry. Cf. M. H. G. rade-ber, 
Wheel-barrow, from rod, wheel. 

Barter, to traffic. (F.) M. E. bartryn. 
— O.F. barelcr, barater, ' to cheat, beguile, 
also to barter ; ' Cot. O. F. barat, ' cheat- 
ing, also a barter ; ' Cot. p. Of doubtful 
origin ; perhaps Celtic (Littre). Cf. Bret. 
barad, treachery, Irish brath, W. brad, 
treachery, Gael, brath, advantage by unfair 
means ; Irish bradach, Gael, bradach, 
thievish, roguish ; W. hradu, to plot. 

Barton, a court-yard, manor. (E.) O. 
Northumb. bere-tnn (Matt. iii. 12). — A. S. 
bere, barley ; and tun, an enclosure ; see 
Barley and Towti. 

Barytes, in chemistry. (Gk.) Named 
from its weight. — Gk. ^apvrris, weight.— 
Gk. Papis, heavy. See Grave (2). 

barytone. (Ital.-Gk.) Better forz- 
ione ; a musical term for a deep voice. — 
Ital. baritono, a baritone. — Gk. Hapi-s, 
heavy, deep ; and t6vos, a tone ; see Tone. 

Basalt. (L.) Also basaltes. L. ba- 
saltes, a hard kind of marble in .^Ethiopia. 
An African word (Pliny). 

Base (i), low. (F.-L.) M.E. bass, 


base. - F. bas, m., basse, fem. - Late L. bas- 
stis, low; the same word as L. Bassus, 
proper name, which seems to have meant 
' stout, fat,' rather than merely ' low.' 

Base (2) , a foundation; (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E, bas. - F. base. - L. basis. — Gk. fi&ais, 
a step, a pedestal, base. — Gk. base Pa-, 
to go (as in ^aivuv, to go); with suffix 
-(Ti- (for-Ti-); cf.Skt.^a-/'»(j),agoing,from 
gam, to go. See Come. 

Basement, lowest floor of a building. 
(F.-Ital.— L.) Appears in F. as soubasse- 
ment, the basement of a building ; formed 
from j»;«, under, and -i53Ji««fn?, borrowed^ , 
from Ital. bassamento, lit. an abasement. — ' 
Ital. bassare, to lower. -Ital. basso,\o-w.— 
Late L. bassus; see Base (i). 

Basenet, Basnet ; see Basinet. 

Bashaw ; the old form of Pasha. . 

Bashful. (F. and E.) For abash-ful; 
see Abash. Prob. by confusion with aiase 
and base. • 

Basil(i),aplant. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
basile (Supp. to Godefroy) ; short for 
basilic ; cf. E. basilic, ' herb basill ; ' Cot. 

— L. basilicam, neut. of basilicas, royal, -r. 
Gr. PaffAucSv, basil ; neut. of 0aat\litiS) 
royal. — Gk. Paai\evs, a king. 

basilica, a large hall. (L.- Gk.) L. 
basilica, fem. of basilicus, royal. 

basilisk, a fabled serpent. (L.— Gk.) 
L. basiliscus. — Gk. /SaffiXitr/tiSs, lit. royal ; 
also a lizard or serpent, named from a spot 
on the head like a crown (Pliny, viii. 21). 

— Gk. 0aat\evs, a king. 

Basil (2), the hide of a sheep tanned. 
(F. — Span. — Arab.) A. F. baseyne (Liber 
Albus, 225). — F. basane, M. F. bassane.— 
Span, badana, a dressed sheep-skin. — Arab. 
bitdnah, the [inner] lining of a garment, 
for which basil-leather was used. Cf. Arab. 
batn, the inside. 

Basin. (F. — Late L.) M.E. bacin, 
basin. '-0.Y. bacin, bachin; 'F.bassin.— 
Late L. hachimts, bacchlims, a basin 
(Due). Supposed to be from Late, L. 
bacca, water-vessel (Isidore). Cf. Du. bak, 
a bowl, trough. 

basinet, basenet, basnet, a light 

helmet. (F.-LateL.) In Spenser; F. 9. 
vi. I. 31. — O.F. bacinet, dimin. of bacin, 
a basin ; from its shape. 

Basis. (L. - Gk.) L. basts. - Gk. pdais ; 
see Base (2). 

Bask. (Scand.) M. E. teife, to bathe 
oneself. Palsgrave ; and cf. bathe hire, to 
bask herself, Ch. C. T. Nonnes Prestes 



Tale, 447.-Icel. *baSask (later haSast), 
for baSn sik, to bathe oneself. Cf. also 
Swed. dial, at basa sig i solen, to bask in 
the siin, baii/isk, fishes basking in the sun 
(Wedgwood). See Bathe. ^Formed 
like Busk. 

Basket. (F. ?) M. E. basket. Mod. 
Norman F. basquette (Moisy). Origin 

Basnet ; see Basinet. 

Bass (i), the lowest part, in music. 
(F. — L.) The same word as Base (i) ; 
but so spelt in imitation of Ital. basso, 

Bass(2), Bavse, afish. (E.) M. E. 

barse; also base, bace (with loss of r). 
A. S. bars, a perch.+Du. baars ; G. bars, 
barsch, a perch. Named from its prickles. 
From *bars-, 2nd grade of Tent, root 
*/wj-, whence also Bristle, q. v. Cf. Skt. 
bhrshti, pointed. 

Bassoon, a base instrument. (F. — L.) 
F. basson, augmentative from F. basse, 
base (in music), fem. of bas, base. See 
Base (I). 

Bast. (E.) M. E. bast ; basi-tre, a lime- 
tree. A. S. bi^st, inner bark of a lime- 
tree ; whence bast is made.+Icel., Swed., 
Dan., G. bast. Often spelt bass. 

Bastard, an illegitimate child. (F.) 
M.E. bastard, applied to Will. I.-O. F. 
bastard, the same as Jils de bast, lit. ' the 
son of a pack-saddle,' not of a bed. [The 
expression a bast ibore, illegitimate, occurs 
in Rob. of G louc. p. fl 1 6. ] — O. F. bast, a 
pack-saddle (F. bat); with sufifix -arrf, from 
O. H. G. hart, hard, first used as a suffix 
in proper names and then generally. 

Baste (I), to beat. (Scand.?) The 
form tas-it occurs as a pp. in 1553. Cf. 
Swed. basa, to strike, beat, whip. 

Baste (2), to pour fat over meat. (Un- 
known.) InSh. ' To bastejXvmxe;" Levins, 
ed. 1570. 

Baste (3), to sew slightly. (F. — M. 
H.G.) M.E. basten.-O.Y. bastir, F. 
bdtir,\.o sew slightly; a tailor's term.— 
M. H. G. besten (for *bastjaii), to bind; 
orig. to tie with bast. — G. bast, bast. See 

Bastile, a fortress. (F.) O.F. bastille, 
a building. — O.F. bastir (F. b&tir), to 
build. Origin uncertain ; perhaps allied to 

Bastinado. (Span.) From Span. /-oj- 
tonada, a beating. — Span. foj/c», a stick. — 
Late L. bastonem, ace. ; see Baton. 


Bastion. (F.-Ital.) F. bastion. -\\b\.. 
bastiotte, part cf a fortification.- Ital. bas- 
tire, to build ; allied to O. F. bastir, to 
build. See Bastile. 

Bat (i), a cudgel. (E.) yi.Y.. batte.- 
A. S. batt (Eng. Studien, xi. 65). Cf. Irish 
bata, bat, a staff. Der. bat-let, with double 
dimin. suffix -l-et. 

Bat (2), a winged mammal. (Scand.) 
Bat has taken the place of M. E. bakke. — 
Dan. bakke, now only in comp. aflen-bakke, 
evening-bat. Cf. O. Swed. natl-backa, 
'night-bat' (Hire); for which we find 
Swed. dial, natt-batta (Rietz). 

Batch. ( E.) A batch is as much as is 
baked at once ; hence, a quantity. M. E. 
bacihe, a baking; from A. S. bacan, to 
bake. See Bake. 

Bate (1), to beat down, diminish. 
(F. — L.) Short for Abate, by loss of a. 

Bate (2), strife. (F.-L.) M. E. /w/^; 
a dipt form of Debate, in the sense of 
strife. % So sS.i.o fence for de-fence. 

Bath. (E.) U.M. baf. A.S. i<?9.+ 
Icel. baS; O. H. G. bad; Swed., Dan., 
T)y\.,G.bad. Teut. *i«-^»;«, neuter. The 
orig. sense was a place of warmth ; cf. 
O. H. G. bajan (G. bdhen), to foment. 

bathe. (E.) A. S. badian, to bathe. - 
A. S. lit^S, a bath. And see Bask. 

Bathos. (Gk.) Lit. depth, sinking. - 
Gk. fiaSos, depth ; cf. 0a9is, deep. 

Baton, Batoon, a cudgel. (F.) F. 

bSton, O.F. baston. — l,a.t6 L. bastonem, 
ace. of basto, a cudgel. Origin doubtful ; 
connected by Diez with Gk. fiaaTa^fiv, to 
Battalion. (F. — Ital. - L.) F. bataillon. 

— Ital. battagliotie, a battalion. — Ital. bat- 
taglia, a battle ; see Battle below. 

Batten (i), to grow fat; to fatten. 
(Scand.) Orig. intransitive. — Icel. te/7/rt, 
to grow better, improve, recover. Cf. 
Goth, ga-batnan, to be bettered ; Icel. 
bat-i, s., improvement, E. Better, q. v., 
and Boot ^2). Cf. also Du. baten, to 
yield profit ; baat, profit. 

Batten (2), a wooden rod. (F.) To 
batten down is to fasten with battens. Batten 
is merely another spelling of Baton. 

Batter (i), to beat. (F.-L.) M.E. 
bat-er-en ; with frequentative suffix -er-. 

— F. battre. — L. battere, popular form of 
battuere, to beat. 

batter (2), a compound of eggs, flour, 
and milk. (F. — L.) M. E. batour, bature. 

— O.F. bature, a beating. -F. battre, to 
I C3 


teat (above). So called because beaten 

battery. (F.-L.) 'F.batcrie.dattene, 
'beating, battery ; ' Cot. - F. balt7-e, to beat. 

battle. (F.-L.) M.'K.baiaille,balaile. 

— 0. F. bataille, (i ) a fight, (2) a battalion. 

- Folk-L. battalia, neut. pi. (turned into 
a fem. sing.), fights; Late L. battualia, 
neut. pi. of adj. batiiiSlis, fighting. — Late 
L. battuere, to beat. 

battledoor. (Prov.-L.) '!^'i.¥..batyl- 
doure, Prompt. Parv. — Prov. batcdoi; Span. 
batidor, a washing-beetle, which was also 
at first the sense of the E. word. [The 
corruption to battledoor was due to con- 
fusion with battle, vb. to fight.] -Prov. 
batre, Span, batir, the same as F. battre, to 
beat ; with suffix -dor, which in Prov. and 
Span. = L. suffix -tdre?n, ace. form from 
nom. -tor, expressing the agent. 

Battlement. (F.) M. E, batelmmt, 
batilment*bateillement, from O.F. bateil- 
/jc?', to fortify ; formed from bataille ^a.\A&, 
fight, but confused with O. F. bastiller, to 
fortify, derivative of O. F. bastir, to build. 
See Battle and Bastile. 

Bauble (i), a fool's mace ; (j) a play- 
thing. (F.) (i) M.E. babyll, bable, babel, 
Gower, C. A. i. 224; (2) M.E. babel, 
Tudor E. bauble. From O. F. baubel, 
babel, a child's plaything (Godefroy). 
Perhaps connected with M. Ital. babbola, 
a toy (Florio) ; and with L. babulus, a fool. 
Cf E. Babble. 

Bavin, a faggot. (F.) Prov. E. (Wilts.) 
bavin, a faggot ; hence, as adj., soon kin- 
dled and burnt out, i Hen. IV. iii. 2. 61. — 
O. F. baffe, a faggot, bundle (Godefroy, 
Roquefort). Kasioter origin unknown. 

Bawd, a procurer or procuress, go- 
between. (F. - O. H. G.) The full M. E. 
form is bawdstrot, P. Plowm. A. iii. 40 
(another MS. has bawde). — 0.'F. *balde- 
strot (found only in the later form baude- 
trot), equivalent to Lat. fronuba, a bride- 
woman. - 0. H. G. bald, bold, gay, lively 
(cognate with E. bold); and M. H, G. 
strolzen, vb. (E. strut). 

Bawl. (Scand.) Icel. baula, to low as 
a cow ; Swed; bola, to bellow : see Bull, 

Bay (i), reddish brown. (F.-L.) 
M.E. bay. — O.'S. bai. — \,. badhis, bay- 

bayard. (F.-L.) A bay horse; 
from the colour ; also, any horse. The 
suffix -ard is Teutonic ; see Bastard. 


Bay (2), a kind of laurel ; properly, a 
berry-tree. (F. - L.) M. E. bay, a berry 
- F. bcde, a berry. — L. baca, a berry. 

Bay (3), inlet of the sea. (F.-L.) F. 
baie, an inlet. -Late L. baia, a harbour 
(Isidore), p. Confused with bay, a recess 
in a wall. -O.F. baee, a gap. -Late L. 
baddta, fem. of pp. of baddre, to gape. 

Bay (4), to bark as a dog. (F.-L.) 
M.E. bayen. — O.V. baler, to yelp (Gode- 
froy). Cf. Ital. baiare, 'to barke,' Florio. 
From the sound. 

Bay (5), in phr. a< *«/. (F.-L.) Foraif 
abay. — F. abois, abbots; It re aux ahois, to 
be at bay, lit. ' to be at the baying of the 
dogs.' PI. of F. aboi, the bark ol a dog ; 
verbal sb. from F. aboyer, O. F. abater, to 
yelp, bay. - O. F. a (for "; and baier 

Bay-window; from Bay (3, sect. P) 
and "Window. 

Bayonet. (F.) XVII cent. F. bdion- 
nette ; bayonette, a knife ; Cot. Probably- 
named from Bayonne (France), where 
first made or used. 

Bazaar. (Pers.) Pers. bazar, a mar- 

Bdellium. (L.-Gk.-Heb.) A pre- 
cious substance. — L. bdellium. — Gk. ;85e'A.- 
Aioj/. — Heb. bedolakh (Gen. ii. 12). 

Be-, prefix. (E.) A. S. be-, prefix ; 
often causative, as in be-numb, to make 
numb. Note also be-head, to deprive of 
the head; be-set, to set upon, set round; 
be-mire, to cover with mire ; &c. 

Be, to exist. (E.) M. E. been. A. S. 
beon, to be.-f-W. bod, to be ; Russ. bMte ; 
L. fore (pt. t. fui) ; Gk. ^iJeii' ; Skt. bhn. 

Beacb. (E.?) XVI cent. Orig. 
' shingle.' Prob. E., and the same as 
prov. E. kache, a valley ; also, a sandbank 
near a river. A. S. bcec, a valley ; Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. iii. 386. 

Beacon. (E.) M. E. beken. A. S. 
beacn, been. + O. Sax. bokan ; O. H. G. 
botihhati. Teut. type Hauknom, neut. 

Bead. (E.) Orig. ' a prayer ; ' hence 
a perforated ball, for counting prayers. 
M.E. bede, a prayer, a bead. A. S. bed, 
gebed, a prayer. -A. S. biddan { = *bidjan),' 
to pray. + Du. bede; G. bitte; Goth,- 
bida, a prayer. See Bid (i). 

Beadle. (F.-Teut.) U.'E. bedel.- 
O. F. bedel, F. bedeau, a beadle ; lit. 'pro- 
claimer," or ' messenger.' -M. H. G. biitel, 
0. H. G. butil. - O. H. G. but-, weak 



grade of biotan, G. bieten ; cognate with 
A. S. biodan, to bid. Cf. A. S. hydel, a 
beadle, from beodan. See Bid (2). 
Beagle, a dog. (Unknown.) M. E. 
begle, Squire of Low Degree, 1. 771 
Beak, (F.-C.) W.'K. bec.-¥.bec.- 
Late L. becciis, of Gaulish origin. Cf. 
Irish bacc, W. bach, a crook, a hook. 
Beaher. (Scand.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
biker, bj/ier. — Icel. bikarr, a cup. + O. 
Sax. bikeri; Dn. beker; G. becher; Ital. 
bicchiere. p. Perhaps from Late L. bicd- 
rium, a wine-cup. -Gk. ^Ikos, an earthen 
wine-vessel ; a word of Eastern origin. 
Beam (i), a piece of timber. (E.) 
M.E. beem. A. S. beam, a tree. + Du. 
boom ; G. baum. Cf. also Icel. baSmr, a 
tree ; Goth, bagms. 

Beam (2), a ray. (E.) [Usually iden- 
tified with Beam (i), specially used to 
signify a column of light; cf. A. S. byr- 
nende beam, ' the pillar of fire.'] But A. S. 
beam, a beam (as in stmne-beavi, a sun- 
beam) answers to a Teut. type *bati-moz, 
prob. cognate with Gk. <^aS-ffis, light, ^dos 
(for 0of os), also </>iu;, light. See Phos- 
Bean. (E.) M. E. bene. A. S. bean. 
+ Du. boott; Icel. baun; O. H. G.pona, 
bona (G. bohne). Teut. type *bauiid, f. 
Bear (l), to carry. (E.) M. E. beren. 
A. S. bermi. +Icel. bera ; O. H. G. beran ; 
Goth, bairan ; also L,./erre; Gk.cpepfLv; 
Skt. b/tr ; O. Ir. berint, I bear ; Russ. brate, 
to take, carry ; Pers. biirdan, to bear. 
(v'BHER.) Der. upbear. 
Bear (2), an animal. (E.) M. E. bez-e. 
A. S. tiera.-\-lce\. bera {bjorn); O. H. G. 
biro, fero, G. bar; Du. beer. Cf. Lith. 
^?rrtj, brown (Klnge). Teut. type *beron-. 
Beard. (E.) M.E. fen/. K.S. beard. 
+pvi.6aard; G. ^ar/. Teut. type Hardoz. 

Allied to Russ. boroda ; Lith. barzda ; L. 

" barba, beard ; from Idg. type *bhardhd. 
Beast. (F.-L.) M.E. beste.-O.^. 

teste (P\ bhe). — !^. bestia, a beast. 
Beat. (E.) M. E. bcten. A. S. beatan. 

+Icel. battta ; O. H. G. fozan, M. H. G. 

bozen. Teut. type *bautan-. 
Beatify. (F.-L.) F. beatifier.-'L. 

bedtificdre, to make happy. — L. bedti-, for 

bedtus, pp. of beare, to bless, make happy ; 

and -fie-, for facere, to make. 

beatitude. (F.-L.) ^. beatitude. 

— L. bedtitiidinem, ace. from nom. feo/j- 

/z7rfi?, blessedness. — L. bedti-, ioi beatus, 

blessed ; with suffix -tiido. 


Beau, a dressy man. (F.-L.) F. beaic ■ 
O. i . bel. - L. bel/us, fair. For *ben-ltis ; 
from ben- (as in ben-e), variant of bon-, as 
m foK-2M, good. Brugm. ii. | 67. 

beauty. (F. - L.) M. E. beitte. - A. F 
fei/fe, O. F. beaiite, beltet. - L. bellitdtem, 
ace. of bellitas, fairness. -L. belliis, fair 
(above). Der. beauti-ful, beaiite-oiis. 

Beaver (l), an animal. (E.) M E 
bever. A. S. befer, beofor. + Du. bever \ 
Iccl. bjdrr; Dan. ba:ver; Swed. in/z/e?-; 
G. ^/fe?-; Russ. bobr' ; Lith. bebrus; L. 
/icr. Skt. babhrus (i) brown ; (2) a large 
ichneumon. Teut. type *bebruz; Idg. type 
*bhcb/irus, reduplicated deriv. of bhru-, 
brown, tawny. Brugm. i. § 566. See 

Beaver (2), Bever, lower part of a 

helmet. (F.) Altered by confusion with 
beaver-hat. -M.E. baviere. - O. F. baviire, 
a child's bib ; also, the bever (beaver) of 
a helmet. - F. baver, to slaver. - F. bave, 
foam, slaver. Perhaps from the move- 
ment of the lips ; cf. Bret, babonz, slaver. 

Beaver (3), Bever, a short imme- 
diate repast. (F.-L.) M.E. beuer ( = 
bever). — A. F. beivre, a drink ; substantival 
use of O. F. bevre, beivre, to drink. -L. 
bibere, to drink. 

Becalm, to make calm. See Be- and 
Because. (E.a«a'F.-L.) See Cause. 
Bechance. (E. and F.-L.) See 
Beck (i), to nod, give a sign. (E.) 
M. K. bek-yn, the same as bek-nyn, to 
beckon (Prompt. Parv.). See Beckon. 
Beck (2), a stream. (Scand.) M.E. 
bek. — Icel. be/i/er ; Swed. back ; Dan. bi2& ; 
a stream. Teut. type *bakkiz. Also 
Teut. type *bakiz ; whence Du. beek, a 
beck ; G. bach. 
Beckon. (E.) M. E. bekneti. A. S. 
becnan, beacnian (also blccnaii), to make 
signs. — A. S. beacn, a sign. See Beacon. 
Become. (E.) A. S. becuman, to 
arrive, "happen, turn out, befall. + Goth. 
bi-kwiman ; cf. G. be-quem, suitable, be- 
coming. From Be- and Come. 
Bed. (E.) ^.-E.bcd. A.S.bed,bedd. 
+Du. bed; Goth, badi; G. bett. Teut. 
type *badjo}n, n. 

bedrid, bedridden. (£.) M.E. 
bedrede (Ch. C. T. 7351); bedreden (P. 
PI. B. viii. 85). A. S. bedrida, bedreda, lit. 
' a bedrider ; ' one who can only ride on a 
bed, not on a horse. — A. S. bed, a bed ; and 



*rid-a, one who rides, from the weak 
grade of rtdan, to ride. 

bedstead. (E.) M. E. Icdstede.- 
A. S. bed, a bed ; and slede, a stand, 
station ; see Stead. 

Bedabble, Bedaub, Bedazzle, 
Bedew, Bedim, Bedizen. See 

Dabble, Daub, &c. 

Bedell. (Low L. - Tent.) From the 
Latinised form (Jiedellus), of O. F. and 
M. E. bedel ; see Beadle. 

Bedlam. (Palestine.) M. E. bedlem, 
corruption of Bethlehem, in Palestine. 
Now applied to the hospital of St. Mary 
of Bethlehem, for lunatics. 

Bedouin. (F.— Arab.) O.Y. bedouin, 
a wandering Arab ; orig. pi. — Arab, ferfa- 
'w'in, pi. of Arab, badawiy, wandering in 
the desert. — Arab. badw. a desert. 

Bedridden, Bedstead ; see Bed. 

Bee. (E.) M.iL. bee. A. S. i^^i, earlier 
Ko.+'Dvl. bij; O. H. G. bla. Cf G. 
bie-ne ; Lith. bi-tte ; Ir. bea-ch. Perhaps 
' flutterer' ; cf. Skt. bhT, to fear ; O. H. G. 
bi-beii, to tremble. 

Beecb. (E.) A. S. bdece, bece, a beech ; 
hecen, adj., beechen ; both derivatives (by 
mutation) from the older form hoc. See 

Beef. (F.-L.) M.E. beef.-K.Y. bef; 
O. F. boef (F. bceuf). — !^. bouem, ace. of 
bos, an ox.+Gk. ^om, ox ; Ir. bd, Gael, bb, 
W. buw, Skt. ^0, A. S. cii, a cow ; see Cow. 
beef-eater, a yeoman of the guard. 
(Hyb.) Lit. ' an eater of beef ; ' hencs, an 
attendant. Cf. A. S. hldf-!Ua, a loaf-eater, 
a servant. ^ The usual derivation (from 
Mr. Steevens' imaginary beaufetier, later 
spelt buffetier) is historically baseless. 

Beer. (E.') M. E. bere. A. S. beor. + 
Du. and G. bier ; Icel. bjorr. 

Beestings ; see Biestings. 

Beet. (L.) M.E. toe. K.%. bete- 
ls, beta, beet (Pliny). 

Beetle (i), an insect. (E.) Prov. E. 
bittle. A. S. bitela, lit. ' biting one.' - A. S. 
bit-, weak grade of bltan, to bite ; with adj. 
suffix -ol \ cf. wac-ol, wakeful. See Bite. 

Beetle (2), a large mallet. (E.) M. E. 
betel. A. S. bytel ( = O. Wes. *bietel, 
O. Merc. Hetel) ; cf. Low G. botel. Teut. 
\.j^*baut-iloz, ' a beater ; ' [rom*baut-an-, 
to beat ; see Beat. 

Beetle (3), to overhang. (E.) From 
the M. E. adj. bitel-brouwed, ' beetle- 
browed ; ' P. Plowm. A. v. 109. Orig. 
sense doubtful; either from M. E. bitel, 


sharp, or from M. E. bitil, a. beetle. In, 
either case from bit-, weak grade of bltan, 
to bite. 

Befall, Befool, Before ; see Fall, 


Beg. (F.) M. E. beggen. A. F. begger, 
Langtoft, i. 248 ; used as equiv. to be- 
guigner, Britton, I. 22. § 15. Formed 
from the sb. beggar ; see below. 

Beget, Begin; see Get, Gin (i). 

Beggar. (F.) M. E. beggare; cf. 
Begger =a.'Begain or Beghard, Rom. Rose, 
7256 (F. text, Begiiijij. — O. F. begard, be- 
gai-t, Flemish beggaert, LateL. Beghardus. 
Formed, with suffix -ard (G. -hart), from 
Begue, a man's name. See Beguine. 

Begone, Beguile ; see Go, Guile. 

Beguine, one of a class of religious de- 
votees. (F.) Chiefly used in the fern. ; F. 
bdguiiie. Low L. beghina, one of a religious 
order, first established at Liege, about A. D. 
1207. Named after Lambert Le Begue, 
priest of Li^ge (12th c.) ; whence also 
Beguin, Beghard, masc. Le Begne means 
' stammerer,' from the verb bigui, to stam- 
mer, in the dialect of Namur; allied to 
Picard bigiier, F. begayer. 

Begum, in the E. Indies, a lady of the 
highest rank. (Pers. — Tuik.) Pers. be- 
suin, a queen, lady of rank. — Turk, beg, 
bey, a bey, governor. See Bey. 

Behalf, interest. (E.) Formerly in the 
M. E. phrase on tny behalue = on my 
behalf, on my side; substituted for the 
A. S. phr. on {miii) healfe, on the side of 
(mel, by confusion with be healfe {me), 
used in the same sense. From A. S. be, 
by ; and healf, sb., side. See Half. 

Behave. (E.) \.< be-have onestM, 
or control oneself ; from have with prefix 
be-, the same as prep. by. 

behaviour. (E. ; with F. suffix) 

Formed abnormally from the verb to 
behave ; confused with F. sb. avoir, (i) 
wealth, (2) ability. Cf. Lowl. Sc. havings, 
(I") wealth, (2) behaviour. 

Behead. (E.) From Be- and Head. 

Behemoth. (Heb.- Egypt.) Heb. 
behemoth, said to be pi. of behemah, a 
' ' - but probably of Egypt, origin. 

beast ; 


Behest, Behind, Behold. (E.) See 

Host, Hind, Hold (i). 
Behoof, advantage. (E.) M. E. to bi- 
houe, for the advantage of. A. S. behdf, 
advantage. + 0. Fries, hihof, Du. behoef, 
advantage ; G. behuf; Swed. behof; Dan. 
behov, need. p. The prefix be is A. S. be. 


E. by. The simple sb. appears in Icel. 
Iiof, moderation, measure ; cf. Goth, ga- 
hobains, temperance, self-restraint. From 
A. S. hof, 2nd stem of the vb. Heave. 

Iieliove, to befit. (E.) A. S. behdfian, 
verb formed from the sb. behof above. + 
Du. behoeven, from sb. behoef; Swed. be- 
hofva ; Dan. behove. 

Belabour, Belay; see Xjabour, 


Belch. (E.) M. E. belken. A. S. 
bealcian, bahan, to utter ; translating L. 
^/-wf/org, used figuratively. Cf. bale, sb.+ 
Du. ia/i««, to bray. See Bellow and Bell. 

Beldam. (F. — L.) Ironically for fe/- 
dame, i.e. fine lady. — F. belle ilame. — 'L. 
bella, fem. of bellus, fair ; and ilomina, 
lady, fem. ol dominus, lord. See Beau. 

Beleaguer. (Du.) See Leaguer. 

Belemnite, a fossil. (Gk.) Gk. 

PeKfiiviTrjs, a stone shaped like the head 
of a dart. — Gk. fieAfitvov, a dart. — Gk. 
jSa^Xeii/, to cast. (y'GwEL.) 

Belfry. (F.-G.) Orig. 'a watch- 
tower.' Corrupted (partly by influence of 
bell) from M. E. berfray, berfrey, a watch- 
tower. —O.F. berfiei, berfroi, belfroi (F. 
beffroi) . — M. II. G. bercfrit, a watch-tower. 
— M. H. G. berc-, for berg-, base of bergen, 
to protect; and M.H.G. frit, f ride, a 
place of security, a. tower, the same word 
as G. fi-iede, peace ; hence the lit. sense 
is ' a protecting shelter,' watch-tower. 
Allied to Borough and Free. 

Belie. (E.) A. S. beleogan, to tell lies 
about. From be-, by, prefix ; and leogan, 
to lie. See Lis (2). 

Believe. (E.) %l.'E. belenen {beleven). 
The prefix be- was substituted for older 
ge-. — O.Meic. gelefan, A.S. gelTefan, ge- 
lyfan, to believe; lit. to hold dear.+Du. 
gelooven ; O. H. (i. giloiiban, G. g-lauben ; 
Goth, ga-laubjan. Teut. type *laubian, 
with A. S. ge-, prefi.x ; from laub, 2nd 
stem of Teut. root *leiib = Idg. yLEUBH, 
to like. See Lief. 

Bell. (E.) M. E. belle. A. S. belle, 
a bell.+Du. bel. Perhaps named from its 
loud sound; cf. A.S. bellan, to roar, 
bellow. See Bellow. 

Belle, a fair lady. (F.-L.) Y. belle, 
fem. of F. beau, O. F. bel, fair.-L. bellus, 
fair, fine. See Beau. 
belladonna. (Ital.-L.) Ital. &//a 

donna, fair lady.-L. bella domina; see 
Beldam. A name given to the nightshade, 
from the use of it by ladies to give ex- 


pression to the eyes, the pupils of which 
it expands. 

Belligerent. (L.) More correctly, 
belligerant. — 'L. belligerant-, stem of pres. 
pt. of belligerSre, to carry en war. — L. 
belli-, for bello-, stem of bellum, war ; 
gerere, to carry on (war). Bellum is for 
O. Lat. duelhim ; sie Duel. 

Bellow. (E.) M. E. helwen (c. 1300). 
Not fully explained. It may have resulted 
from confusion of A.S. bellan, to roar, 
bellow, with the str. verb belgan, to be 
angry, or with the rare verb bylgian, to 
bellow (which would have given billow^. 
See Bell. Cf. Bull. 

Bellows. (Scand.) M. E. beli, bely, 
below, a bag, but also used in the special 
sense of ' bellows.' Bellows is the pi. o£ 
M. E. below, a bag, from Icel. belgr; and 
M. E. beli (from A. S.) also means belly. 
Cf. G. blase-balg, a ' blow-bag,' a jjair 
of bellows; A.S. bliest-belg, bellows, lit. 
' blast-hag.' See below. 

belly. (E.) M. E. bely. A. S. balg, 
belg, u bag, skin (for holding things) ; 
hence (later), belly.+Icel. belgr, bag; 
Du. balg, skin, belly ; Svyed. bcilg, belly, 
bellows; Dan. bielg, husk, belly; (>. 
balg ; Goth, balgs, Teut. type ' balgis. 
From lalg-, 3nd stem of Teut. root belg 
( = Idg. VBHELGH), to swell. Cf. Irish 
bolg, bag, belly ; bolgaim, I swell ; W, bol, 
belly. Der. bellows, q. v. 

Belong, Beloved, Below; see 

Long, Love, Low. 

Belt, a girdle. (L.) M. E. belt. A. S. 
belt.+lcel. belli ; Irish and Gael, ball, a 
belt, border; O. H. G. balz ; Swed. bdlle ; 
Dan. btelle. All borrowed from L. balteus, 
a belt. 

Beltane, Old May-day. (C) O.Irish 
i«/-/c«e(Windisch); lit. 'fire-kindling,' from 
an old custom. Celtic iyye *belo-te{,j))nid ; 
where belo- is cognate with A. S. b&l, a 
blaze, and tepnia is from *tepnos, type of 
O. Iiish ten, fire ; cf. L. tep-ere, to be warm 
(Fick. ii. 125, 164). 

Bemoan. (E.) From Be- and 

Bench. (E.) M. E. benche. - A. S. 
bene.+'Dvi. bank, a bench, table, bank for 
money ; Swed. bank ; Dan. bank ; Icel. 
bekkr; G. bank. Teut. type *bankiz. 
Doublet, bank. 

Bend (i), to bow, curve. (E.) M. E. 
benden. A. S. bendan, orig. to string a 
bow, fasten a band or string to it ; cf. A. S. 



lend, a band ( = Teut. *bandiz) ; from band, 
2nd stem of foW-a?j, to bind. See Bind. 
So also Icel. benda, to bend a bow ; allied 
to band, a cord. 

bend (2), an oblique band, in heraldry. 
(F. — G.) O. F. bends, also bande, a 
band ; see Cotgrave. Tlie same word as 
F. bande, a band of men ; see Band (2). 

Beneath. (E.) M. E. benethe. A. S. 
beneoBan, prep, below. — A. .S. be-, by ; 
neoiSan, adv. below, from the base 7ieolS- 
in neoS-era, nether ; with adv. suffix -an. 
Cf. G. nied-en, iiied-er ; see Aether. 

Benediction. (F.-L.) F. binedic- 
iion. — L. benedicUdneni, ace. of benedict io, 
a blessing. — L. henedictus, pp. of bejie- 
dicere, to speak well, bless. — L. bene, well ; 
and dlcere, to speak (see Diction). 

benisou. (F. — L.) yi.Y,. beneysun. 

— O. F. beneison. — L. ace. benedictionem. 
Benefactor. (L.) L. benefactor, a 

doer of good. - L. beiie, well ; and factor, 
a doer, lrom.facere, to do. 

benefice. (F.-L.) M. E. benefice. 

— F. bdnlfice (Cot.). -Late L. bencficitim, 
a grant of an estate ; L. beneficiutii, a 
well-doing, a kindness. - L. bene, well ; 
unAfacere, to do. 

benefit. (F.-L.) Modified (badly) 
from M. E. benfet. — O. F. bienfet (F. 
bienfait). — !^. bene/actum, a kindness con- 
ferred ; neut. of pp. of benefacere, to do 
well, be kind. 

Benevolence. (F.-L.) V. benevo- 
lence (Cot.). — L. beneuoletitia, kindness. — 
L. ace. bene uolentem, kind, lit. well- 
wishing. —L. bene, well; and uolentem, 
ace. of uolens, wisljing, from twlo, I wish 
(see Voluntary). 

Benighted. (E.) See Wight. 

Benign. (F.-L.) O.S.henigne (Y. 
benin). — L. benignus, kind ; short for *be- 
nigenus. - L. beni-, for Henus, variant of 
bonus, good; and -genus, bom (as in 
indigenus), from geneie, old form of 
gignere, to beget. 

Benison, blessing ; see Benedic- 

Bent-grass. (E.) M. E. hent. A. S. 

beonet, for earlier *binut, bent-grass (in 
place-names). -1-0. H. G. binm, G. binse, 

Benumb. From Be- and Numb. 

Benzoin, a resinous substance. (F. — 
Ital. — Arab.) F. benjoin, 'gum benzoin 
or gum benjamin ; ' Cot. - Ital. ben- 
zoic, bengivi (Torriano). • The Ital. lo 


bengivi seems to have been substituted for 
the Arab, name, Inbdn jdwi, lit. frankin- 
cense of Java. (Further corrupted iogum 

Beq.ueath. (E.) A. S. becweSan to 
assert, bequeath. — A. S. be-, prefix ; and 
cwetSan, to say, assert. See Quoth. 

beq.liest. (E.) M. E. bigueste, bi- 
quiste. Formed, with added -te (cf. M. E. 
requeste), from A. S. *bicwiss, *bectuiss 
(not found), sb. due to beciveSan, to be- 
queath, assert, say. The components of 
this form occur ; viz. be-, bi-, prefix, and 
cwiss (in ge-cwis'), a saying. Cwiss is 
from Teut. *kwcssiz, Idg. *g{w)ettis, formed 
(with suffix -ii-) from Idg. base *g{w)et-, 
whence cweSan, to say (Sievers, A. S. 
Gr. § 232) ; and becwiss is thus a. regular 
deriv. of becweian, to bequeath. 

Bereave. (E.) A. S. bereafian, to 
dispossess ; see Reave. 

Bergamot (i), an essence. (Ital.) Ital. 
bergaiuotta, the essence called bergamot.— 
Ital. Bergamo, a town in Lombardy. 

Bergamot (3), a kind of pear. (F.— 
Ital. -Turk.) F. bergamotte (Cot.).- 
Ital. berganiott-a (pi. -«), ' a kind of excel- 
lent pears, come out of Turky ; ' Torriano. . 

— Turk, beg armiidi, 'prince's pear.' — 
Turk, beg, prince ; armud, pear. 

Berry. (E.) M. E. berie. A. S. herie, 
-fDu. bes, bezie; Icel. ber; Swed. bar; 
Dan. beer; G. beere; Goth. basi. All 
from a base bas-. Lit. ' edible fruit ; ' cf. 
Skt. bhas, to eat. Der. goose-berry, 

Berth. (E.) Formerly ' convenient 
sea-TOom.' A 'suitable position.' From 
A. S. byr- (as in ge-byr-ian, to suit) with 
suffix -th. Cf. Du. bcurt, a turn ; Low G. 
bort, good position. 

Beryl. iL.-Gk.-Skt.) M.E. &n7. 

- O. F. beHl. — L. beryl/us. — Gk. 0T!pv\- 
Aos ; cf. Arab, billaur, crystal, beryl. — 
Skt. ■vaidiirya (Prakrit veliiriyd), orig. 
beryl, brought from Vidura in S. India 
(Yule; Bbhtlingk). 

Besant, Bezant, a gold circle, in 

heraldry. (F.-L.-Gk.) Intended to 
represent a gold coin of Byzantium. — 
O. F. besant, ' an ancient gold coin ; ' 
Cot.-L. Byzantium. — GV. 'Bv^avnov, the 
name of Constantinople. 
Beseech. (E.) M. E. besechen. From 
be-, prefix; and sechen,- Southern form 
corresponding to Northern seken, to seek. 
See Seek. 



Beseem, Beset, Beshrew, Be- 
side, Besiege; see Seem, Sit, Shrew, 

Besom, a broom. (E.) M. E, besum, 
hesme. A.S.iesma.+'Dvi.iezem; G.bescn. 
Teut. type *besmon-, m. 

Besot, BespeaJc; see Sot, Speak. 

Best ; see Better. 

Bestead ; from Be- and Stead. 

Bestial. (F.-L.) ¥. beslial.-U 
bestidlis, beast -like. — L. besiia, a beast. 
See Beast. 

Bestow, Bestrew, Bestride ; see 

stow, &c. 

Bet, to wager. (F.-Scand.) Short for 
abet, in the sense to maintain, or ' back,' 
as, abet is explained in Phillips, ed. 1706. 
See Abet. Der. bet, sb. 

Betake. (E. «««? Scand.) See Take. 

Betel, a species of pepper. (Port.— 
Malayalim.) Port, betel, &/«/«. — Malaya- 
lim velti/a, i.e. zieru ila, mere leaf (Yule). 

Bethink, Betide, Betimes, Be- 
token ; see Think, &c. 

Betray. (F. — L.; 7vith E. prefix^ 
From be-, prefix ; and O. F. tra'ir (F. 
trahir), to deliver up, from L. tradere. 
% The prefix be- was due to confusion 
with bewray. See Tradition. 

Betroth. (E.) See Troth. 

Better, Best. (E.) 1. From the 

Tent, base *bat, good, was formed the 
Teut. comp. stem *batizon-, as in Goth. 
iatiza, better, A. S. betera (with mutation 
from a to e), M. E. better. The A. S. bet, 
M. E. bet, is adverbial and comparative. 
2. From the same base was formed Goth. 
batista, best, A. S. betst (for bet-ist), M. E. 
best. Similarly Du. beter, best; Icel. betri, 
beztr; Dan. bedre, bedst ; Swed. bdttre, 
bast; G. hesser, best. Der. (from the 
same base) batten, boot (2). 

Between. (E.) A. S. belweonan, be- 
tween ; earlier betweonum. — A. S. be, by ; 
tweonum, dat. pi. of tweone, double, allied 
to iwa, two ; see Two. Here tweonum 
(also twlnuni) answers to Gc&\.tweihnaim, 
dat. pi. of tiveihnai, ' two each.' Cf. L. 

betwixt. (E.) (M.E. betwix; to 
which t was afterwards added. — A. S. 
betwix, betwux, betweox, betweohs, appa- 
rently extended from A. S.betwih, between. 
From A. S. be. by ; and *twXh, answering 
to tweih- in Goth, iweihnai, two each. 
See above. 
Bevel, sloping ; to slope, slant. (F.) 


In Sh. Sonn. iji.-O. F. *bvoel, *bwvel, 
only found in mod. F. biveau, and in F. 
buveau, ' a kind of squire [carpenter's rule], 
having moveable and compasse branches, 
or the one branch compasse and the other 
straight; some callit a i5ez'«// ; ' Cot. Cf. 
Span, haivel. Origin unknown. 
Bever, a potation ; see Beaver (3). 
beverage. (F.-L.) O.F. bevrage 
(Supp. to Godefroy), drink. -O. F. bevre, 
boivre, to drink. — L. bibcre, to drink. 

bevy. (F.-L.) It answers to O. F. 
bevee, a drink ; from O. F. bevre, to drink 
(above). Cf Ital. beva, ii bevy (Florio) ; 
also, a drink (Toiriano). 

Bewail, Beware, Bewilder, 

Bewitch; see "Wail, 'Ware, "Wild, 

Bewray, to disclose. (E.) Properly 
to accuse. M. E. bewraien, biwreyen, to 
disclose. A. S. be-, prefix (see Be-) ; and 
wregan, to accuse (for older *wrogian, 
with mutation from to e). Cf Icel. 
ragja (for vrtegja), to slander, Swed. roja, 
to discover ; O. Fries, biwrogia, to accuse ; 
Goth, wrohjan, to accuse ; G. riigeii, to 
censure, p. These are causal verbs, from 
the base wrok- seen in Goth, wrphs, 
accusation, Icel. rog, a slander. 

Bey, a governor. (Turk.) Turk, beg 
(pron. nearly as bay"), a lord, prince. 

Beyond. (E.) M. E. beyonde. A. S. 
begeoitdan, beyond. — A. S. be-, fo'r be or bi, 
by ; and geond, prep, across, beyond, from 
geon, yon. Cf. Goth, jaindre, thither, 
jaind, there ; from jains, that, yon. See 

Bezel, the part of a ring in which the 
stone is set. (F.) Also spelt basil; it 
also means a sloping edge. — O.F. bisel 
(Roquefort) ; mod. F. to«(r«, a bezel, basil, 
slant, sloped edge. Cf. Span, bisel, the 
slanting edge of a looking-glass. Per- 
haps from L. bis, double. 

Beziq,ue, a game at cards. (F. — Pers.) 
F. besigue (with g) ; also blsy (Littre). 
&. The first form = Pers. bdzichah, sport, a 
game; the second = Pers. bazi, play. — 
Pers. bdzidan, to plaj'. [A guess.] 

Bezoar, a stone. (F. — Span. — Arab. 
—Pers.) O. F. bezoar, F. b^zoard. — Span, 
bezoar. — Arab, bddizahr. — Pers. pdd-zahr, 
bezoar ; lit. ' counter-poison,' from its 
supposed virtue. — Pers. pad, expelling ; 
and zahr, poison. 

Bezonian, a beggarly fellow. (F.) 
In 2 Hen. IV. v. 3. 118. Formerly 



bisonian ; made by adding E. -ian to 
F. bisogne, spelt bisongne, in Cotgrave, 
' a filthe knave . . . bisonian.' Or from 
Ital. hisogno, need, want ; wlience bisopii, 
pi. ' new-levied souldiers, such as come 
. . . needy to the wars ' ; Torriaiio (not in 
Florio). Oiigin unknown. 

Bi-, prefix. ( L.) L. bi-, for *dui-, twice. 
— L. duo, two. So also Gk. Si-, Skt. dvi. 
See Tvsro. 

Bias. (F. — L.) F. biais, a slant, 
slope ; hence, inclination to one side. Cf. 
Ital. s-biesco, s-biescio, oblique. Origin 

Bib. (L.) A clofh under a child's 
chin; from M. E. bibbeii, to drink. — L. 
bibere, to drink. Hence wine-bibber 
(Luke vii. 34) ; L. bibens uinuni (Vulg.). 

Bible. (K.-L.-Gk.) M. £. i5/to.- 
F. bibie. ■^IjB.te L. biblia, fem. sing. ; for 
L. biblia, neut. pi. — Gk. /3i/3Ai'a, collection 
of writings, pi. of Pi^Kiov, little book, 
dimin. of 0l0\os, d book. — Gk. ^vfikos, 
Egyptian papyrus ; hence, a book. 
bibliography. (Gk.) Gk. /3ii8a,/o-, 

for 0t0\ioif ; and ypdtftuv, to write. 

bibliomania. (Gk.) Gk. 0t0Kio-, 

for /3ii3Aioi/ ; and Mania. 

Bice. (F.) Properly ' grayish ' ; hence 
blejv byce, grayish blue. — F. bis, dusky. 
Cf Ital. bigio, gray. Origin unknown. 

Bicker, to skirmish. (Uncertain.) 
M. E. biker, a fight ; bikeren, to skirmish. 
Cf. M. E. beken, to peck ; bilien, to thruit 
with a pointed weapon. Apparently from 
O. F. bequer, to strike with the beak (see 
Beak) ; or from A. S. becca, a pick-axe. 
Cf Du. bikken, to notch a mill-stone ; also 
E. Fries, bikkern, to hack, gnaw, from 
bikken, to hack, bikke, a pickaxe (G. 

Bicycle. (Hybrid.) In use since 1868. 
Coined from Bi- and Cycle. 

Bid (i), to pray. (E.) Nearly obso- 
lete ; preserved in bidding-prayer, and in 
to bid beads (pray prayers). M. E. bidden. 
A. S. biddan. + Du. bidden ; G. bitten ; 
Icel. biSja; Goth, bidjan. Teut. type 
Hidjan-, allied to L. fido, I trust : Gk. 
iTfiffoi, I prevail upon ; froniy'BHEIDH. 
See Brugm. i. § 589 ; ii. § 890. 

Bid (2), to command. (E.) M. E. beden. 
— A. S. beodan, to command. -fDu. bieden, 
to offer; Icel. bJoBa; G. bieten; Goth. 
anabiudan ; Gk. irdeoiwii, I enquire ; Skt. 
bndh, to understand. Teut. type Heudan-. 
XVBHEUDH.) Confused with Bid (i), 



the forms of which have taken the place of 
those of Bid (2). 

Bide, to await, wait. (E ) M. E. biden. 
A.S. bidan. ■\- "Da. beiden; Icel. bitSa; 
Swed. bida ; Ban. bie ; Goth, beidan ; 
O. Ii. G. bltan. Teut. type *bidan-. 

Biennial, lasting two years. (L.) 
Formed as if from bienni-um, a space of 
two years ; the true L. word is bienndlis. 
— L. bi- two ; and anndlis, lasting a year, 
yearly. — L. annus. So also tri-ennial, 
from tri- (for tres), three ; quadr-ennial , 
more correctly quadri-ennial, from quadri- 
(for quadrus), belonging to four ; qidnqui- 
ennial, from quinqui- (for quinque), five ; 
dec-ennial, from dec- em, ten ; cenl-ennial, 
from centum, a hundred ; mill-ennial, 
from mille, a thousand, &c. 

Bier, a frame on which a corpse is 
borne. (E.) M. E. beere, bcere. A. S. 
b&r, ber. — A. S. bdr-, 3rd stem oiberan, to 
carry. + Du. boar ; O. H. G. bdra (G. 
bahre) ; allied to Icel. barar, fem. pi. ; 
\j.feretrum ; Gk. cl>fpeTpov. 

Biestings, Beestings, the first 

milk given by a cow after calving. (E.) 
A. S. bysting, byst (for Hiest), thick milk. 
From A. S. beost, first milk after calving. 
-|-Du. biesl ; G. biest-mikh. 

Bifurcated, two-pronged. (L.) Late 
L. bifurcdtus, pp. of bifurcdri, to part in 
two directions. — L. bi-furcus, two- 
pronged ; from bi-{_s), double ; fttrca, a 

Big. (Scand. ?) M. E. big ; also bigg, 
rich (Hampole). Not A. S. Cf. prov. E. 
bug. big, bog, boastful. Prob. of Scand. 
origin. Cf. Norw. bitgge, a strong man. 

Bigamy, a double marriage. (F. — L. 
and Gk.) F. bigamie. — 'LuXe L. bigamia ; 
a clumsy compound from L. bi-, double 
(see Bi-), and Gk. -yafiia, from yafios, 
marriage. It should rather have been 
digamy (Gk. hiyaiiicC). 

Biggen, a night-cap. (F.) M. F. 
beguin, ' a biggin for a child ; ' Cot. 
Named from the caps worn by beguines ; 
see Beguine. 

Bight, a coil of rope, a bay. (E.) 
M. E. bigie. A. S. by/tt, as in wateres 
byht, a bight (bay) of water (see Grein). - 
A. S. bug-, weak grade of biigan, to bow, 
bend ; with mutation of k toj/.-fG. bucht. 
Teut. type *buhtiz. See Bow (i). 

Bigot, an obstinate devotee to a creed. 
(F.) F. bigot, 'an hypociite, supersti- 
tions fellow;' Cot. Applied by the 


French to the Normans as a term of 
reproach (Wace). Of unknown origin. 
It is an older word than beguiiie, with 
which it seems to have been somewhat 
confused at a later period. 

Bijou, a trinket. (F.-C?) V. bijou. 
Perhaps from Bret, bizoii, a ring with a 
stone, a. finger-ring, from biz, a finger. 
Cf. Corn, bisou (^tlie same), from bis, 
bes, a finger; W. bysoti, ring, from bys, 
finger. . 

.Bilberry, a whortle-berry. (Scand.) 
Dan. bSllebcer, a bilberry ; where bcsr is E. 
berry. In M. Dan., bilk had the sense of 
Dan. bugle, i. e. boss (Kalkar). Cf. Noiw. 
hola, a swelling, tumour. ^ North Eng. 
blea-berry = bl'ueberty ; see Blaeberry. 
In both cases, -berry takes the E. form ; 
see Berry. 

Bilbo, a sword ; BilboeS, fetters. 
(Span.) Both named from Eilboa or 
Bilbao in Spain, famous for iron and 

Bile (i)> secretion from the liver. (F. 
— L.) F. bile. — 'L. bilis. L. bllis is for 
Hislis, Brugm. i. § 877 ; cf. W. busll, 
Bret, besii, bile (Fick, ed. 4. ii. 1 75). Der. 

Bile (2), a boil. (E.) See Boil (2). 

Bilge. (F. — C.) A variant of i5z<,^«, 
which orig. meant the bottom of a ship's 
hull ; whence bilge-water (N. E. D.). See 

Bill (i), a chopper, sword. (E.) M. E. 
bil, sword, axe. A.S. bill, sword, axe. 
+ O. Sax. HI, O. H. G. bill, n. ; (cf. G. 
bille, axe, f.). Teut. type *biljom, n. 

bill (0. a bird's beak. (E.) M. E. 
bile. A. S. bile (Teut. type *biliz ?). Allied 
to Bill ^1). 

Bill (.^), a writing, account. (F. — L.) 

A. F. bille. — Late L. billa, a. writing ; the 

dimin. is billeta, bullela, shewing that billa 

, is a corruption of L. bulla, a papal bull, 

&c. ; -see Bull (2). 

billet (i), a note. (F.-L.) A. F. bil- 
lette. — 'La.t.e L. billetta, billeta, dimin. of 
billa, a writing ; see BUI (3) above. 

Billet (2), a log of wood. (F.) F. 
billette, billot, a billet of wood. Dimin. 
of bille, a log, stump. Origin unknown. 

billiards. (F.) F. WZ/an;', 'abillard, 
or the stick wherewith we touch the ball 
at billyards ; ' Cot. Formed with suffix 
-ard (G. -hart) from bilk, a log, stick, as 

Billion ; see Million. 


Billow, a wave. (Scand.) Icel. hylgja, 
a billow; Swed. W/;a ; Dan. to/fe.+M. 
H. G. bulge, a billow, a bag. Lit. ' a 
swell ' or surge ; cf. Icel. belgja, to inflate, 
puff out. The Icel. bylgja has mutation 
of u loy, and, like M. H. G. bulg-e, is from 
^"Ig-, Sfd stem of belgan, to swell with 

Bin. (E.) M. E. bitine. A. S. binn, 
a manger; Lu. ii. 7.+DU. ben, G. beune, 
a sort of basket. Perhaps of Celtic origin ; 
cf Gaulish Lat. fe«?m, body of a cart ; W. 
ben, a cart. 

Binary, twofold. (L.) L, blndrius, 
consisting of two things. — L. binus, two- 
fold.— L. bi-, double ; see Bi-. 

Bind. (E.) M. E. binJen. A. S. bin- 
dan. + Du. and G. bittden ; Icel. and 
Svved. binda ; Dan. binJe ■ Goth, biiidan ; 
Skt._ bandh, \ o bind. (^BHENDH .) 

Bing, a heap of corn ; obs. (Scand.) In 
Surrey s Poems. — Icel. bingr, Swed. binge, 
a heap.+M. H. G. bige, a heap of corn ; 
whence Ital. bica. ^ Distinct from bin, 
though perhaps confused wilh it. 

Binnacle, a box for a ship's compass. 
(Port. — L.) A singular corruption of the 
older word bittade, by confusion with biit, 
a chest. — Port, bitacola, a bittade (i.e. 
binnacle) ; Vieyra. Cf. Span, bitacora, 
F. habitade, the same. The Port, bitacola 
stands for *habitacola, the first syllable 
being lost. — L. habitaculum, a little dwell- 
ing, i. e. the ' frame of timber in the steer- 
age of a ship where the compass stands ' 
(Bailey). — L. habitdre, to dwell; frequent, 
of habere, to have. 

Binocular, having two eyes. (L.) 
From Lat. bi7i-i, two each ; ocul-its, eye ; 
with suffix -oris. 

Binomial, having two terms. (L.) 
From Late L. binomi-us, equiv. to L. 
binominis, adj. having two names ; with 
suffix -dlis. From L. bi-, two ; nomin-, 
for noinen, a name. 

Biography. (Gk.) A written ac- 
count of a lile ; from /3io-, for ;3i'os, life ; 
and jpcupeiv, to write. The sb. 0iof is 
allied to Quick. 

biology. (Gk.) Science of life ; from 
Gk. 0io-, tor /Si'os, life ; and -Xofia, a dis- 
coursing, from A670S, a discourse. 

Biped. (L.) L. biped-, stem of bipes, 
two-looted ; from bi-, two ; pes, foot. 

Birch, a tree. (E.) M. E. birche. 
A. S. biree, f.+G. birhe, f.<Teut. *birk- 
jon-. p. Also A. S. berc, beorc. + Du. 



ierk ; Icel. hjoi-k, Swed, hjork, Dan, birk 
(cf. North E. Hrk).<Tewi. Herka, f. Cf. 
also O. Slav, hreza, Russ. hereza ; Lith. 
berzas. Also Skt. bhurja^ a kind of birch. 

Bird. (E.) M. E. brid (the r being 
shifted) ; A. S. bridd, a bird, esp. the 
young of birds. 

Biretta, a clerical cap. (Ital. — L. — 
Gk.) Ital. bentta (Torriano) ; cf. Late 
L. birrctum, orig. a scarlet cap. — Late L. 
iirrus, burrus, reddish. See Bureau. 

Birth. (Scand.) M. E. burthe, birthe. 
Cf. Icel. burBr, m. ; Swed. biird, Dan. 
byrd, f. ( = O. Icel. byrS, f.). + A. 3. 
gebyrd, f. ; O. H. G. giburt (G. geburt) ; 
Goth, gabaurlhs, f.<Teut. *burdiz = lAg. 
*bhrtis (Skt. bhrtis, f. nourishment). All 
from the weak grade of .y^BHER, to 
bear. See Bear (i). 

Biscuit, a kind of cake. (F. — L.) F. 
biscuit, lit. twice cooked. — F. bis (L. bis") , 
twice ; and aiii, cooked, from L. coctum, 
ace. of coclus, pp. of coquere, to cook. 

Bisect. (L.) From L. bT-, short for 
bis, twice ; and sect-urn, supine of secare, 
to cut. 

Bishop. (L. - Gk.) A. S. biscop. - L. 
episcoJ>us. — Gk, eiriffKoiros, a bishop; lit. 
' overseer.' — Gk. iiri, upon ; aaowSs, one 
that watches, from ukott-, tf-grade of trtfeTT-, 
as in (TKeir-TO/iai, I spy, overlook. See 

Bismuth, a metal. (G.) G.bismui/i; 
also spelt wismut, wissmut, wissmuth. 
Origin imknown. 

Bison, a quadruped. (L.-Teut.) L. 
bison (Pliny) ; Late Gk. ^iaoiv. Not a L. 
word, but borrowed from Teutonic; 
O. H. G. wisunt, G. wisent, a bison ; 
A. S. weosend, a wild ox ; Icel. msundr. 
See O. H. G. wisunt in Schade. 

Bissextile, a name for leap-year. 
(L.) Late L. bissextilis annus, bissextile 
year. — L. bissextus, an intercalary day; so 
called because the intercalated day (for- 
merly Feb. 24) was called the sixth of 
the calends of March; there being thus 
two days with the same name.-L. Wj, 
twice ; sexlus, sixth, from sex, six. 

Bisson, purblind. (E.) In Sh. M. E. 
bisen. O. Northumb. bisen, blind (Matt. 
ix. 28). Origin unknown. 

Bistre, a dark brown. (F.-G. ?) F. 
bistre, a dark brown. Perhaps from prov. 
G. biester, dark, gloomy, also bistre (Flii- 

Bit (1), a mouthful, small piece. (E.) 


M. E. bite (2 syll.). A. S. bita, a morsel. 
From A. S. bit-, weak grade of bitan, to 
bite.+Du. beef; Icel. biti; Swed. bit; 
Dan. (5/(f.<Teut. type *biton-, m. 

Tjit (2), a curb for a horse. (E.) M. E. 
bill. A. S. bite, m. a bite, a biting.<Teut. 
type *bitiz, a. bite; cf. bito!, a curb.-f-Du. 
gebit; Icel. bitill {Aimvx.) ; Swed. beit; 
'; G.gebiss. 

Bitch. (E.) M. E. biche, bicche. A. S. 
bicce.-^lzA. bikkja ; sdso grey-baka. 

Bite. (E.) U..'E. biten. A. S. bitan. 
+ Du. bi/ten ; Icel. bita ; Swed. bita ; 
Dan. bide ; G. beissen. Teut. type *bitan-. 
Allied to "L-findere (pt. t.yM), to cleave ; 
Skt. bhid, to cleave. (V^HEID.) 

hitter. (E.) M. E. biter. A. S. biter, 
bitor, lit. ' biting.' — A. S. bit-, weak grade 
of bitan, to bite.+Du. bitter; Icel. bitr; 
Swed., Dan., G. bitter. 

Bittern, a bird. (F. -Late L.) The 
» is added. M. E. botor, biioure. — F. 
butor, ' a bittor [bittern] ; ' Cot. Prob. 
named from its cry; cf. L. biitire, bubere, 
to cry like a bittern ; whence also L. butio, 
said to mean ' bittern,' though the same 
word as buteo, i. e. buzzard. 

Bitts, naval term. (Scand.?) The 
bilts are two strong posts on deck to 
which cables are fastened. Prob. from 
Icel. biti, a bit, mouthful (see Bit (l)); 
also, a cross-beam in a house ; a thwart 
(L. iranstrum) in a ship. [F. bites, bitts 
(see Cot.), Span, bitas, may have been 
borrowed from E.] Cf. iilso A. S. bating, 
a cable for holding a ship, from bStan, 
to restrain, curb, equivalent (in fonn) to 
Icel. beita ; see Bait. Also Swed. beting, 
a bitt, whence betingbuli, a bitt-bolt, bitt- 
pin ; Dan. beding : used also on land for 
tethering horses, as in Swed. betingbult, a 
pegfor tethering, from beta, to pasture, bait. 

Bitniuen. (L.) L. bitumen, mineral 
pitch. Cf. Brugm. i. § 663. 

Bivalve. (F.-L.) From Bi- and 

Bivouac. (F.-G.) T. bivouac, ong. 
bivac.-Svihi G. beiwacht, an additional 
watch at night (Stalder); cf. bei-geben, 
to add. - G. hei, in addition ; wacht, a 
watch, from wachen, to wake. See Wake 
(i). Cf. G. beiwache. 

Bizarre, odd. (F.-Span.) F. bi- 
zarre, strange, capricious ; orig. ■ valiant.' 
- Span. i5?:sarra, valiant, gallant. Perhaps 
of Basque origm; cf. Basque bizarra, a 
beard. Cf. Span, hombre de bigote, a man 



of spirit; where bigote means 'mous- 
Blab, to tell tales. (E.) U.'E. blahbe, 
a tell-tale ; blaberen, to babble. Cf. Dan. 
blabbre, to babble ; Dan. dial, blaffre, G. 
flappern, to babble, prate. Of imitative 
origin ; cf. Gael.//ai5, a soft noise ; plabair, 
a babbler ; blabaran, a stammerer, blabh- 
dach, babbling, garrulous. 

Black. (E.) M. E. blak. A. S. blac, 
blmc [which editors liave often confused 
with blmc, bright, shining]. Cf. Icel. 
Uakkr. dark ; also A. S. bliEc, Low G. blak, 
O.H.G. blach, Icel. blek, Swed. bleck, Dan. 
blak, all meaning ' ink.' Connexion with 
Dn. blaken, to scorch, is doubtful. 

blackguard, a term of reproach. (E. 
and F.) from black and guard. A name 
given to scullions, turnspits, and kitchen 
menials, from the dirty work done by 
them. See Trench, Select Glossary. 

Bladder. (E.) M. E. bladdre. A. S. 
bladdre, blhdre, a blister, bladder (lit. 
blowing ont).+Du. blaar [Icel. blaSraV\ ; 
O. H. G. blaiara (G. blatter'). Tent, type 
*bl&drdn-, wk. fern. From Teut. stem 
*bla-, to blow (see Blow (i) ); with suffix 
-dron similar to Gk. -rpa (cf. x^^P"-) a pot). 

Blade, a leaf, flat of a sword. (E.) 
M. E. blade. A. S. bleed, a leaf.+Icel. 
blaS, Swed., Dan., Du. blad, a leaf, blade; 
G. Matt. Teut. type *bla-dom, neut., with 
sense of 'blown,' i.e. 'flourishing;' pp. 
form (with suffix -do- = Idg. -td-) from 
VBHLS. See Blow (2). 

Blaeberry, Bleaberry, a bilberry. 

(Scand. and E.) From North E. blac, 
livid, dark ; and berry. The form blae is 
from Icel. bld-r, livid ; see under Blue. 

Blain, a pustule. (E.) M. E. blein. 
A. S. blegen, a boil. + Du. blein ; Dan. 

Blame, vb. (F. -L. -Gk.-) M. E. 
t blamen. — O. F. blasmer, to blame. - L. 
blasphemdre, to speak 111, also to blame. 
- Gk. fi\aa(ln]iieTv ; see Blaspheme. 

Blaucb (I), to whiten. (F.-O. H. G.) 
From F. blanchir, to whiten. -F. blanc, 
white ; see Blank below. 

Blanch. (2), the same as Blench. 

Bland. (L.) L. blandus, mild, 
blandisb, to flatter. (F.-L.) M. E. 
blandisen. — O.V. blandis-, stem of pres. 
part of bUindir, to flatter. -L. blandiri, to 
caress. — L. blandus, bland. 

Blank, white. (F. - O. H. G.) In 
Milton, P. L. X. 656. -F. blanc.-O. H. G. 


blanch, white. Nasalised form from 
O. H. G. blah, shining; cf. Gk. <pK6y-(oi, 
flaming, shining, from ipKey-uv, to shine. 

blanket. (F.- O.H.G.) Orig. ofa 
white colour. M. E. blanket. — A. F. blan- 
ket (F. blanchet), dimin. from blanc, white; 
see above. 

Blare, to make a loud noise. (E.) 
M. E. blaren. Cf. Du. blaren. Low G. 
blarren, to bleat ; M. H. G. bleren, hhr- 
ren {G. pldrren), to bleat, blubber. Prob. 
imitative, like bleat ; but cf. Blaze (2). 
Blason ; see Blazon. 
Blaspheme, to speak injuriously. (L. 
— Gk.) L. blasphemdre. — Gk. ^Kaa^tr,- 
li(tv, to speak ill of. — Gk. 0\aa<pT]ii,os, adj., 
speaking evil. — Gk. fiXaa-, for */8\a^cj-, 
i. e. huitful (cf )3Ad|B-t;,hnrt) ; and (pTin'i., I 
say : see Fame. Brugm. i. § 744. 

Blast, a blowing. (E.) M.E. blast. 
A. S. bl&st, a blowing ; cf. Icel. bldstr, a 
breath, blast of a trumpet ; O. H. G. blast. 
Formed with Idg. suffix -to- from the old 
base of Blaze (2). 

Blatant, noisy, roaring. (E.) Spenser 
has 'blatant beast'; F. Q. vi. 12 (head- 
ing) ; also blaitant, id. vi. i. 7. Prob. 
imitative. Cf. Lowl. Sc. blad, to abuse ; 
blatter, a rattling noise ; G. platz, a crash. 
Blay, a bleak (fish). (E.) A.S. blSge. 
+Du. blei; G. bleihe. 
Blaze (i), a flame. (E.) M. E. blase. 
A. S. blase, a flame, in comp. bdl blcese, 
a bright light; blcese, f. a torch ;< Teut. 
type *blasdn. Cf. M. H. G. bias, a torch ; 
also G. bldsse, Icel. blesi, a. ' blaze ' or 
white mark on a horse, Swed. bids, the 
Blaze (2)1 to proclaim, noise abroad. 
(Scand.) Mark i. 45. M. E. blasen. — 
Icel. bldsa, to blow, blow a trumpet, sound 
an alarm ; Swed. blSsa, to sound ; Dan. 
bliBse, Du. blazen, to blow a trumpet ; G. 
blasen. Also Goth, uf-blesan, to puff up. 
< Tent, type *bl&s-an-, \.o blow; whence 
A. S. bl&st, E. blast. Much confused with 
Blazon (i), Blason, a proclamation. 
Hamlet, i. 5. 21 ; Shak. Son. 10&. A cor- 
ruption from Blaze (2), M.E. blmen, to 
proclaim ; due to confusion with Blazon 
(2) below. 
Blazon (2), to pourtray armorial bear- 
ings. (F.) M. E. Wajow, WaJO«m, a shield ; 
whence blazon, verb, to describe a shield. 
- F. blason, a coat of arras, orig. a shield 
(Brachet). Cf. Span, blason, heraldry. 



blazonry, glory, hacer blason, to blazon, 
blasonar, to blazon, brag, boast ; suggest- 
ing a (very doubtful) connexion with G. 
blasen, to blow the trumpet, as done by 
heralds, to proclaim a victor's fame ; see 
Blaze (2) above. (See Scheler.) Or if the 
orlg. sense was a bright mark on a shield, 
it is allied to Blaze (i). 

Bleaberry ; see Blaeberry. 

Bleach.. (E.) Orig. ' to whiten ; ' M. E. 
blechen, Ancren Riwie, p. 324, 1. i. A. S. 
blScan. — A. S. blac, shining, bright, pale. 
See bleak below. + Icel. bleikja ; Da. 
bleeken ; G. bleichen ; <Teut. *blaikjan-. 

bleak (i), orig. pale. (Scand.) M. E. 
bleik. — \ce\. b'eikr, pale; Swed. bkk; 
Dan. bleg.-\-h.. S. Mac ; Du. bUek ; G. 
ileich. Teut. type *blaiho'i. From *blaik-, 
strong grade of Teut. *bleikan- (A. S. 
bllcan), to shine. 

bleak (2), a fish. (Scand.) From its 
pale colour. 

Blear-eyed, having watery, inflamed , 
or dim eyes. (E.) M. E. bleer-eyed. 
Cognate with Low G. blarr-oged, blear- 
eyed ; cf. blarr-oge, an eye wet with tears, 
from blarren, to howl, weep ; which seems 
to be allied to E. blare. 

Bleat. (E.) M. E. bletcn. A. S. bla- 
tan, bletan, to bleat as a sheep.-f-Du. 
blaten ; O. H. G. plazan. Cf. Russ. ble- 
Jate, to bleat; 'L.Jlere, to weep. 

Bleb, Blob, a small bubble or blister. 
(E.) Cf. M. E. blober, a bubble on water ; 
blubber, a bubble. By comparing blabber, 
blubber, with bubble, having much the same 
meaning, we see the probability that they 
are imitative, from the action of forming 
a bubble with the lips. 

Bleed. (E.) lA.Y.. bleiUn. A.S.ble- 
dan, formed i^by mutation of to e) from 
A. S. blod, blood.<Teut. type *blddjan-, to 
lose blood >Icel. blm^a. 

Blemish, to stain. (F.) M. E. ble- 
misshen. — O. F. bleinis-, stem of pres. part. 
of blemir, blesinir, to wound, stain, make 
pale. — O. F. bleme, blesme, wan, pale. Of 
unknown origin. 

Blench, to shrink from. (E.) M. E. 
blenchen, to avoid, elude. A.S. blencan. 
to deceive ; as if from a Teut. type *blank- 
jatt; causal of *ldinkan-, to blink. But 
proof is wanting. 

Blend, to mix together. (Scand.) 
M. E. blenden. Due to blend-, base of the 
pres. indie, of Icel. blanda (^Swed. blanda, 
Dan. blande), to blend ; cognate with 


A. S. and Goth, blandan, str. redupl. vb., 
O. H. G. blantan, to mix. 

Bless, to consecrate, &c. (E.) The 
orig. sense may have been 'to consecrate 
by blood,' i. e. either by sacrifice or by the 
sprinkling of blood, as the word can be 
clearly traced back to blood. M. E. blessen, 
A. S. bletsian, O. Northumb. bledsia, bloed- 
sia (Matt. xxv. -^a,, xxvi. 26), which can 
be explained from blod, blood,with the usual 
vowel-change from to oe or e. Tent, type 
Hlodison. Cf. bleed. (Suggested by Sweet; 
Anglia, iii. 156.) 

Blight. fE.) XVII cent. Of unknown 
origin ; perhaps from A. S. "bliht, O. Merc. 
*bleht, exactly answering to Icel. bielir, a 
spot, stain. 

Blind. (E.) A. S. blind.+T)u. blitid; 
Icel. blindr; Sw., Dan., G. blind ■,<,Teut. 
type *blindoz (Idg. base *bhlendh-^. Cf. 
Lith. blfsli-s (3 pr. s. bleiidzia-s), to become 
dim {of the sun). 

blindfold, vb. (E.) M. E. blmd- 
folden, verb (Tyndale) ; corruption of 
blindfelden (Palsgrave), where the d is 
excrescent. The true word is blindfellen, 
to ' fell ' or strike blind, Ancren Riwle, p. 
106. — A.S. blind, blind; soii fellan, to 
strike ; see Fell. 

Blindman's buff; see Buff. 

Blink, to wink, to glance. (E.) M. E. 
blenken, to shine, to glance ; whence mod. 
E. blink, by change of en to in, as in 
many words. Allied to A. S. blanc, white 
(as in to«^-fl,awhite horse), cognate with 
O. H. G. blanch, M. H. G. blanc; see 
Blank. Cf. Du., G. blinken, Swed. 
blinka, Dan. blinke, all late forms; and 
A. S. blican, to shine. 

Bliss. (E.) See Blithe. 

Blister. (F.-Teut.) \\.Y..blesier, 
blister. (Not found before 1300.) — O. F. 
blestre, ' tumeur,' Godefroy. Of Teut. 
origin ; cf. Icel. blSslr (dat. blSstri), a 
blast, also a swelling, allied to E. Blast. 
From the notion of blowing out. 

Blithe. (E.) M. E. blithe. A. S. 
bliSe, sweet, happy.+O. Sax. bliSi, bright, 
clad; Tlw. blijde, blij ; lce\. bliBr; Swed., 
Dan. blid; O. H. G. blidi, glad; Goth. 
bleilhs, merciful, kind. 

bliss. (E.) M. E. blis. A. S. blis, 
bliss; contr. from A.S. bliSs, happiness, 
lit. blitheness. - A. S. bliSe (above). + 
O. Sax. bltzza, blidsea, happiness. Teut. 
stem Hmsia, with s<,t, the suffix being 
-tid, as in L. laeii-iia. 



Bloat, to swell. (Scand.) We now 
generally use bloated to mean 'puffed 
out ' or ' swollen,' as if allied to blow. 
But the M. E. form was bloiit, soft ; con- 
nected with Icel. blautr, soft, effeminate, 
imbecile, blotna, to become soft, lose 
courage. Cf. Swed. blot, Dan. blod, soft, 
pulpy, mellow. Allied to Icel. blautSr, 
soft ; A. S. blea]>, G. blode, weak. 

bloater, a prepared herring. (Scand.) 
A bloater is a cured fish, cured by smoke ; 
but formerly a ' soaked ' fish. — Icel. blautr, 
soft. Cf. Swed. blotjisk, soaked fish ; from 
biota, to soak, steep; from bl.t, soft 

Biol), a bubble. (E.) See Bleb. 

Block, a large piece of wood. (F. — 
M. H. G.) M. E. blok. - O. F. bloc- 
M. H. G. block, a block ; cf. Du. blok, Dan. 
blok, Swed. block. Der. block-ade. 

Blond. (F.) XV cent. F. blond, m. 
Wi!>«ai?, fern. 'light yellow;' Cot. Referred 
by Diez to Icel. blandinn, mixed ; cf. A. S. 
blondcn-feax, having hair of mingled 
colour, gray-haired. See Blend. ^ But 
the Low L. form is blttndiis, pointing to 
a Teut. type *blundo-, answering to Skt. 
bradhna-s, reddish, pale yellow (Kluge). 
Cf. O. Slav, bron, white ; Brugm. i. 
I 814. 

Blood. (E.) M. E. blod, blood. A. S. 
blod.+Dn. bloed, Icel. hloS, Swed. blod, 
Goth, blotk ; G. blut ; <Teut. type *blddom, 
a. Hence bleed. 

Bloom, a flower. (Scand.) M. E. 
blome; not in A. S. — Icel. blom, bloini, a 
flower; Swed. blornma; Dan. bloni7iie.+ 
Du. bloem ; Goth, bloma ; allied to O. Ir. 
blath,'L.flos ; see Flower. And see below. 
blossom. (E.) M. E. blosine, also 
blostine. A. S. blostma, a blossom ; from 
base bio- of A. S. blo-tvan, with suffixes 
-St and -ma (Teut. -?«»«). +Du. bloesem ; 
M. H. G. bluest (with suffix -st). See 

Blot (I), a spot. (F.-Teut.) M. E. 
blot; from blot ten, vb. -M. F. blotter, 'to 
blot;' Cot.-O. F. blotte, bloste, a clot of 
earth. (Prob. Teutonic.) 

Blot (2), at backgammon. (Scand.) 
A blot is an ' exposed ' piece. — Dan. blot, 
bare, naked ; whence give sig blot, to lay 
oneself open, expose oneself; Swed. blott, 
naked ; blotta, to lay oneself open.+Du. 
bloot, naked, blootstellen, to expose; G. 
bloss, naked. Allied to Icel. blautr, soft ; 
see Bloat. 


Blotcb, a large blot. (F.) From O. F. 
bloche, ' tumeur ' ; (Godefroy, s. v. blffste). 

Blouse, a loose cuter frock-. (F.) 
From F. blouse, a fiock much used by 
workmen (XVIII cent.\ Origin unknown. 

Blow (I), to puff. (E.) M. E. blo-cVcn. 
A. S. blawan. + G. blcihen, O. H. G. bla- 
han; allied to L.^^fre. 

Blow (2), to bloom, flourish as a flower. 
(E.) M. E. bloiueti. A. S. blowan.+Da. 
bloeijen ; G. bliihen, O. H. G. bluojan. 
Allied to L. Jlorere ; see Flourish. 

Blow C^), a stroke, hit. (E.) M.E. 
blo'cM. Not in A. S. ; but we find M. Du. 
strong verb blouwen (pt. t. blati), to slrike, 
dress flax by beating ; O. H. G. bliuwan, 
whence G. blauen,to beat; Goth. bliggu'an, 
to strike ; all from Teut. *bliwwan-, to 
strike. (History obscure.) 

Blubber. (E.) M. E. bhber, a bubble ; 
bloberen, to bubble up, to weep copiously. 
Of imitative origin ; cf. Blob. The 
blubber of the whale consists of bladder- 
like cells filled with oil. Blubber-lipped , 
with swollen lips. Cf. E. Fries, blubber, 
a bubble, a blob of fat ; blubhern, to 

Bludgeon. (F. -Tent.) A. F. hohon, a 
cross-bow bolt. — O. H. G. boh ; see Bolt. 

Blue, a colour. (F.-O.H. G.) M.E. 
bk'w, bleu. — A.'¥. blu, blew, O.Y.bleii, 
blue.-O. H. G. bldo, blue, livid, G. blau. 
+Icel. bldr, livid ; Swed. bla, Dan. blaa ; 
A. S. bldw (O. E. Texts, p. 588) ; < Teut. 
type *bl&woz. Cognate with 'LsA.Jlauus, 

Bluff, downright, rude. (Du.?) A 
bluff is a steep headland. It appears to be 
Dutch. M. Du. blaf, flat, broad ; blaffaert, 
one having a broad fiat face, also, a 
boaster (Oudemans) ; blaf van het voor- 
hooft, ' the flat of a forehead ' (Hexham) ; 
blaffen, bleffen, to mock (id.). Cf. E. 
Fries, bluffen, to make a noise, bluster, 
impose on. 

Blunder, to flounder about, err. 
(Scand.) M. E. blottdren, to confuse, to 
move blindly or stupidly. Formed (as a 
frequentative) from Icel. blunda, to doze, 
slumber; Swed. blunda, to shut the eyes; 
Dan. blunde, to nap. Cf. Icel. bliindr, 
Dan. and Swed. blund, a doze, a nap. 
From the sense of ' confusion.' Allied to 
Blend and Blind. 

Blunderbuss, a short gun. (Hyb.) 
In Pope. Formerly spelt, blanterbusse, 
plantierlmsse (Palmer, Folk-Etymology) ; 



i. e. 'a gun on a rest.' Apparently from 
L. planidre, to plant (see Plant) ; and 
Du. b'us, a gun, orig. a box, barrel; see 
Box (i). But the corresponding Du. woid 
is donderbus, i. e. thunder-gun. 

Blunt, dull. (Scand. ?) M. E. blunt, 
blont, dull, dulled. Origin unknown; 
perhaps allied to Icel. blunda, Dan. 
bliinde, to sleep, doze ; see Blunder. 

Bllir, to stain ; a stain. (Scand. ?) 
Properly ' to dim ' ; metaphorically, ' to 
deceive.' We find: 'A blirre, A^ztpao; 
to blirre, fallere;' Levins (1570). Of 
uncertain origin. Cf. Swed. dial, blura, 
to blink, partially close the eyes; Swed. 
plira, Swed. dial, blira, to blink ; blirra 
fojr augii, to quiver (be dim) before the 
eyes, said of a haze caused by heat ; 
Bavarian flerr, a mist before the eyes. 

Blurt, to utter impulsively. (E.) 
Lowl. Sc. blirt, to make a noise in weep- 
ing; cf. M. E. bleren, to make a loud 
noise, to blare. Of imitative origin. 

Blush. (E.) M. E. bhischen, bhisshen, 
to glow. A. S. blyscan, used to translate 
L. rutilare, to shine (Mone, Quellen, 355) ; 
cf ablysian, nblisian, to blush ; from A. S. 
blys in bcel-b/ys, lit. 'a fire-blaze.'+Du. 
blozen, to blush, from bios, a blush ; Dan. 
blusse, to flame, glow, from blus, a torch ; 
Swed. blossa, to blaze, from bloss, a torch. 
From Teut. root *bleus, to glow. 
Bluster, to be boisterous. (E.) Doubt- 
less associated in idea with blast (Icel. 
blastr, Swed. blast). Cf. E. Fries, bliis- 
tern, to be tempestuous (esp. of wind) ; 
blaster, blUser, a breeze ; blusens, to blow 
strongly ; bliise, wind. 
Boa, a large snake. (L.) L. boa 
(Pliny); perhaps allied to i}»j, an ox ; from 
its size. 

Boar, an animal. (E.) M-U. bore, boor. 
A.S. *«;-. + Du. beer; M. H. G. bei: 
Tent, type *bairoz, m. 
Board (i). (E.) M.E. Imd. A.S. 
bord, board, side of a ship, shield. -f-Du. 
boord; Icel. boiTl, plank, side of a ship ; G. 
bord; Goth, -baurd Kn fotubatird, a foot- 
stool. Cf. Irish, Gael., W., and Corn. 
bord, a board (from E.). Teut. type 
*bordom, n. % The sense ' side of a ship ' 
explains star-board, lar-board, on board, 
over-board. Der. board, to have meals as 
a lodger ; from board, a table. 

board (2), to go on board a ship, to 
accost. (F.-Teut.) T\ie.&h. board \%^., 
but the verb, formerly spelt borde, bord, is 


short for aborde, used by Palsgrave. - F. 
abordcr, ' to approach, accost, abboord, 
or lay aboord ; ' Cot. — F. a, to (L. ad) ; 
bord, edge, brim, side of a ship, from 
Icel. bord, Du. boord, side of a ship. See 
Board (i). 

Boast. (F.) M. E. bost. [W. bost, 
Corn, bost, Irish and Gael, bosd, are all 
borrowed from E.] From A. F. bost, a 
boast. Prob. from Norw. bausta, to act 
with violence, baust, boastfully (Ross). Cf. 
E. Fries, biiseii, to be boisterous. 

Boat. (E.) M. E. boot. A. S. bat. 
Ci.lct\.batr; Swed. *a/; "Dw-boot; Russ. 
bof; W. bad; Gael, bata, a boat. p. The 
Icel. word is borrowed from A. S. ; and 
the other forms either from E. or Icel. 
Teut. type *baitoz, m. 

boat-Swaiu. (E.) Lit. 'boat-lad;' 
Icel. sveinn, a lad ( = A. S. swan). 
Bob, to jerk. (E.) Perhaps imitative. 
Bobbin, a wooden pin on which thread 
is wound ; round tape. (F.) Formerly 
bobin. — 'F. bobine, 'a quil for a spinning 
wheele, a skane ; ' Cot. Orig. unknown. 

Bode, to foreshew. (E.) M. E. boden, 
bodian. — A. S. bodian, to announce. — A.S. 
boda, a messenger; bod, a message. From 
bod-, weak grade of beodan, to command, 
announce. See Bid (2). 

Bodice, stays. (E.) A corruption of 
bodies (pi. of body), which was the old 
spelling. (Cf. F. corset, from corps^ 

Bodkin, orig. a small dagger. (?) 
M. E. boydekin, Ch. Origin unknown. 
Body, the frame of an animal. (E.) 
M. E. bodi; A. S. bodig.-^O. H. G. potach. 
Boer ; the same as Boor. 
Bog'. (C.) Irish bogach, a bog, from 
bog, soft; cf. Irish bogaim, I shake; a bog 
being a soft quagmire. So also Gael. 
bogan, a quagmire ; bog, soft, moist ; bog, 
lo soften, also to agitate. Cf. O. Irish 
bocc, soft. 

Boggard, Boggart, a spectrt. (C. ; 

■with F. suffi.x:) From bog, variant of 
Bug (i); with suffix -ard, -art (F. -ard 
as in bast-ard). See below. 

Boggle, to start aside, swerve for fear. 
(C?) Prob. coined from prov. E. boggle, 
bogle, a spectre. Cf. W. bwg, a goblin; 
bygel, a scarecrow; buigwl, a threat, 
bygylu, to threaten; bwgwth, to scare. 
See Bug (i). 

Bohea, a kind of tea. (Chinese.) So 
named from the Bo/iea hills; the moun- 
tam called Bou-y (or Wii-t) is situated in 



the province of Fokien or Fukian, on the 
S. E. coast of China. 

Boil (i), to bubble up. (F. - L.) O. F. 
loillir, to boil (F. bouillir). — L. bttllire, to 
bubble up, boil. — L. bulla, a bubble; see 
Bull (2). Cf. Norman F. boillir, to 

Boil (2), a small tumour. (E.) Prov. 
"E. bile ; prob. affected by io2V(i). M. E. 
byle. A. S. lyl, a boil, swelling.+Dn. 
bull; G. beiile. Cf. Goth, ufbauljan, to 
puff up ; Icel. beyla, a hump (with muta- 
tion). See Bowl (2). 

Boisterous. (F.) Lengthened from 
M. E. i(7jVo«i, Ch. ; lit. 'noisy.' Boistons 
is formed, with O. F. suffix -ous, from 
Norw. baust-a, to act with violence ; like 
cloister from L. claiistnim. Cf. Norw. 
banst, boastfully; batis, blustering. See 

Bold. (E.) M. E. bold, bald; A.S. 
beald, bald, ia^.+Icel. ballr; Du. bond; 
O. H.G. bald; cf. Goth, balthaba, adv., 
boldly. Tent, type *balpoz. 

Bole, stem of a tree. (Scand.) M. E. 
bole. — Icel. bolr, bulr, the trunk of a tree, 
stem; Swed. b^l; Dan. btil. Cf. Gk. 
ij>aK-ay(, a log, trunk. Cf. Balk (i). 

Boiled, swollen. (Scand.) Earlier 
forms are M. E, bollen, pp., and bolned, 
pp. The latter is the pp. of M. E. bolnen, 
to swell. — Dan. bulne, Swed. bulna, Icel. 
bolgna, to swell, inchoative forms from 
wk. grade of belg- (cf. Icel. belgja, to in- 
flate). Cf. A.S. belgan (pp. bolgen), to 
swell with anger. See Bellows, Billow. 

Bolster. (E.) A. S. bolster, with suffix 
■ster as in hol-ster. From its round shape. 
+ Du. bolster, bulster ; Icel. bolstr ; O. 
H. G. bolstar (G. folster). Tent, type 
*bul-stroz; from Teut. *bttl, weak grade 
of *beul, to puff up. See Boil (2). (See 

Bolt (1)1 a stout pin of iron, an arrow. 
(E.) A. S. bolt.-\-'DM. bout, formerly bolt ; 
Dan. bolt; G. boh, bolzen. Root unknown. 

Bolt (2), Boult, to sift meal. (F.- 
L.-Gk.) Spelt boulte in Palsgrave. - 
O. F. buller; mod. F. bluter; oldest form 
buleter, a corruption of *bureter, to sift 
through coarse cloth ; cf. M. Ital. burat- 
tare, to boult (Florio). - O. F. and F. 
bitre, coarse woollen cloth. — Late Lat. 
bura, burra, coarse red cloth. — Lat. 
burrus, reddish. — Gk. irvppos, reddish.— 
Gk. irvp, fire. See Bureau and Tire. 
Bolus, a large pill. (L.-Gk.) Late 


L. bolus (not L. bolus), a Latinised form 
of Gk. BSiKos, a clod, lump. 

Bomb, a shell for cannon. (F. or Span. 
— L. — Gk.) F. iombe ; Span, bor/iba. — L. 
bombus, a humming noise. — Gk. 06/^005, 
the same. See Boom (i). 

bombard. (F.- L.-Gk.) The verb 
is from E. bombard, a great gun ; Sh. — F. 
bombarde, a cannon ; extended from F. 
botnbe ; see Bomb. Der. bombard-ier, F. 
bombardier (Cot.). 

Bombast, orig. cotton wadding; hence 
padding, affected language. (F. — L.- 
Gk.) From O. F. bovibace (with added t), 
cotton wadding. — Late L. bombacem, ace. 
of bombax, cotton ; for L. bombyx. — Gk. 
06n$v(, silk, cotton; orig. a sillcwoim. 
Cf. ' to tsili fustian' 

bombazine, bom.basiue, a fabric 
of silk and worsted. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. 
bontbasin. — Late L. bombacinuvi. — L. bom- 
byciniis, adj. silken; from bombyx, silk; 
see above. 

Bond. (E.) See Band (i). 

Bondage, servitude. (F. — Scand.) 
M. E. and A. F. bondage, servitude ; the 
sense being due to confusion with the verb 
to bind. But it orig. meant the condition 
of a bondman, called in A. S. bonda, a 
word borrowed from Icel. bondi, a hus- 
bandman. And bondi=buandi, a tiller; 
from Icel. biia, to till, prepare, cognate 
wilh A. S. buan, to dwell, and G. bauen. 
Thus A. S. bonda is allied in sense and 
origin to E. boor, q. v. 

Bone. (E.) M. E. boon ; A. S. ban. 
+Du. been ; Icel. bein ; Swed. ben ; Dan. 
been ; O. H. G. bein. Teut. type *bainom. 
bonfire. (E.) Orig. a bone-fire. 
' Bane-Jire, ignis ossium ; ' Catholicon 
Anglicanum, A. D. 1483; where bane is 
the Northern form of bone. Cf. Picard/«« 
d'os, a bonfire. 

Bouito, a kind of tunny. (Span.— 
Arab.) Span, bonito. — Arab, baymth, 
a bonito. 

Bonnet. (F.) Y. bonnet ; O.'S. bonct 
(a. D. 1047), the name of a stuff of which 
bonnets or caps were made. Origin 

Bonny, fair. (F. - L.) From F. bonne, 
fair, fem. of bon, good. — L. bonus, good; 
O.L. duomis. 

Bonze, a priest. (Port. — Japanese.) 
Port. fo«20. — Jap. bonzo, a religious man. 

Booby. (Span. — L.) Span, bobo, a 
blockhead, booby (related to F. baube. 



stammering). — L. balbus, stammering; 

hence, stupid. 
Book. (E.) M. E. book ; A. .S. hoc, a 

book ; also, a beech-tree. The orig. 

' books ' were pieces of writing scva^tched 

on a beechen board.+Du. boek ; Icel. bok ; 

Swed. bok ; Dan. bog; G. huch ; all in the 

sense of ' book ' ; Goth, boka, a letter, pi. 

j^o/w, writings. (3. With A. S. boc, beech, cf. 

L. fitgus, a beech, Gk. tprjyos, a tree with 

edible fruit. 
Boom (i), to ham. (E.) M. E. bom- 

meu; not found in A. .S.+Du. bommen, 

to boom, to give out a hollow sound like 

an empty barrel. An imitative word ; 

like L. bombus, Gk. ^d/iBos, a humming. 
Boom (2\ a pole. (Du.) Du. boom; 

the Du. form of Beam (i). 
Boom.erailg, a wooden missile weapon. 

(Australian.) Jiirom the native Australian 

Boon, (i), a petition. (Scand.) M. E. 

bone, Cli. — Icel. bon ; Dan. and Swed. /'o«, 
a petition. + A. S. boen, ben (whence bene 

in Wordsworth). The sense of ' favour ' 
arose from confusion with Boon. (2). 

Boon (2), good. (F. — L.) In tile phr. 
* boon companion.' — K. bojz, good. — L. 
bonus. See Bonny. 

Boor, a peasant. (Du.) Du. boer, a 
peasant, lit. 'tiller of the soil.' — Du. 
iouwen, to till, -f- A. S. brlan, to dwell in, 
whence gebilr, s., a peasant (only preserved 
in neigh-bour). So also G. batten, to till, 
whence bauer, a peasant; Icel. bita, Goth. 
biuan, to dwell. Teut. stem *bu-, related 
to Be. (Streitberg, § 90.) 

Boot (i), advantage, profit. (E.) M. E. 
bote, boot., profit. +Du. boete; 
Icel. bot (cf. bati), advantage, cure; Dan. 
bod, Swed. bot, remedy ; G. busse, atone- 
ment; Goth. bota. Teut. type *bdta, f. 
From bot; strong grade of bat-; see 
Bstter. Der. boot-less, profitless. 

Boot (2), a covering for the foot. (F.) 
M. E. bote. - O. F. bote (F. botte) ; cf. Span., 
Port., Late L. bota. Origin unknown. 

Booth. (Scand.) M. E. bothe. - M. 
Dan. both (Kalkar), Dan. bod; Swed. iod 
(cf. Icel. buS, a dwelling, booth). — Dan. 
J'oe, Swed. bo, Icel. bSa, to dwell ; see 
Boor. + G. btide, a stall. Teut. type 
*bafd, {. Cf. also Irish both, a hut, 
W. b^d, a residence ; Lith. biita, buttas, 
a house. See Build. , 

Booty. (F. — LowG.) Formerly spelt 
iiutin. — F. butin, 'a booty, prey;' Cot. 


- M. Du. bate, Du. bitit; cf. Icel. hyti, 
Dan. bytte, Swed. byte, exchange, barter, 
also booty, spoil ; G. betite, spoil. 

Borage. (F. - Span. - Arab.) For- 
merly Fourage. — F. bourrache. — Span. 
borrrija. — Ara.h. abu rashh, lit. 'father of 
sweat ; ' because it is a sudorific. 
Borax. (Low L. — Arab. — Pers.) Low 

L. borax ; also boracum. — Arab, biirdq. — 
Pers. burah, borax (Vullers). 
Border, an edge. (F. — Low L. — 

Teut.) jM. E. bordure, boi-deiire. — O.V. 

bordeiire (Span, boi-dadurd), an edging. — 

Low L. borddtui-a, edging. — Low L. bor- 

ddre (Ital. bordare. Span, boi'dar, F. 

border), to edge. — Low L. bordus (F. 

/'o/-rf). — Teut. (O.Low G.^.bord, side; see 

Bore (i), to perforate. (E.) M. E. 

borien, A. S. /w^Va/z. -f- Du. boren; Ice'. 

bora; Swed. borra ; Dan. boj'e; G. bohren. 

Also 'h.fordre, to bore ; Gk. ipapafiv, to 

plough. Brugm. i. § 510. (y'BHEK, 

to cut.) 

bore (2), to worry. (E.) Possibly a 

metaph. use of the verb ^bove ; Hen. VIII, 

i. I. 128. 
Bore (3), a tidal j arge in a river; 

(Scand.?) Perhaps trom Icel. bdra, a 

billow caused by wind ; Norw. baara, a 

billow, swell in the sea. 
Boreas, the north wind. ,(L. — Gk.) 

L. Boreas. — GV. Bopeas, Bo^/5a?. the N. 

Borough. (E.) M. E. bttrg/i, borgh ; 

also borzue. A. S. burh, burg (gen. and 

dat. byrig), a fort. Perhaps, from Teiit. 

biirg-, weak grade of *bergan-, to pro- 
tect ; whence Goth, bairgan, to hide, keep ; 

see Barrow. + Du. burg; Icel. borg; 

Swed. and Dan. borg; G. burg; Goth. 

baurgs. See below. Brugm. i. § 566 ; ii. 

§ 160. 

borrow. (E.) M. E. borwen ; A. S. 

borgian, lit. to give a pledge..-A. S. borg, 

pledge. - A. S. fo;-^-, weak grade 

see Bar- 



of beorgan, to keep, protect; 
row and Borough. 

Bosom. (E.) W.-E.. bosom. A. S. 
bosm..\-X>\L. boezem; G. busen. 

Boss, a knob. (F.-O.H.G.) M.E. 
boce, bos.-O.Y. boce (F. bosse); cf. Ital. 
a swelling; M. Ital. boszare, to 
rough-hew, to bimgle. Prob. from O. H. 
G. bozan, to beat; a bump being the 
effect of a blow. Cf. botch, beat. 

Botany. (F. - Gk.) r. botanique. 


orig. an adj. — Gk. PoraytKos, belonging 
to plants. — Gk. fioravri, grass. — Gk. 
fi6aiiuv, to pasture; cf. koT6v, a grazing 

BotargO, a cake made of the roe of the 
sea-mullet. (Ital. — Arab.) M.Ital. botargo, 
pi. botarghe ; see Florio and Torriano. - 
Arab, bittarkha, botargo ; given by Devic. 
Supposed to be composed of bu, Coptic 
def. article, and Gk. Topixot, dried fish 
(Joum. des Savants, Jan. 1848, p. 45). 

Botch (I), to patch. (E.) Origin 
unknown. Similar is M. Du. butsen, to 
strike, beat, also to patch up; cf. Du. 
hotsen, to beat. 

Botch (2), a swelling. (F. — G.) 
M. E. boche. — O. North F. boche ; Picavd 
boche ; O. F. boce (F. basse"), a swelling ; see 

Both. (Scand.) M.E. bajie, Scot. 
baitk. — lce\. bdSir, both, dual adj. ; Dan. 
baaiie; Swed. bada.-\-G. beide. And cf. 
A. S. bd, both ; Lat. -bo in umbo; Gk. -i^ai 
in aii-(pai ; Skt. -b/ta in u-bha, both. Icel. 
-Ur is for Heir, they, the ; so that bo-th 
was orig. two words ; cf. Goth. ba])Oskipa, 
both the ships (Luke v. 7). 

Bother, vb. and sb. (E.) In Swift. Cf. 
pother; prov. E.^woV/er, confusion ; M.E. 
putheren, to bestir oneself. Origin un- 
known. . 

Bots, small worms. (E.) Lowl. Sc. 
bats. Of unknown origin. 

Bottle (i), a hollow vessel. (F.— 
Late L. - Gk.) M.E. botel. - F. bouteiUe. 
— Late Lat. buticula, double dimin. of 
Late L. bulis, buttis, a cask, a butt ; see 
Butt (2). 

Bottle (2),, a bundle of hay. (F.- 
0. H. G.) M. E. botel. - O. F. botel, Iwt- 
elle, a small bundle, dimin. of botte, a 
bundle, as of hay. — O. H. G. bozo, a bundle 
of straw or flax ; allied to O. H. G. bozan, 
to beat (see Beat) ; perhaps from the 
beating of flax. 

Bottom. (E.) M. E. botum, bothom. 
A. S. botm.-^'Dw. bodem ; Icel. botn; Swed. 
botten; Dan. btmd; G. boden; haX.fundtis; 
Gk. irvBixiiv ; Vedic Skt. Inidhna, depth, 
ground. Allied to Irish bonn, sole of the 
foot; Gael, bonn, sole, bottom; W.bon, 
base, stock. See !Pim(iam.ent. Brugm. 
i- §§ 103, 704. 

'IBondoir. (F.) F. botidoir, a private 
robm for a lady ; lit. a place to sulk in. — 
F. bouder, to sulk. Cf. E. pout. 
Bough. (E.) M. E. bough. A. S. bog. 


boh ;^ of which the orig. sense was ' an 
arm.'+Icel. bogr, Swed. bog, Dan. bov, 
the shoulder of an animal, hence the bow 
(shoulder) of a ship ; G. bug; Gk. tt^X"', 
the fore-arm ; Skt. balms, the arm. Teut. 
type *bdgtiz; Idg. type Hhdglms. See 
Bow (4). Bnigm. i. § 184. 

Bought, a bend, turn, fold. (Low G.) 
In Spenser, F. Q. i. i. 15. Low G. bugt, 
a bend; V)\i..bogt, bocht; Dsm. btigt. Cf. 
G. biicht. The E. form is Bight. And 
see Bout. 

Boulder, a large stone. (E. ?) Etym. 
obscure; cf. Swed. dial, bullersteen, a 
large rolling stone; so called from its 
rolling down stream with a crash. — Swed. 
bullra, to thunder, roar; and steen, a 
stone. Danish has btildre, to roar, bulder, 
a crash. 

Botllt, to sift meal ; see Bolt (2). 

Bounce, to jump up quickly. (E.) 
M. E. bunsen, to beat. Cf. Low G. bun- 
sen, to beat, knock at a door; Du. bonzen, 
to botmce, throw, from Du. bons, a bounce, 
thump; G. bumps, bounce; Icel. bops, 
bump ! Prob. imitative. 

Bound (l), to leap. (F.-L.-Gk.") 
F. bondir, to bound; but orig. to resound. 
— L. bombitare, to resound. — L. bombus, 
a humming sound. — Gk. Poiiffos, the same. 
Der. re-bound (F. rebondir). 

Bound (2), a boundary. (F.-C?) 
M. E. bounde, Ch. ; with excrescent d, as 
in soun-d. A. F. bounde, bimde; O. F. 
bonne, a boundary; also spelt bodne (Bur- 
guy) ; Late Lat. bodina (contr. form 
bonnd), a bound, limit. Perhaps of Celtic 
origin ; Thurneysen, 91. Der. bound-ary. 

Bound (3), ready to go. (Scand.) In 
' the ship is bound for Spain,' &c. 
Formed, with excrescent d, from M. E. 
boitn, ready, Ch. C. T. 11807. — Icel. 
btiinn, prepared; pp. oibua, to till, pre- 
pare.+A. S. biian ; see Boor. 

Bounden, the old pp. of Bind. (E.) 
As in ' bounden duty.' 

Bounty, orig. goodness. (F. — L.) 
M. E. bountee. — O. F. bontet. — L. ace. 
bonitdtem, from bonitds, goodness. — L. 
bonus, good. See Bonny. 

Bouq^uet. (F.— LateL.) Y. bouquet; 
O. F. bosquet, orig. ' a little wood,' dimin. 
of O. F. bos (F. bois), a wood. — Late L. 
boscuin, buscum, ace. of boscus, buscus, a 
wood ; of unknown origin. Cf. Bush. 
Bourd, a jest ; to jest. (F.) M. E. 
bourde, sb. ; bourden, v. — F. bourde, a 


game ; bourder, , to play. Of unknown 
urigin. (Not as in Diez.) 
Bourn (i), a boundary. (F.) In Sh. 

— F. borne, a bound ; for O. F. bodne, 
viiriant of O. F. bonne, a boundary ; see 
Bound (2). 

Bourn (2), Burn, a stream. (E.) 
M. E. bourne. A. S. burna, a fountain, 
stream, well.+Icel. bninnr; Swed. brunn; 
Dan. brand; G. brunnen ; Goth, brtmna, 
a spring, well. 

Bouse, Bouze, Boose, to drink 

deeply. (Dn.) M. E. bousen (ab. 1300). 

— M. Du. *biisen, later buyzen, to drink 
deeply. — M. Du. bilse (Latinised as btlsa 
by Erasmus), buyse, a large cup, also a 
tap, a conduit (Kilian) ; Du. bttis, a con- 
duit, pipe. Cf. O. F. bme, n conduit ; 
G. bafisen, to bouse. 

Bout, a turn, a round, occasion. (Low 
G.) The same as Bought (above) ; prob. 
influenced by about. 

" Bow (i), to bend. (E.) M.E.bozuen, 
bogen, bngen. A. S. bfigan.+D\i. buigen ; 
O. H. G. biogan; Goth, biugan; Teut. 
type *betigan- or *bfigan: Cf. Skt. bhuj, 
to bend ; Lat. fugere, to take to flight, 
give way ; Gk. ipfvyuv, to flee. Brugm. i. 
§5 658, 701. 

bow (2), a hend. (E.) From the 

bow (3), a weapon to shoot with. (E.) 
M. E. bozve. A. S. boga, a bow ; because 
it is bent or bowed.-\-\)\\. boog; Icel. bogi; 
Swed. b&ge \ Dan. bue ; O. H. G. bogo ; 
G. bogen. From A. S. bog- ; cf. bog-en, pp. 
of bi'igan, to bend. 

bow-window. (E.) A window of 
semi-circular form ; not the same as bay- 

Bow (4), the 'shoulder' of a ship. 
(Scand.) From Icel. bogr, shoulder; see 
Bough.-I-Du. boeg, bow of a ship. 

Bowel. (F.-L.) M.'E. bouel.-O.Y. 
boel; (mod. F. &/««). — Lat. ace. botellum, 
.1 sausage ; in Late L., an intestine ; 
dimin. of botuhis, a sausage. 

Bower, an abode, chamber, arbour. 
(E.) M. E. bour. A. S. bur, a chamber. 

— A. S. bilan, to dwell. -J- Icel. bur, a 
chamber : Dan. buur, Swed. bur ; O. Sax. 
bur; O. H. G. bilr. Teut. types *burom, 
n., *di7roz, m. ; see Boor. Cf Booth. 

Bowl (i), a round wooden ball. (F. — 
L.) M. E. boule. — 'F. bou!e. — h. bulla, a 
bubble ; hence, a round thing, a ball. 

Bowl (2), a drinking-vessel. (E.) 



M.E. bolle. A. S. bolla; from its round 
form.-f-Du. bol, ball ; Icel. bolli, O. H. G. 
bolla, bowl (G. bolle). From, Teut. *bul-, 
weak grade of *beul-, to swell ; cf. Goth. 
uf-bauljan, to puff up. See Boil {^). 

Bow-Une. (Scand.) Not so called 
because it keeps a sail bowed (for it rather 
keeps it straight), but because fastened to 
the ship's bow. — Norw. and Swed. bog- 
lina, bow-line, from bog, bow of a ship; 
Du. boeglijn, from boeg, bow. For the 
pronunciation, cf. boiv-sp-it. See Bow (4) 
and Line. 

Bow-window; see Bow (i). 

Box (i), the name of a tree. (L. — Gk.) 
M.E. box; A. S. fojr. — Lat. buxus, the 
box-tree. — Gk. irtif os, the box-tree. 

box (2), a chest or case to put things 
in. (L.-Gk.) U.'; A.S. box.-l.. 
buxum, anything made of box-wood; 
hence, a box. — Lat. buxus, the box-tree. 
(Hence a box at a theatre ; a shooting-(5ojr ; 
a Christmas box or present; &c.) Cf. 

Box (3), to fight with fists; a blow. 
(E.) The verb is from M. E. box, ._sb,, 
a blow. Cf. N. Fries, bakke, Silt boklie, 
a blow (Oivtsen) ; M. H. G. bu(, a blow; 
Du. betiken, G. pochen, to beat. 

Box (4), in phr. ' to box the compass.' 
Apparently one of the numerous uses of 
the vb. formed from box (2). See 
N. E. D. 

Boy. (E.) M. E. boi, boy. Preserved 
in E. Friesic boi, boy, a boy (Koolman) ; 
allied to M. Du. boeve, a boy, Du. boef, 
a knave. ■\- Icel. boH, a knave ; G. bube. 
Bavarian bueb, bua, bui, a boy. Cf. A. S. 
Bofa, personal name. 

Boycott, to combine with others in re- 
fusing to have dealings with any one. (E.) 
From the treatment accorded to Capt. Boy- 
cott, of Lough Mask House, co. Mayo, Ire- 
land, in Dec. 1880. 

Brabble, to quarrel. (E.) Cf. Du. 
brabbclen, to stammer, confound ; whence 
brabbeltaal, foolish talk. See Blab, 

Brace, orig. a firm hold. (F.-L.) 
From the notion of embracing. — O. F. 
brace, the two arms (Bansch) ; hence a 
measure of 5 feet, formed with extended 
arms (Cot.1; and hence, a grasp. — Lat. 
hrdchia, pi. of brSchiitm, the arm.+Irish 
brae, W. braich, the arm ; Gk. ^paxmv. 

bracelet. (F.-L.) Y. bracelet; 
dimm. of O. F. braccl, an armlet (Bartscb). 


— L. brSchidle, an armlet. — L. brachium, 
an arm. 

Brach, a kind of hunting-dog. (F.— 
G.) M. E. brache, pi. braches. — h.Y. 
hi-achez, pi. of bracket, dimin. of O. F. 
brae (F. braqite). — O. H. G. bracco (G. 
brack'), a dog that hunts by the scent. 

Bracken, fem. (E.^ M. E. brakm. 
A. S. brcucan, pi. ; Kemble, C. D. v. 277. 
Cf. Swed. brdken, Dan. bregite, fern ; cf. 
Icel. btirkni, fern. 

Bracket, a corbel, &c. (F.-C?) 
Formerly spelt bragget, as in Minsheu, ed. 
1627. So named from the resemblance to 
the front part of a pair of breeches, as 
formerly made. — F. bragiiette, ' a cod- 
piece,' Cot. (the front part of a pair of 
breeches); the allied Span, braguela also 
meant a projecting mould in architectnre, 
a bracket or corbel. Dimin. of O. F. 
bragtie, ' a kind of mortaise,' Cot. ; from 
bragues, breeches ; so also Span, bragueta 
is the dimin. of Span bragas, breeches. — 
L. braces, breeches; said 10 be of Celtic 
(or Teutonic V) origin. See Breeches. 

Brackish. (Du.) Du. brak, briny, 
nauseous; older form wrack, brackish 
(Hexham) ; allied to M. Du. wracke, a 
wreck, Du. zvraken, to reject, blame, cis- 
appro-ve.-— Du. wrak, orig. 2nd grade of 
wreken, to wreak; orig. to drive. See 
■Wreck. [.So also wrang, sonr, is allied 
to wringen, to wring. See Franck.] 

Bract. (L.) Lat. bractea, a thin plate 
or leaf of metal. 

Brad. (Scand.) M. E. brod. — lce\. 
broddr, a spike ; Swed. brodd, Dan. brodde, 
a frost-nail. +A. S. brord, a spike. Teut. 
type *brozdox. Cf. O. Irish brot, Ir. brad, 
W. bralh, a sting. 

Brae, brow of a hill, steep bank, slope. 
(Scand.) M. E. bra, i6« (North). -Icel. 
bra, brow ; hence, brow of a hill ; see 

Brag, to boast. (Scand.) M. E, brag- 
gen, to sound loudly, to vaunt. Prob. 
from M. Dan. bi-age, to crack, to brag. 
Cf. A. S. gebra:c, a breaking, crash, 
noise ; Icel. brak, a creaking, braka, to 
creak ; cognate with L. fragor, noise. 
Also (late) M. F. braguer, 'to flaunt, 
brag,' Cot. ; M. F. bragard, ' gay, gallant, 
braggard,' whence E. braggart. We find 
also W. bragal, to vociferate (from E.) ; 
Bret, braga, to brag (from F.). Cf. Bray. 
Bragget. (W.) M.'E.tragot.-yi. 
bragot, a kind of mead; allied to Irish 



bracat, malt liquor. - W. brag, malt ; Irish 
and Gael, hraich, malt, fermented grain. 
Cf. Gael, brack, to ferment. 

Brahman, Brahmin. (Skt.) Skt. 

brahmaaa, a brahman, holy man. -Skt. 
brahman, prayer; also devotion, lit. 'a 
greatness ' of the soul ; cf. hrhant, great. 
(VBHERGH, to be great.) " 

Braid ( i ) , to weave. (E.) M.E. breiden. 
A. S. bregdan, bredan, to brandish, weave, 
braid. + Icel. bregBa, to brandish, turn 
about, change, start, braid, &c. ; whence 
bragS, a sudden movement. 

braid (2), full of deceit. (E.) In 
All's Well, iv. 2. 73, braid is short for 
braided, i. e. full of braids or tricks. M.E. 
braid, trick, deceit. — A.S. bra-gd, deceit; 
from A. S. brt^gd, 2nd grade oibregdan, to 
draw out, weave, knit, braid. 

Brail, a kind of ligature or fastening. 
(F. — C. y) O. F. braiel, a cincture ; orig. for 
fastening up breeches. — F. braie, breeches. 

— L. braca, breeches. 
Brain. (E.);. A.S.bragn, 

brcegen, the brain. + Du. brein. Cf. Gk. 
^pfXIi.C'i, the top of the head. 

Brake (1), a machine for breaking 
hemp ; a name for various mechanical 
conlrivances. (O. Low G.) ^.'E. brake. 

— Low G. brake, a flax-brake; M. Dn. 
braecke, ' a brake to beat flax ; ' Hexham ; 
Du. braak. — Du. brak, 2nd grade of bi-ekett, 
to break; see Break. 

Brake (2), bush. (E.) M.E. lirake. 

+Low G. brake, willow-bush (Bremen) ; 

also stumps of broken trees, rough growth. 

From A. S. brecan, (pt. t. brcec), to break. 
■^ In the sense of ' fem,' modified from 

Bramble. (E.) M. E. brembil. A. S. 
brenicl, brembel. Allied to Du. braam, a 
blackberry ; Swed. brom-bdr, Dan. brom- 
bier, G. brombeere, a blackberry. Here Du. 
braam, G. brovi \0. H. G. brdma) answer 
to A. S. broni (see Broom) ; of which A.S. 
bi-etn-cl {ior Tent.*brSmi/oz) is the diminu- 

Bran. (F.) M.E. bran. ~O.F. h-an, 
bren. Cf. W. bran, Irish bran,^ husks, 
chaff(frora E.) ; Bret brenn, bran. 

Branch. (F. — L.) '?.brancke. — \jA& 
L. branca, the paw of an animal. 

Brand, a burning piece of wood, scar 
of fire, a sword. (E.) M. E. brand, A. S. 
brand, a burning, a sword : from brann, 
2nd stem of Teut. *brennan-, to burn ; see 
Burn. -J- Icel. brandr, a fire-brand, sword- 


blade (from its flashing) ; Swed. and Dan. 
brand, fire-brand, fire; M. H. G. brani, 
a brand, sword. 

brandish. (F.— Scand.) lA.^.braun- 
disen. — F. brandiss-ant, pres. pt. oibratidir, 
to brandish a sword. — A. F. brand, a 
sword. — Icel. brandy ; see Brand above. 

brandy. (Du.) Formerly brand- 
wine, brandy-wine ; whence brandy. — Du. 
brande-wijn, M. Du. brandzvijn, brandy ; 
lit. ' burnt ' (i. e. distilled) wine (or, ace. 
to Kilian, because it easily burns). —Du. 
branden, to burn ; and wijn, wine ; see 
Branks, a punishment for scolds. (F.) 
See Jamieson. Hence were borrowed 
Gael, brangas (O. Gael, brancas), a sort 
of pillory ; Gael, brang, Irish brancas, a 
halter. — North F. branques, pi. of bran- 
qtie, Norman form of F. branche, branch, 
' also, the cheeke of a bit,' Cot. See 

Bran-new. (E.) Short for brand-new, 
i. e. new from the fire. See Brand. 

Brant-fox, Brant-goose or brent- 
goose. The prefix is Scand., as in Swed. 
brandraf, a brant-fox, brandgas, a brent- 
goose. The orig. sense is ' burnt,' with 
the notion of redness or blackness. 

Brasier , Brazier, a pan to hold coals. 

(F. — Scand.) F. brasier. — Y. braise, live 
coals. — Swed. brasa, fire (below). 

Brass. (E.) M.E. bras. A. S. brees. 
Perhaps allied to the verb seen in Icel. 
bj-asa, to harden by fire; Dan. brase, to 
fry ; cf. Swed. brasa, fire. Der. braz-en, 
A. S. brtssen. 

braze (i), to harden. (E.) K. Lear; 
i. I. II. It means to harden like brass; 
see below. 

braze (2), to ornament with brass. 
(E.) In Chapman, tr. of Homer, Od. xv. 
113; from brass, sb. ' Aero, ic brasige ; ' 
JE\ir\c, Gram. p. 215. 

Brassart, the piece of armour which 
protected the upper part of the arm. (F. — 
L.) F. brassart (Cot.), brassard (Littre); 
also brassal. Formed with suffix -ard 
from F. bras, arm. — L. brachimn, arm. 

Brat (1), a cloak, rough mantle. (C.) 
It also meant a rag, clout, or pinafore.— 
Gael, and Irish brat, a cloak, rag ; O. Irish 
bral, a rough cloak ; W. brethyn, woollen 
cloth. (W. brat is from E.) 

Brat (2), a child ; esp. ' a beggar's brat! 
Perhaps 'a rag,' the same as Brat (l). 

Brattice, a fence of boards in a mine. 


(F.-Teut.?) M.E. bretasche, brelasce, 
bru/aske, a parapet, battlement. — O. F. 
bretesche, a small wooden outwork, battle- 
ment; cf. Prov. beriresca, Ital. bertesca, 
the same. A difficult word ; prob. formed 
from G. brstt, a plank. 

Bravado. (Span.) See Brave. 

Brave. (F. — Ital.) F . brave, ', 
gay, fine, proud, braggard, valiant ; ' Cot. 

— Ital. bravo ; the same as Span, and 
Port, bravo ; Prov. brau. Etym. unknown ; 
none of the explanations are satisfactory ; 
the Bret, brav, O. Swed. bra/, appear to 
be borrowed from F. 

bravado. (Span.) Altered from Span. 
bravada, ' 3 bravado ; ' Minsheu's Span. 
Diet. — Span, bravo, brave. 

bravo, a daring villain. (Ital.) Ital. 
bravo, brave ; as a sb., a cut-throat, villain. 

bravo! well done! (Ital.) 1X^. bravo, 
brave ; used in tlie voc. case masc. 
Brawl (i), to quarrel. (E.?) M.E. 
brawlen. Perhaps E. Cf. Du. brallen, 
to brag, boast; Dan. bralle, to prate, 
chatter; G. /ra/i/,??/, to brag. 

Brawl (2), a sort of dance. (F. — Scand. 
or O. H. G.) 'A French brawl,' L. L. L. iii. 
9. — F. bransle, 'a totter, swing, . . . brawl 
or dance ; ' Cot. — F. bransler, to reel ; mod. 
F. branler. Allied to O. F. brandeler 
(Littr^), brandiller, to shake (Cot.), 
frequent, forms of F. brandir, to brandish. 
See Brandish. 
Brawn, muscle. (F.- O.K. G.) M.E. 
braun, muscle, boar's flesh. — O. F. braon, 
a slice of flesh ; cf. Prov. bradon, the same. 

— O. H. G. braton, ace. of brdto, a slice 
of flesh for roasting. — O. H.G. brdtan 
(G. braten), to roast.-J- A. S. br&dan. 

Bray (l), to bruise, pound. (F.-G.) 
M. E. brayen. — O. F. breier (F. broyer).— 
O. Sax. brekan (G. brechen), to break; 
see Break. 

Bray (2), to make a roaring noise. 
(F. — C.) ^ K.Y.braier; F. braire (Med. 
Lat. bragire). Of Celtic origin; cf. Gael. 
bragh, a burst, explosion, braigh, to crackle 
(Thumeysen) ; and cf. "L./rag-or, noise. 

Braze ; see Brass. 

Brazier ; see Brasier. 

Breach. (E.) M. E. breche, a fracture. 

— A. S. brece, as in hlaf-gebrece , a piece of 
bread (more commonly brice, a breaking); 
O. Fries. breke.-K.S. brecan, to break. 
^ M. E. breche is also partly from O. F. 
breche (F. brkhe), a fracture. -G. brechen. 
to break. 



Bread. (E.) U.'E.. breed. A.S,. bread. 
•^-TlVi. brood; lct\. brand; Swed. and Dan. 
brod; G. b>ot. Teut. type *braudom, n. ; 
or *braudoz, nent. form in -oz. It some- 
times means ' bit ' or ' piece ' ; cf. A. S. 
' breadru, frusta pants,' Blickling Glosses ; 
0. Northnmb. bread, a bit, morsel ; John 
xiii. 27. 

Breadth. (E.) The final -til is late; 
from M. E. brede, breadth ; Ch. — A. S. 
brSdu.-\-lcA. breidd; O. H. G. breitt (G. 
breite); Goth, braidei, f. From Teut. 
*braidoz, broad ; see Broad. 

Break. (E.) M.E. breken; pt.t.bra/i; 
pp. broken, A. S. brecan, pt. t. brsc, pp. 
brocen.-yDM. breken; Goth, brikan; G. 
brecken. Cf. Icel. braka, to creak; Swed. 
braka, to crack ; Dan. breekke; 'La.Y.fran- 
^ere, to break ; Gael, bragh, an explosion. 
(^BHREG.) The orig. sense is to break 
with a noise, to crack. 

Breaitt,afish. (F. — Teut.) 'M..¥..breem. 
-O.F. bresiiie (F. breme). -M..n.G. 
brahsem (G. brasseti) ; O. H. G. brahsina 
(Kluge). Cf. Du. brasem. 

Breast. (E.) M. E. brest, breest. A. S. 
breast. + Icel. biyost (Swed. brost, Dan. 
bryst) : Teut. type *breustom, n. Also G. 
brust, Du. borst, Goth, brusts : Teut. stem 
*brust- (with weak grade). 

Breath. (E.) yi.'E.breeth,breth. A.S. 
*/-<-M.-f-0. H. G. bradam, G. brodem,broden, 
brodel, steam, vapour, exhalation. 

Breech. (E.) See Breeches. 

Breeches. (E.) Really a double 
plural, the form breech being, in itself, a pi. 
form. A. S. brec, breeches; pi. oibroc, with 
the same sense.+Du. broek, a pair of 
,5breeches ; Icel. brok (pi. brakr) ; M. H. G. 
bruoch. Cf. L. bracts, said to be a word 
of Celtic (but rather of Teutonic) origin. 
See Brogues. 

breech. (E.) M. E. breeck ; A. S. 
4>rec, the breech ; A. S. Leechdoras, ii. 
146. Cf. A. S. brec, breeches, pi. of brSc; 
see above. 

Breed. (E.) A. S. bredan, to produce 
or cherish a brood. — A.S. brod, a. brood 
(with mutation from to e).+G. bruten ; 
from brut. See Brood. 

Breeks, breeches. (Scand.) Northern 
E. From Icel. brcckr, pi. of brok; see 

Breeze (i), a gadfly. (E.) 'iH.'e.. brese. 
A. S. briosa. 

Breeze (2), a strong wind. (F.) Formerly 
^iu. — O.i. brise, used by Rabelais in the 


same sense as F. Use, the N. wind ; cf. 
Span, brisa. Port, briza, the N.E. wind; 
Ital. brezza, a cold wind. Orig. unknown. 
Breeze {i), cinders. (F.-Scand.) 
O. F. brese (breze in Cot.), F. braise, live 
coals. See Brasier. 
Breve. (Ital.-L.) Orig. a. sAori note ; 
now the longest in use. —Ital. breve, brief. 
— L. bretiis, short. Der. semi-breve. 

brevet. (F. - L.) F. brevet, ' a brief, 
breviate, little writing;' Cot. Dimin. from 
F. bref, brief.- L. breuis, short. 

breviary. (F.-L.) F.brMaire.- 
L. breuidrittm, a summary. — L. breuis. 

brevity. (F.-L.) F. brilvetL-'L. 
ace. breiiitdtem, shortness. — L. breuis, 

Brew. (E.) M. E. bnwen. A. S. 
breowan, pt. t. breaw, pp. gebrowen.-\-T)Vi. 
brouwen; G.brauen; \c€\.. brugga; Swed. 
brygga ; Dan. brygge. Cf. L. de-fru-tum, 
new wine boiled" down ; Thracian PpvTov, 
beer. (V BHREU, to decoct.) 
Brewis, Erowis, pottage. (F.- 

O. H. G.) M. E. brewes, browes. - O. F. 
brouez, broez, nom. of brouet, broet, soup 
made with broth of meat ; dimin. of breu, 
pottage (Roquefort). — O. H. G. brod, brot, 
broth; see Broth. Also spelt brose. 
Briar, Brier. (E.) M.E. brere. 

A. S. br&r, O. Merc. brer. 

Bribe. (F.) U..E. bribe.-O.Y. bribe, 
a piece of bread given to a beggar. 
Cf. briber, to beg; Span, briba, idleness; 
bribar, to loiter about ; Ital. birba, fraud ; 
birbante, an idle beggar. Origin un- 
known ; not Celtic. 

Brick. (F. — M. Du.) F. brique, a 
brick; also a fragment, bit. — M.Dn. bricke, 
a brick ; cf. Walloon briquet, a large slice 
of bread. — Du. breken, to break. Der. 
brick-bat (see Bat). 

Bride. (E.) M. E. bride ; also birde, 
brude, burde. A. S. bryd, a. bride. + Du. 
bruid; iQel.briiSr; S-«ed.smd 'Dan. brud; 
O.H.G. bnlt; G. braut; Goth. briitAs. 
Teut. type *brudiz, f. 

bridal. (E.) Formerly bride-ale, a 
bride-feast. A.S. bryd-ealo, a bride-ale, 
bride-feast. — A.S. bryd, bride; and ealo, 
ale, also a feast ; see Ale. 

bridegroom. (E.) For bHdegoom ; 
the second r is intrusive ; by confusion 
with groom. A. S. bryd-guma, lit. bride- 
man; where guma is cognate with L. 
homo, a man ; see Homage.-fDu. bruide- 
gom; Icel. brutSgumi; Swed. brudgum; 



Dan. brndgom; G. brautigam, O. H. G. 

Bridge. (E.) M. E. hrigge, bfugge. 
A. S. iryc^.+Icel. bryggja ; Swed. biygga ; 
Dan. biygge, a pier ; Du. ira^ ; G. brucke. 
Teut. type *brugja, f. Allied to Icel. ira, 
Dan. bro, a bridge, pavement; O. Swed. 
bro, a paved way. 

Bridle. (E.) M. E. bHdel. A. S. 
^nVe/. + Du. breidel; O. H. G. inVe/, 
/;W««/ (whence F. bride"^. A. S. irfafe/ 
represents an earlier *Erigdel (cf. brigdils, 
a bridle, O. E. Texts, p. 44, 1. 127).- A. S. 
bregd-an, to pnll, twitch (with change of 
e to i). See Braid. 

Brief ( I), short. (F.-L.) M.E. W. 

— F. bref. — 'L. Ireuis, short. +Gk./3/)axvs, 

brief (2\ a writ, &c. (F.-L.) F. 
brief, a brief; Cot. The same as F. bref 
above ; from its being in a short form. 
Brig, Brigade ; see Brigand. 
Brigand. (F.-ltal.) v. brigand, a 
robber. — Ital. brigante, an intriguer, rob- 
ber ; orig. pres. part, of brigare, to strive 
after. — Ital. briga, strife, quarrel, trouble. 
Orig. uncertain. 

brig ; short for brigantine. 

brigade. (F.— Ital.) ¥.bngade,a 
crew, troop. — Ital. brigcUa, a troop ; orig. 
fem. of pp. of brigare, to strive, fight, as 

brigaudine, a kind of armour. (F. 

— Ital.) F. brigandine, a kind of armour, 
worn by brigands. — F. brigand, a robber ; 
see above. 

brigantine, brig, a ship. (F.- 

Ital.) Brig is merely short for brigantine. 

— F. brigantin, a kind of ship. — Ital. 
brigantino, a pirate-ship. — Ital. brigante, 
a robber. See Brigand. 

Bright. (E.) M.E, bright. A.S. 
beorht, berAt. + Uel. hjartr; M. H. G. 
bc7-ht ; Goth, bairhts, shining. Teut. type 
*berlitoi, shining. Cf. Gk. (popicAs, white. 

Brillj a fish. (E.) Origin unknown. 

Brilliant, shining. (F.-L.-Gk.- 
Skt.) F. brillant, pres. part, of briller, 
to glitter; cf. Ital. brillare, to sparkle. 
The orig. sense was to sparkle as a beryl. 

— L. beryllus, a beryl ; see Beryl. 
Brim. (E.) M.E. brim. (Not in 

A. S.) Cf. Icel. barmr, brim ; Swed. 
brdm, border, edge; Dan. bramme; M. 
Du. brenie ; G. gebrame, border. 

Brimstone, sulphur. (E.) M. E. 
briiuston, bremstoon, also brenstoon (Wy- 


clif).-M. E. brenn-en, to burn, and stoon, 
stone. So also Icel. brennisteinn, brim- 
stone. See Burn. 

Brindled, Brinded, streaked. 

(Scand.) Icel. brand-, as in brbndoitr, 
brinded, said of a cow. — Icel. brandr, a 
brand, flame, sword. Thus brinded — 
Brine. (E.) M. E. brine. A. S. bryne 
(for brine), brine, salt liq«or.+M. Du. 
brijne ; Du. brijn, pickle. 

Bring. (E.) A. S. bringan, also 
brengan, pt. t. brohte.+'Du. brengen; G. 
biingen ; Goth, briggan (written for 
bringan), pt. t. brahta. 

Brink. (Scand.) "iA.Y.. brink. — T)&n. 
brink, verge; Swed. brink, descent or 
slope of a hill ; Icel. brekka (for brinkd), a. 
slope, crest of a hill ; allied to Icel. bringa, 
a grassy slope, orig. the breast. 
Brisk. (F. — Ital.) S^Al bruisk in 
Lowl. Sc. (1560). — F. Irrusque, 'brisk, 
lively, quicke, rash,' harsh ; ' Cot. — Ital. 
brusco, tart, harsh ; see Brusque. 

Brisket. (F.) O. F. briscket (Brachet), 
s. V. brechet), also bruschet (Ducange) ; 
brichet, ' the brisket, or breast-piece,' 
bruchet, ' the craw-bone of a bird ; ' Cot. 
Guernsey brilijuct (for *briiskct). — Dan. 
brusk, Ictl. brjosk, gristle ; cf. Norw. 
brjoskutt, gristly. 

Bristle. (E.) M.E. bristle, berstle, 
birstle ; dimin. of A. S. byrst, a bristle.+ 
Du. borstel: Icel. burst; Swed. borst; 
G. borste. From Teut. *burs-, weak grade 
of *bers = Ug. *bhers, to bristle; cf. Skt. 
sahasra-blirshti, having a thousand points. 
See Bvirr. 

Brittle. (E.) M.E. britel, brotel, 
bnttel. For A. S. Hrytel^ltxA. Hrutiloz, 
from brut-, weak grade of A. S. breotan, 
to break. It means 'fragile." Cf. Icel. 
brjota, Swed. bryta, Dan. bryde, to break. 
Broach. (F.-L.) M.E. setten on 
broche = to set a-broach, tap liquor.— F. 
mettre en broche, to tap, by piercing, a 
barrel. - F. brocher, to pierce ; brocke, 
' a broach, spit,' Cot. ; pee Brooch. 
Broad. (E.) U.K. broad. A. S. brad. 
+ Du. breed; Icel. breiSr; Swed. and 
Dan. bred; Goth, braids ; G. breit. 

Brocade. (Span.- L.) Spun, broca^a, 
brocade; orig. embroidered, the pp. of a 
verb *brocdr (not used) answering to F. 
brocher. 'to l^roach, also, to stitch . . . with 
great stitches;' Cot.-F. *;w/Sc.-LateL. 
brocca, L. broccus; see Brooch. 



broccoli. (Ital.-L.) Ital. liroccoK, 
sprouts ; pi. of broccolo, a sprout. Dimin. 
of brocco, a skewer, a shoot, stalk. — L. 
broccits, projecting, like teeth. 

broclmre, a pamphlet. (F.— L.) F. 
brochiure, a. few leaves stitched together.— 
F. broclier,, to stitch; see Brocade. 

Brock, a badger. (C.) K.?> broc — 
W., Corn., and Bret, bioch; Irish, Gael., 
and Manx broc^ . a badger. Named from 
his whjte-streaked face ; of. Gael, brocach, 
speckled, grayish, as a badger ; Gk. (popKos, 
white, gr^y. (Cf. E. gray, a badger.)' 

Brocket, a red deer two years old. 
(K. — L.) F. ^/'Ofor/, the same ; so called 
because he has but one tine to his horn. — 
F, broche, a spit, also, a tine of a stag's 
horn ; see Brooch. 

Brognes, coarse shoes, leggings. (C. 
— E.) Gael, and Irish iri^, shoe ; M.Irish 
brocc, shoe. — A, S. broc, breeches ; or Icel. 
broh. See Breeches. 

Broided, braided. (E.) The wk. pp. 
braided took the place of the str. pp. 
broiden, woven, itself due to confusion of 
browden with braider (below). Browden 
represents A. S. brogden, pp. of bregdan, 
to braid. See Braid. 

Broider, to adorn with needlework. 
(F.) [In I Tim. ii. 9, broidered (as in 
some edd.) is an error for broided; see 
above.] Used as the equivalent of F. 
broder, ' to imbroyder,' Cot. The oi is 
due to confusion with broided. — O. F. 
brouder, also brosder (Supp. to Godefroy) ; 
cf. Late L. brusdus, brosdus, embroidered 
work (Ducange). Of unknown origin; 
perhaps from Teut. *brozd-, whence A. S. 
brord, Icel. broddr, a spike ; see Brad. 

BroU (I-), to fry, grill. (F.) M.E. 
broilcn. — A. F. broiller (Bozon), O. F. 
bruiller, to boil, roast (Roquefort). Origin 
unknown; cf. O.F. brtiir, to roast; per- 
"haps from M. H. G. briiejen, to scald ; see 

Broil (2), a tumult. (F.) F. brouiller, 
to jumble, confuse, confound. Cf. Ital. 
brogliare, to disturb, broglio, confusion 
(whence E. im-broglio). Origin un- 

Broker. (F. — L.) M. E. brocour, 
an agent, witness of a transaction. — A. F. 
irocour, an agent ; orig. a ' broacher ' or 
seller of wine. — Late L. broccStor, one 
who broaches. -Late L. brocca, i. e. spike; 
see Brooch. 

Brominei a chemical element. (Gk.) 


Named from its ill odour. Formed, with 
suffix -itu, from Gk. ^pS/i-os, a stink. 

Bronchial. (Gk.) Gk, i3p(S7xm, neut. 
pi., the ramifications of the windpipe.— 
Gk. fip6ix°^> the windpipe; cf. Ppayxos, n 
gill. Der. bronch-itis ; from ;3/)o7xos. 

Bronze. (F.- Ital.-L.) ¥. bronze. 
— Ital. bronzo; bronzino, made of bronze 
(z — ds). — L. as Brufidusinu/ii. — h. Brun- 
dusium, Brindisi (in Italy) ; where bronze 
mirrors were made (Pliny, xxxiii. 9). 

Broocll. (F. — L.) Named from the 
pin which fastens it. M. E. broche, a pin, 
peg, brooch. — F. broche, a spit, point.— 
Late L. brocca, ii pointed stick ; broca, a 
spike ; L. broccus, projecting, like leelh. 

Brood. (E.) M. E. brod. A. S. brod 
(rare); 'hi bredaS heora brod' = they 
nourish their brood; ..Slfric's Hom.ii. 10. 
+Du. broed; G. brtiL Teut. stem *bro-S-r 
from a verbal base *brd-, preserved in G.. 
brii-hen, to scald (orig. to heat), Du. 
broe-ien, to brood, hatch ; from the idea of 
' heat ' or ' wannth.' Der. breed. 

Brook (i), to endure, put up with. 
(E.) M. E. broken, brouken. A. S. bru- 
can, to use, enjoy; which was the orig.. 
sense. + Du. gebruiken, Icel. bruka, G, 
brauchen, Goth, brukjan, to use; cf. L. 
/r««, to enjoy. See Pruit. (^BHREUG.)- 
Brugm. i. § III. 

Brook (2), a small stream. (E.) M. E. 
brook. A.S. irec.+Du. broek, G. bruch^ 
a marsh. 

brook-lime, ■■>■ plant. (E.) M. E. 

brok-kmke, brok-lemok. From A. S. broc,. 
a brook, and hleoiiioCy brook-lime. 

Broom, (E.) M. E. brome, broom. 
A. S. brom, the plant broom ; hence, a 
besom made from twigs of it.+Du. brem ;. 
Low G. braam, broom. Teut. type *br(i- 
moz. Allied to Bramble, q. v. 

Brose, a later form of browis or breiais; 
see Brewis. 

Broth. (E.) A. S. Arojii+Icel. broS-; 
O. H. G. brod. Teut. type *bro}om, n. ; 
from bra-, bru-, weak grade of breu-, as in 
A. S. briowan, to brew. Lit. ' brewed.' 

Brothel. (E. ; confused with F.— 
Teut.) 1. M. E. brothel, a lewd persbny 
base wretch. - A.S. brotS-en, pp. of 
breo9an. to perish, become vile ; whence 
also dbroSen, degenerate, base. Hence 
was made brothel-house, a house for vile 
people (Much Ado, i. i. 256), afterwards 
contracted to brothel. 2. Orig. distinct 
from M. E. bordel, which was used,, how- 



ever, in mnch the same sense. — O. F. bor- 
del, a hut, orig. of boards. — Du.. bord, a 
plank, board ; see Board. 

Brother. (E.) M. E. brother. A. S. 
broiSor.-^'DvL. breeder ; lce\. broSir ; Goth. 
brothar; Swed. and Dan. broder; G. 
bruder; Gael, and Ir. brathair; W. 
brawd; Russ. brat' -^ Lat. frater; Gk. 
ipp&Trjp; Skt. bhrdtr. Teut. stem *brdlher-; 
Idg. stem *bhrnter: 

Brougham, a kind of carriage. (Per- 
sonal name.) Date 1839. Named after 
the first Lord Brougham. 

Brow. (E.) M.E. browe. A.S. bril. 
+Icel. brt'm, eyebrow; Lith. bru-ivis; 
Russ. brove; Gk. 6<ppis; Pets, abrii; Skt. 
b/irii. Brugm. i. § 554. 

Brown. (E.) M. E. broun. A. S. 
briin. +Du. bruin; Icel. bnlnn; Swed. 
bruii; 'Da.n.bruun; G.braim; lAth.brmtas. 
Cf. Gk. (ppvvos, a toad; Skt. ba-bhru{s), 

Browse. (F.— M. H.G.) Yqi broitst; 
lit. ' to feed on young shoots.' — M. F. 
drouster (F. brouter), to nibble off young 
shoots. — M. F. broust (F. brout), a sprig, 
shoot, bud. — M. H. G. broz, a bud ; Bavar. 
irosst, brosSy a bud. From the weak grade 
of O. H. G. briozan, to break, also, to 
break into bud ; which is cognate with 
A. S. breotan. See Brittle. 

Bruin, (Du.) In Reynard the Fox, 
the bear is called bruin, i. e. brown. — Du. 
bruin, brown. See Brown. 

Bruise. (E. ; partly F.) A. S. (/»)- 
brysan, to bruise. Influenced by O. F. 
bruiser, briser, to break, perhaps of Celtic 
origin ; cf. Gael, bris, to break, Irish bris- 
im, I break. (The spelling ui, from A. S. 
y, occurs in S. Eng. Legendary, 295. 58.) 

Bmit, a rumour. (F.— L. ?) ¥. bruit, 
a noise. — F. bruire, to make a noise. 
Scheler derives F. bruire from L. rugire, 
to roar, with prefixed b. F. bruit = Late 
L. bruglius, a clamour (Ducange) ; cf. L. 
rugilus, a roaring. Partly imitative; cf. 
G. brttUen, to roar. 

Brunette. (F.-G.) ¥. brunette, km. 
oi. .brunet, brownish. -M. H. G. briln, 
brown ; see Brown. 

Brunt. (E.) Prob. imitative ; cf. dint 

(dune), a blow; influenced by North E. 
brunt, i.e. ' burnt,' as if the ' hot' part of 
-the fight. 

Brush. (F. -Teut. ?) U.'E.brusc&e, 
& brush; also brush-wood, which is the 

older sense, the orig. brush being made of 


twigs. — O. F. broce, F. brosse, brushwood; 
also, later, a brush. -Low L. bruscia, a. 
thicket. Derived by Diez from O. H. G. 
bursta, G. borste,. a bristle ; but perhaps 
Celtic (Thurneysen). 
Brusque, rough in.manner.. (F. — Ital.) 
F. brusque. — Ital. brtisca, sharp, tart, sour, 
applied to fruits and wine. Origin un- 
Brute. (F. -1.) . F. b>-ut, fern, brute. 
— L. briitus, stupid. 

Bryony. (L.-Gk.) L. brydnia.— 
Gk. tipvavia, Ppvwvrj, bryony. — Gk. ^ieiv, 
to teem, grow luxuriantly. 
Bubble. (E.) Cf. Swed. buhbla, Dan. 
boble, a bubble ; also Du. bobbel, a bubble, 
bobbelen, to bubble. Of imitative origin. 
Buccanier. (F. — West Indian.) F. 
boucanier, a pirate. — F. bouamer, to broil 
on a sort of wooden frame. — F. boucan, 
a wooden frame, used by hunters for 
smoking and drying flesh. The word 
boucan is said to be a F. spelling 'of a 
Tupi (Brazilian) word, and to mean ' a 
frame on which meat is smoke-dried.' 

Buck (i), a male deer, goat. (E.) 
M. E. bukke. A. S. buc, male deer, bucca, 
a he-goat.+Du. boi, Icel. bukkr, Swed. 
bock, a he-goat; Dan. buk, a he-goat, ram, 
buck ; G. bock ; also W. bwch, Gael, boc, 
Irish boc. Brugm. i. § 800. 
Buck (2), to steep clothes in lye. (E.) 
M. E. bouken. As if from A. S. *bucian, 
not found. Prob. from A. S. bite, a pitcher 
(prov. E. bouk, a pail, tub) ; but M. E. 
bouken has the specific sense of ' steep in 
lye,' like M. H. G. biichen, Swed. byka, 
Dan. byge. Low G. bilken, buken (whence 
Ital. bucare, F. buer). 

bucket. (E.) A. F. boket (Bozon). 
Formed with A. F. dimin. suifix -et from 
A.S. bile, a pitcher. Cf. Gael, bucaid, 
Irish buicead, a bucket (from E.). 
Buckle. (F.-L.) M. E. *a,Je/.-O.F. 
bucle (F. boucle), the boss of a shield, a 
ring, a buckle. -Late L. bucula, the boss 
of a shield ; Imccula, beaver of a helm, boss 
of a shield, buckle. -Lat. buccula, the 
cheek, dimin. of bucca, the cheek. 

buckler. (F.-L.) M.E. bokeler.- 
O. F. bucler (F. bouclier), a shield; so 
named from the boss on it; see above. 
Buckram, a coarse cloth. (F.— . 
Ital.) M. E. bokeram. - O. F. boqverant 
(F. bougran), a coarse kind of cloth ; Low , 
L. boquerannns or (in Italy) bftchirdnus 
(for Ital. buchirand), late Ital. hucherame- 


Origin nncertain; perhaps from Bokhara 

Buckwheat. (E.) Lit. beech-wheat; 
from the resemblance of its seeds to the 
mast of the beech-tree. The form buck is 
from A. S. boc, as in buck-mast, beech- 
mast. So also Du. boekweit, buckwheat ; 
G. btichwehen. See Beech. 

Bucolic, pastoral. (L. - Gk.) L. bfico- 
licus. — Gk., 0ovko\ik6s, pastoral. — Gk. 
fSovK6\os, a cowherd. — Gk. ^oC-s, an ox; 
and iCfWeiv, to drive. 

Bud. (E.?) U.K. ioJJe,biii/de, a. hud; 
budden, to bud. Not found in A. S. Cf. 
Du. hot, a bud ; batten, to bud, sprout. 

Budge (i), to stir. (F.— L.) V. banger, 
to stir; answering to Ital. bulicare, to 
bubble up (Diez). — L. bullire; see Boil 
(i) above. Cf. Span, bullir, (i) to boil, 
(2) to stir. 

Budge (2), a kind of fur. (F.?) 
Perhaps related to O. F. bachet, bauchet, a 
young kid. 

Budget, a leathern bag. (F.-C.) 
F. baugette, dimin. of bauge, a bag. — L. 
bulga, a leathern bag (Gaulish). — O. Irish 
holg, bole, a sack. 

Buff (i), the colour of dressed buffalo- 
skin. (K.— L.-Gk.) Y . buffle, ^\mRt\o. 
— 'L. bu/alits ; see Buffalo. 

Btlff (2), in Blindman's buff. (F.) 
Formerly blindman-buff, a game ; in which 
game boys used to bziffet one (who was 
blinded) on the back, without being 
caught, if possible. From O. F. bufe, F. 
buffe, a buffet, blow ; cf. Low G. buff, 
ptif, a blow (Liibben). See Buffet (i). 

Buffalo. (Port, or Ital. -L.-Gk.) 
Fort, bufalo, Ital. buffalo, orig. a kind of 
wild ox. — L. bufalus,a\s,o bilbalus. — GV. 
0oi0aXos, a buffalo ; a kind of deer or 
antelope. (Not a true Gk. word.) 

Buffer (i), and (2) ; see Buffet (i). 

Buffet (1), a blow; to strike. (F.) 
M. E. baffei, buffet, a blow, esp. on the 
cheek. — O. F. bufet, a blow, dimin. of bufe, 
a blow, esp. on the cheek ; cf. bufer, buffer, 
to puff out the cheeks, also to bnffet; mod. 
F. bauffer. Prob. of imitative origin, allied 
\opouffer, to puff; see Buff (2), Puff. 

buffer (1)1 '''oo'ish fellow. (F.) Orig. 
a stammerer; hence, a foolish fellow. M.E. 
buffen, to stammer. — O. F. bufer, to puff 
out the cheeks (hence, to puff or blow in 

buffer (2), a cushion, to deaden con- 
cussion. (F.) Lit. 'a striker;' from M.E, 


buffen, to strike, orig. to bnffet on the 
cheek; see Buffet (i). 

buffoon. (F.) F. houffon, a buffoon, 
jester, one who makesgrimaces. - F. bouffer, 
to puff. 

Buffet (2). a side-board. (F.) Y. buffet, 
a side-board. Origin unknown. 

Bug (i), a spectre. (C.) In Sh.-W. 
bxvg, a hobgoblin, spectre ; Gael, and Ir. 
bacan, aspectre.+Lithuan. *«aj7M, terrific, 
from bugti, to terrify, allied to Skt. bhuj, 
to lura aside; see Bow (i). Brugm. i. 

Bug (2), an insect. (C?) Said to be so 
named because an object of terror, exciting 
disgust; see Bug (i). But cf. A.S. 
j-«a;-«-ferf(&, dung-beetle (Voc), prov. E. 
shorn-bug (Kent). 

Bug-bear. (C. and'E.) A supposed 
spectre in the shape of a bear; see 
Bug (I). 

Bugle (0 J a wild ox ; a horn. (F. - L.) 
Bugle, a horn, is short for bugle-horn; 
a bugle is a wild ox. — O. F. bugle, a wild 
ox. — L. ace. hiiculiwi, a young ox ; double 
dimin. of bos, an ox. 

Bugle (2)> a kind of ornament. 
(,F. — L.) Little black pipes, likened to 
horns. ' Bugle, a little black home ; ' 
Cockeram. See above. 

Bugle (3), a plant. (F.) F. higle; 
Cot. ; cf. Span, and Late L. bugula. Cf. L. 
bugillo, (perhaps) bugle. 

Bugloss.aplant. (F.- L.-Gk.) Lit. 
' ox-tongue.' — F. buglosse. — L. iiiglossa ; 
also buglossus. — Gk. Povy\a><raos, ox- 
tongue; from the shape of the leaves.— 
Gk. 0OV-S, ox ; 7ASir<r-a, tongue. 

Build. (E.) M.E. bulden. Late 
A. S. byldan, to build. — A. S. bold, a house, 
variant of boll, a. dwelling, n. = Teut. 
*bu-Jilom, from bu-, related to bil-an, to 
dwell ; see Bower. Cf. A. S. bytlian, to 
build, from botl (above). [Cf. O. Swed. 
bylja, to build (Ihre). — O. Swed. bol, 
a house, dwelling; Icel. bol, a house, 
Dan. bol, a small farm.] 

Bulb. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. bulbe.-U 
bulbus, a bulb. — Gk. 0o\P6s, a bulbous 
root, onion. 

Bnlbnl, a nightingale. (Pers.) Pers. 
bulbul, a bird with a melodious voice, 
resembling the nightingale. Of imitative 

Bulge, to swell out. (F.-C.) Formed 
from M. E. bulge, a wallet, pouch. — 
O.F. boulge (bouge), a bag.-L. bulga,. 



a bag (Gaulish). See Budget. Doublet, 

Bulk (i), size. (Scand.) M. E. holke, 
a heap. — Icel. biilki, a heap; O. Swed. 
bolk; Dan. bulk, a lump. Cf. Swed. 
bulna, to swell. 

Bulk (2), the trunk of the body. (Du.) 
In Sh. — M. Du. bidcke, thorax (Kilian). 
(Prob. confused with Du. bulk, Icel. biikr, 
the trunk ; Swed. biik, Dan. bug, G. baufh, 
the belly.) 

Bulk (3), a stall of a shop. (Scand.) 
Perhaps related to Balk. Cf. Dan. dial. 
bulk, a half-wall ; Icel. balkr, a beam, also, 
a partition ; Line, bulker, a beam, a wooden 
hutch in a workshop. Der. bulk-head, a 

Bull (i), male of the cow. (E.) M. E. 
•bole, bule. Not found in A. S., but the 
dimin. bulluc, a bullock, occurs. Prob. 
' the bellower; ' cf. M. H. G. bullen, to 
roar ; and see Bellow. + Du. bul; Icel. 
boli\ G. bulk; Lithuan. btillus. Der. 
bull-ock, A. S. bulluc, as above. 

Bull (?), a papal edict. (L.) M. E. 
bulle. — 'LsX. bulla, a bubble, boss, knob, 
leaden seal on an edict ; a bull (in late 

bullet. (F. - L.) M. F. boulet, dimin. 
of F. boule, a ball. — L. bulla, a boss, 
knob, &c. 

bulletin. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y.bulle- 
tin, a ticket. — Ital. bullettino, a safe- 
conduct, pass, ticket. Dimin. of bitlletta, 
a passport, lottery, ticket, dimin. of bulla, 
a seal, bull. — L. bulla, a boss, &c. 

Bullace, wild plum. (F.-L.) M. E. 
bolas. — O.F. beloce, a bullace ; M.F. fclosse, 
■Cot. — L. type *pilottea, pellet-like. — Late 
L. pilota, a pellet. — L. fila, a ball. 

Bullet, Bulletin; see Bull (2). 

Bullion. (F.-L.) The A. F. /;«//20« 
meant a mint, and Late L. btdliona, bullio 
meant a mass of metal, apparently, from 
its being melted ; cf. F. bouillon, a boiling. 
—lsXs\u.bulHdneiit, ace. oi bullio, a boil- 
ing. — L. bullire, to bubble up, boil. — L. 
.bulla, a bubble. 

Bully, a noisy rough fellow. (O. Low 
G.) In Sh. The oldest sense, in E., is 
'dear one, lover.' — M. Du. boel, a lover 
(of either sex) ; borrowed from M. H. G. 
buole (G. bnhle), lover. 

Bulrush.. (E.) yL.¥..bttlrysche,Vromxit. 
Parv., p. 244, col. 2. Perhaps 'stem-rush '; 
from its stout stem ; cf. Shetl. btilwand, 
a bulrush.- Dan. bul, stem, trimk; see 



Bole. Or bull may mean ' large,' with 
ref. to a btdl. Cf. bull-daisy, &c. (Britten). 

Bulwark. (Scand.) Dan. buhark, 
Swed. bolverk (Ihre) ; cf. Du. bolwerk, G. 
boll-iverk (whence F. boulevanf). Com- 
pounded of Dan. bul, Swed. bol, trunk of 
a tree, log, Icel. bulr, bplr, the stem of a 
tree; and Dan. vark, Swed. verk, a work. 
Lit. 'log -work,' or 'bole-work'; see 

Bum-bailiff, under-bailiff. (E. and 
F.) A slang term. Todd quotes passages 
to shew that it arose from the pursuer 
catching at ix man by the hinder part of 
his garment. 

Bumble-bee, a bee that booms or 
hums. See Boom (i). 

Bumboat. (E.) From bum and boat. 
Orig. a scavenger's boat on the Thames 
(a. d. 16S5) ; afterwards used to supply 
vegetables to ships. 

Bump (i), to thump; a blow. (E.) 
Of imitative origin ; cf. M. Dan. bumpe, 
to strike with the fist ; W. pwinpio, to 
thump ; pwmp, a lump ; Corn, bom, bum, 
a blow. The senses are ; (i ) to strike, 
(2) a blow, (3) its effect. See Bunch. 

Bump (2), to boom. (E.) Imitative; 
cf. Boom (i), and Bumble-bee. 

Bumper, a full glass. (E.) From 
bump ; with the notion of a bumping or 
full glass ; c£ thumping, i. e. great. 

Bumpkin, a thick-headed fellow. (Du.) 
M. Du. boomken, a little tree (Hexham); 
dimin. of boom, a tree, u beam, bar ; see 
Beam (i). The E. bttmkin also meant 
a luff-block, a thick piece of wood (Cot- 
grave, s. V. Chicambault, and see bumkin 
in the E. index) ; hence, readily applied 
to a block-head, thick-sknlled fellow. 

Bun, (F.) Cf. prov. F. bugne, a kind 
of fritters ; perhaps the same as O. F. 
bugne, a swelling or bump due to a blow 
(Bnrguy), also spelt bigiie, 'a bump, 
knob ; ' Cot. O. F. biigjiete, a fritter (Gode- 
froy) ; also bupiet (id., Supp. p. 393). 
' Bignets ,\\VA& round loaves, bims,' &c.; 
Cot. Minsheu has Span, bunuelos, ' pan- 
cakes, cobloaves, buns.' See Bunion. 

Bunch. (E.?) M. E. bundle. Cf. 
M. E. bunchen, to beat. Prob. imitative, 
like bump, bounce. And see Bunk. 

Bundle. (E.) U.Y..bundel. Dimin. 

of O. Northumb. bund, a bundle (Matt. 

xiii. 3o).-A. S. bund-, weak gr.-ide of 

bindan, to bind.+Du. bondel; Q. bundel. 


Bung, a stopple. (Du. -L.) M. Du. 
ionge (Du. bom), a bung ; dialectal form 
of *dencie, as preserved in F. bonde, a bung. 
Cognate with Swiss punt (Weigand, s. v. 
Spund). — L. puncla, an orifice ; orig. fern. 
pp. of pungere, to prick, Cf. W. oiung; 
an orifice, also, a bung. 

Bungalow, a Bengal thatched house. 
(Hind.) Hind, bangalah, of or belonging 
to Bengal, a bungalow; Rich. Diet. p. 
293. From the name Bengal. 

Bungle. (Scand. ?) of imitative 
origin. Cf. Swed. dial, bangla, to work 
ineffectually ; O. Swed. hunga, to strike 
(Rietz, Ihre.) And cf. Bang. 

Bunion. (F. — G.) O.Y.buigiion,orA.y 
in the sense of a fritter (Godefroy) ; but 
really an augmentative of O. F. buigne 
(F. bigne, 'a bump, swelling,' Cot.).— 
O. H. G. burigo, a lump (Graff, in 
Schmeller) ; cf. leel. bunga, convexity. 
So also Ital. bitgiioue, augment, of bugno, 
a boil, a swelling. See Bun. 

•RirnlTj a wooden case or box, berth. 
(Scand.) Cf. O. Swed. bunke, the plank- 
ing of a ship forming a shelter for mer- 
chandise, cScc. (Ihre) ; the usual sense of 
Swed. bunke is a heap, pile, something 
prominent; M. Dan. bunke, room for 

Bunt, the belly of a sail. (Scand.) It 
answers in form to Dan. bundt, Swed. 
bunt, a bundle, a bunch ; from tlie weak 
stem of the verb to Bind. ^ But the right 
words for ' bunt ' are Dan. btig, Swed. 
btik, Du. buik, G. bauch ; see Bulk (2). 

Bunting (0, a bird. (E.?) M.E. 

bunting; also buntyle { = buniel), Lowl. 
Sc. buntlin. Origin unknown. 

Bunting (2), a thin woollen stuff for 
flags. (E.) Perhaps ' sifting-cloth ' ; from 
M. E. bonlen, prov. E. bunt, to sift. Cf. 
F. etamine., in the same senses. 

Buoy. (Du. - F. - L.) Du. boei, a buoy ; 
also a Shackle, a fetter. -O. F. buie, a 
fetter, F. boiiie, a buoy. -Late L. boia, a 
fetter, clog.-L. boice, pi. a collar for the 
neck, orig. of leather. 

Bur, Burdock; see Burr. 

Burbot, a fish. (F.) F. bourbotte 
(also barb(ile). — Y. bourbetter, ' to wallow 
in mud,' Cot. — F. boiirbe, mud. — Late L. 
liar^a, mud. — Gk. ffSpffopos, mud. 

Burden (i), Burtlien, a load carried. 
(E.) A. S, byrden, a load. From Teut. 
*dur- weak grade of *bernn-, to hear ; see 
Bear' (i)- + 1=^1. iyrSr, byrSi; Swed. 


bbrda; Dan. byrde; Goth, baurthci; G. 
biirde ; from the sam.e root, with varying 
suffixes. For the form burden, see below. 

Burden .(2), the refrain of a song. 
(F. — Late L.) F. bourdon, a drone-bee, 
humming of bees, drone of a bagpipe; 
see Cot. — Late L. burdonem, ace. of burdo, 
a drone. Prob. of imitative origin ; cf. 
Lowland Sc. birr, to make a whizzing 
noise, E, buzz. ^ Confused with Bur- 
den (i). 

Bureau. (F. — L.) F. bureau, a desk, 
writing-table; so called because covered 
with brown baize. — F. bureau, O. F. burel, 
coarse woollen stuff, russet- coloured. — 
O. F. buire, M. F. bure, dark brown ; F. 
bure, coarse cloth. — L. burrus, reddish. — 
Gk. TTvppbs, reddish. — Gk. irCp, fire. 

Burgeon, a bud. (F.-Teut.) F. 
bourgeon, a young bud. Lengthened from 
Langnedoc boure, a bud, eye of a shoot 
(Diez).-M. H. G. buren, O. H. G. pur- 
jan, to raise, push up, push out. — M. H. G. 
bor, por, an elevation ; whence G. empor 
(^=in poi'), upwards. 

Burgess. (F. - M. H. G.) M. E. bur- 
geys. — O. F. burgeis. — Low Lat. burgensis, 
belonging to a fort or city. — Low Lat. 
burgus, a fort. — M. H. G. biirc (G. bzirg) ; 
cognate with A. S. burg; see Borough, 

%urglier, (Du.) Formerly burger. — 
Du. burger, a citizen. — Du. burg, a city ; 
cognate with £. Borough. 

burglar. (A. F. — £.) A.¥. burgkr, 
burglour; Law L. burgulator. — 'La.yi L. 
burgalare, to break into a house. — A. S. 
burh, burg ; see Borough. 

burgomaster. (Du. and F.) Du. 
burge-meester, a town-master. — Du. burg, 
cognate with E. Borough ; and meester, a 
master, from O. F. meistre ; see Master. 

Burgonet, a helmet. (F.) F. bour- 
guignote, 'a burganet,' Cot. So called 
because first used by the Burgundians. - 
F. Bourgogne, Burgundy. 

Burial. (E.) M. E. buriel, biriel, a 
tomb; also spelt beriels, biriels. — A.S. 
byrgels, a tomb. — A. S. byrgan, to bury; 
see Bury. The spelling with -al is due to 
association mihfuner-al. Sec. 

Burin, an engraver's tool. (F. — G.) 
F. burin; Ital. boi-ino. Prob. from 
M. H. G. boren (G. bohren), to bore; see 
Bore (i). 

Burke, to murder by suffocation; to 
murder, stifle. (Personal name.) From 
the name of Mtirke, an Irishman who com- 


mitted murders by suffocation; executed 
at Edinburgh, Jan. 28, 1829. 

Burl, to pick knots- and loose threads 
from cloth. (F. — L.) To to;-/ is to pick 
off burls. M. E. hirle, a knot in cloth. — 
O. F. bourh ; dimin. of F. bourre, a flock 
or lock of wool or hair. — Late L. burra, 
a woollen pad ; allied to L. burra, trifles, 
trash, Late L. reburrus, rough. 

biirlesq.ue, comic. (F.-Ital. -L.) 

F. burlesque. — \i3\. biirlesco, ludicrous.— 
Ital. burla, waggery, a trick. A dimin. 
from L. burra, trifles, nonsense (Ansonius). 
See Burl. 

Burly. (E.) M. E. burli, btwliche, 
borli ; prov. E. bowerly ; Shetland boorly. 
Formed by adding the suffix -ly (A. S. 
■lie) to A. S. biir, a bower, a lady's 
chamber ; hence, the old senses of ' fit for 
a bower,' stately, excellent, large, great ; 
and, finally, stout, big. E. g. 'a burly bed.' 

Burn ( I), verb. (E.) M.E. fer>2««; also 
brennen. There are two forms. <*. intrans. 
A.S. beornan, byrnan, strong verb, pt. t. 
beam, bran, pp. boriien.-\-0. Icel. brinna ; 
Goth, brinnan ; Teut. type *brennan- ; cf. 
A. S. bryne, flame, p. trans. A. S. bcernan, 
wk. vb.+Icel. bretina, Dan. brande, Swed. 
brdnna ; G. brennen ; Goth, brannjan ; 
Teut. type *brannjan-, causal to the former. 

Burn (2), a brook ; see Bourn (2). 

Bnrnet, a plant. (F. -O.H. G.) 
Low L. burneta. — O. F. brunete, the name 
of a flower : burnette, brunette, a kind of 
dark brown cloth, also a brunette. See 
Brunette. Named from the dark brown 
colour of the flowers. 

burnish, to polish. (F. - O. H. G.) 

M. E. burnishen ; also burnen. — O. F. 
buritir, irunir (pres. part, burnis-ant), to 
embrown, to polish. — O. H. G. brunen 
{<,*brilnjan), — O.H..G. briin, brown; see 

Burnouse, Burnoose, an upper 

cloak worn by the Arabs. (F. — Arab.) 
F. burnous, boumous. — Arab, burnus, a. 
kind of high-crowned cap, worn formerly 
in Barbary and Spain ; whence Span, al- 
bornoz, a kind of cloak with a hood. 

Burr, Bur. (E.) M. E. burre, knob 
on a burdock ; borre, roughness in the 
throat. Not in A.S. N. Fries, burre, 
borre, a burr, burdock. + Swed. borre, asea- 
urchin; *ara?fo;-r^, a burdock; Tiaxi. borre, 
burdock. From Teut. base *burs-<.*burs-, 
weak grade of Teut. root *bers, to bristle. 
See Bristle. Der, bur-dock. 


Burrow, a shelter for rabbits. (E.) 
M.E. borwgh, a cave, shelter; merely a 
varied spelling of borough. Der. burrow, 
verb. ,, •, T 

Bursar. (Med. L.-Gk.) Med. L. 
bursanus, a purse-bearer. - Med. L. bursa, 
a purse. - Gk. &ipaa, a hide, wme-skm. 

Burst. (E.) M. E. bersten, bresten, pt. 
t. Iirast. A. S. berstan, to burst asunder, 
break ; str. vb.-FDu. bersten ; G. bersten ; 
Icel. bresta ; Swed. brista ; Dan. briste ; 
also O. Irish briss-im (for *brest-im), I 

Bury (0. vb. (E.) M.E. bunen. 
A.S. byrigan, byrgan, to hide in the 
ground, bury. From burg-, weak grade 
of beorg-an, to hide ; see Borough. 

Bury (2), a town. (E.) As in Canter- 
bury. — A. S. byrig, dat. olburh, a borough. 
See Borough. 

Bus, a shortened form ol omnibus. (L.) 
See Omnibus. 

Busb. (i), a thicket. (Scand.— L.) 
M. E. busch, busk. — Dan. husk, Swed. 
buske,a bush, shrub.-fDu. bosch ; O. H. G. 
busc ; G. busch. All from Late L. boscus, 
a bush ; a word of unknown origin. 

Bush. (2), the metal box in which an 
axle works. (Du. — L. — Gk.) 'iA.'E. busse. 
— Du. bus, a box, barrel (of a gun) ; G. 
bikhse. — Late L. buxis, a box. — Gk. Jriif ir, 
a box.— Gk. jriifos, box-wood, box-tree. 
See Pyx. 

bushel, a, measure. (F.— L. — Gk.) 
M.E. bushel. — A. F. bousselle, O. F. boissel ; 
Late L. bustellus, a small box; for 
*boistel, dimin. of O. F. boiste, a box.— 
Late L. buxida, ace. of buxis, a box 

Busk (i), to get oneself ready. (Scand.) 
Icel. buask, to get oneself ready. — Icel. 
bua, to prepare ; and -sk, for sik, oneself. 
See Bound (3) ; and cf. Bask. 

Busk (2), a support for a woman's 
stays. (F.) M. F. busque, ' a buske, or 
buste ; ' Cot. Mod. F. busc. Of uncertain 

origin. Cf. M. F. buc, ' a busque ;' Cot. 

Buskin. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
bousequin (1483) ; also brotiseqtiin.— 
M. Ital. borzachino, buskin, fine boot.— 
L. borsa. - Gk. fivpaa, a hide. The M. Du. 
broseken was borrowed from F. 

Buss, to kiss. (E.) [The old word was 
bass. — F. baiser, to kiss. - Lat. basium, a 
kiss.] The modern buss, of imitative 

origin, may have been partly suggested 

by it. Cf. prov. G. (Bavarian) bussen, 



to kiss ; Lith. huczoti, to kiss ; also Gael, 
and W. bus, mouth, lip. 

Bust. (F. - Ital.) F. buste. - Ital. 
husto, tlie bust, trunk of human body, 
stays; Late L. bitsium, the trunk of the 
body. Etym. uncertain. 

Bustard, a bird. (F.-L.) Formerly 
also bislard (Sherwood). — O. F. bistarde, 
'a bustard; ' Cot. (Mod. F. outarde.)—!,. 
auis tarda, a slow bird (Pliny, N. H. x. 
12). Cf. Port, abetarda, also betarda, a 
bustard. % Both O. F. bistarde and F. 
Qutarde are from auis tarda ; in the former 
case, initial a is dropped ; in the latter, 
ouiarde stands for an older oustarde, where 
ous = L. auis. See Diez. Auis tarda, 
lit. ■ slow bird,' Is far from' being truly 
descHptive ; so that it is prob. a substitu- 
tion for some form foreign to Latin. 

Bustle. (Scnnd.) A frequentative of 
Norw, busta, to be violent ; Swed. bosta, 
to biistle, work. Cf. Icel. bustla, to splash 
about as a fish ; E. Fries. bUsen, to be 
violei)t. See Boast and Boisterous. 

BuSy. (E.) M. E. bisy. A. S. bisig 
{Irysig), active ; whence bisgu, exertion. + 
i)n. b(zig, busy. 

But (i), prep, and conj., except. (E.) 
A. S. be iilan, bUtan, bilta, lit. ' without.' — 
A. S. be, by ; iltan, adv. without, from ilt, 
out.+Du. buiten. 
• But (2) ; see Butt (i). Butt (2). 

Butcher. (F.— G.) M.'K.bocher.— 
O. F. bocliier, orig. one who kills goats.— 
O. F. boc (F. bouc), a goat. — G. bock, a 
goat. See Buck. 

Butler. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) M. E. 
boteler, one who attends to bottles ; from 
M. E. botel, a bottle ; see Bottle. 
Butt (i), a push, thrust ; to thrust. (F. 
— O. Low G.) [The senses of the sb. may 
be referred to the verb; just as F. botte, 
a thrust, depends on bouter, to strike.] 
M. E. butten, to push, strike. — O. F. boter, 
to push, butt, strike. — O. Frank. *io/a«, 
corresponding to M. Du. booten, to beat, 
M. H. G. bSzen, O. H. G. lozan, to beat. 
Der. butt (mound to shoot at), from M. F. 
butte, the same, allied to F. but, a mark, 
from buier, O. F. boter, to hit. Der. 
a-biit. See Beat. 
Butt (2), a large barrel. (F.-L.) We 
find A. S. bytt; but our mod. word is 
really F. — O. F. boule, F. botte, ' the vessel 
which we call a butt ;' Cot. — Late Lat. 
butta, buttis, a cask. 
Butt (3), a thick end. (E.) M. E. but. 



butte. Cognate with Icel. buttr, short ; 
see Buttock. Der. butt-end. 

Butt (4), a kind of flat fish. (E.) 
.\llied to Swed. butta, a turbot, M. Dan. 
butte. Low G. but, Du. bot, a butt. Prob. 
from but, stumpy ; see Buttock. 
Butter. (L. - Gk.) M. E. botere ; 
A. S. bulere. — lu. biltyrum. — GV. 0ovtv- 
pov, butter. Probably of Scythian origin. 
butterfly. (E.) A. S. buttor-fleoge, 
lit. butter-fly. So called from its excre- 
ment resembling butter, as shewn by the 
M. Du. boter-schijte, a butter-fly, lit. 
butter-voider (Kilian). + Du. botervlieg; 
G. butter-fliege. 

Buttery, a place for provisions, esp. 
liquids. (F. - Late L.) A corruption of 
M. E. botelerie, a butlery, properly a place 
for a butler ; from M. E. boteler, a butler; 
see Butler. (Thus buttery = bottlery.) 
Confused with the word butter. 

Buttock. (E.) U.'E.buttok. Formed, 
with dimin. suffix -ok (A. S. -uc), from 
butt, a thick end, a stump. Cf. Tcel. 
buftr, short, bfitr, a log; Dan. but, Swed. 
butt, stumpy, surly ; Du. bot, blunt, dull. 
See Butt (3). 
Button. (F. - O. Low G.) M. E. 
baton, also, a bud. — O. F. bot07t (F. 
bouton) , a bud, a button ; properly, a round 
knob pushed out. — O. F. boter, to push, 
push out; see Butt (1). 

buttress, a support, in architecture. 
(F. — O. Low G.) M. E. boleros ; Palsgrave 
has bottras, btitteras. Orig. a plural form, 
as if for *butterets. — O. F. bouterez, pi. of 
bouteret, a prop. — F. bouter, to thrust, 
prop. Cotgrave also has boutant, a but- 
tress, from the same verb ; see Butt (i). 

Butty, a companion or partner in a 
work. (F. — Low G.) Shortened from 
boty-felowe or booty-fellow , one who shares 
booty with others. From boty, old spell- 
ing of booty = F. butin, booty. Of Low G. 
origin ; see Booty. 

Buxom. (E.) M. E. boxom, buhsum • 
the old sense was obedient, obliging, good- 
humoured. Lit. ' bow-some.' — A. S. bug- 
an, to bow, bend, obey; and -sum, suffix, 
as in win-some. -^-Yiv.. buigzaam ; G. bieg- 
sain. See Bow (i). 

Buy. (E.) From A. S. byg-, as in 
byg-est, byg-eS, 2 and 3 p. sing. pres. of 
A. S. bycgan, to purchase, whence M. E. 
buggen, biggen. + Goth, bugjan. Der. 
abide (2), q. v. See Sweet, N.E. G. § 1 293. 
Buzz. (E.) An imitative word ; cf. 


Lowl. Sc. bizz, to hiss ; Ital. biKskare, to 
hum, whisper. 

Buzzard. (F. — L.) M. E. hosard, 
husard, an inferior kind of falcon. — F. 
btisard. — F. /'use, a buzzard ; with suffix 
■ard (from O.H.G. kari). — i,a.te L. iiisio 

= L. buteo, a sparrow-hawk. 

By, prep. (E.) M. E. Hi. A. S. hi, 
big.+T)n. bij ; G.bei; Goth.W. Cf.Skt. 
a-bhi, Gk. d/i-tlii. 

By-law, a law affecting a township. 
(Scand.) Formerly also birlaiv. — Icel. 
bfe-r, by-r, a village (gen. bajar, whence 
bir-) ; log, a law. So also Dan. by-lov, a 
town-law. Icel. bar is allied to biia, to 
dwell. See Boor. 

Byre, ■<>■ cow-house. (E.) A Northern 

E. deriv. of bower. A. S. lyre, a shed, 
hut. — A. S. bm; u bower ; cf. Icel. biir, a 
pantry. See Bower. 


Cab (i) ; see Cabriolet. 

Cab (2), a Heb. measure. (Heb.) Heb. 
qab, the 1 8th part of an ephah . The literal 
sense is ' hollow ' ; cf. Heb qabab, to form 
in the shape of a vault ; see Alcove. 

Cabal. (F.- Heb.) Orig;. ' a secret.' F. 
cabale, ' the Jewes Caball, a hidden science ; ' 
Cot. — Heb. qabhalah,rtQe^\Xan, mysterious 
doctrine. — Heb. qabal, to receive; qibbel, 
to adopt a doctrine. 

Cabbage (Oi a vegetable. (F.-L.) 
M. E. camche, caioche. — F. (Picard) ca- 
I'oche, lit. ' great head ; ' cf. Picard cabus, 

F. choux cabus, large-headed cabbage. — L. 
cap-tU, head ; with augmentative suffix ; 
cf. Ital. capocchia, head of a nail. 

Cabbage (2), to steal. (F.) From 
F. cabasser, to put into a basket ; Norman 
cabasser, to cabbage (and see Supp. to 
Godefroy ). — F. cabas, a basket ; Norman 
cabas, tailor's cabbage; of unknown origin. 

Caber, a pole. (C. — L.) Gael, cdbar, 
a rafter. — L. type *caprio, a rafter; see 

Cabin. (F.) l/l.'E.. cabane.-'F. cabaiie. 
— Prov. cabana. — Late L. capaiina, a 
hut (Isidore). 

cabinet. (F.) F. cabinet, dimin. of 
F. cabatie, a cabin (above). 

Cable. (F.-L.) M. E. cable. - O. F. 
<-aWe. — Late L. capiilum, caplum, a strong 
(holding)rope. — L. capere, to hold. 

Caboose, the cook's cabin on board ship. 
(Dn.) . Formerly camboose. — Du. kombuis, 



a cook's cabin; also 'the chimney in a 
ship,' Sewel. (Hence also Dan. kabys, 
Swed. kabysa, caboose.) 
Cabriolet. (F.-ital.-L.) Cab is 

short for cabriolet. — ¥. cabriolet, a cab; 
from its supposed lightness. — F. cabriole, 
a caper, leap of a goat ; formerly capriole. 
— Ital. cafriola, a caper, a kid. - Ital. 
caprio, wild goat ; capra, a she-goat. — 
L. caper, goat ; fem. capra. 

Cacao, atree. (Span. -Mexican.) Span. 
cacao ; from the Mexican name {cacatmtt) 
of the tree whence chocolate is made. 
% Not the same as cocoa. 

Cachinnation. (L.) L. ace cacMn- 

ndtionem, loud laughter. — L. cachinnSre, 
to laugh. Cf Cackle. 

Cachuclia, a dance. (Span.) Span. 

Caciq.Tie, a W. Indian chief. (Span.— 
W. Indian.) Span, cacique, an Indian 
prince. From the old language of Hayti. 

Cack, to go to stool. (L.) M. E. 
cakken. — 'L. cacdre. 

Cackle. (E.) M.E. kakelen, a fre- 
quentative form. Not in A. .S. + Du. 
kakelen ; Swed. kackla ; Dan. kagle ; G. 
gackeln. The sense is ' to keep on saying 
kak;^ cf. gabb-le, gobb-le, gagg-le. 

Cacophony, a harsh sound. (Gk.) 
Gk. KUKoipcovia, a harsh sound. — Gk. xaxS- 
(paivos, harsh. — Gk. Kaii6-s, bad ; and 
^^Kur-ij, sound. Der. cacoplwnous (Gk. Ka«<5- 

Cad, a low fellow. (F.-L.) Short 
for Lowl. Sc. cadie, an errand-boy; see 
Jamieson. — F. cadet ; see Cadet. 

Cadaverous, corpse-like. (L.) L. 
cadduerasus. — L. cadduer, a corpse. — Lat. 
cad-cre, to fall, fall dead. 

Caddis, a kind of worsted lace or tape. 
(F.) In Wint. Tale, iv. 4. 208. M. E. 
cadas, explained by bombicinium in 
Prompt. Parv. ; (hence Irish cadas, cad- 
dis). Though also used to denote 'wor- 
sted,' it was orig. coarse silk. — F. cadarce, 
I the coursest part of silke, whereof sleave 
is made ; ' Cot. Cf. Span, cadarso, coarse, 
entangled silk, that cannot be spun on a 
reel ; Port, cadarfo, a coarse silk. Origin 
unknown; probably Eastern. J>eT. cadilis- 
worm, from the caddis-like shape of the 
case of the larva. 

Caddy, a small box for tea. (Malay.) 
Better spelt catty. A small uackage of 
tea, less than a half-chest, is called in the 
tea-trade a caddy or catty. — '{AaXa.y kdti, u. 


■weight equal to ig lb. avoirdupois. This 
•weight is also used in China and Japan, 
and tea is often made up in padcages con- 
taining one catty. 
Gade, a barrel, cask. (F. — L. — Gk.— 
Heb.) F. cade. — 'L,. cadus, a barrel, cask. 

— Gk. Kabos, a cask, jar. — Heb. iaj, a pail. 
Cadence, a fall of the voice. (F. — 

Ital. — L.) M. E. cadeiiee. — F. cadence, ' a 
cadence, just falling of words;' Cot.—. 
Ital. cadensa. — Late L. cadentia, a falling. 

— L. cadent-, stem of pres. pt. of cadere, to 
fall.+Skt. fad, to fall. 

Cadet, orig. a younger son. (F. — L.) 
F. ccuiet, a younger brother ; Prov. capdel. 
Capdet is a Gascon form = Late L. capit- 
ellum (the substitution of t for // being 
regular in Gascon ; P. Meyer) ; lit. a little 
(younger) head, dimin. from L. caput, a 

Cadi, a judge; (Arab.) Arab. qdd.i, 
qazi, a cadi orcazi, a judge. Hence Span. 
alcalde, the judge (E. alcayde) ; where al 
is the Arab. def. article. 

Cadncons, falling. (L.) L. caduc-us, 
falling; with suffix -ous. — 'L. cadere, to 
fall. See Cadence. 

Caesura. (L.) L. aesilra, a cutting ; 
a pause in a verse. — L. cas-us, pp. of 
cadere, to cut. 

Caftan, a Turkish garment. (Turk.) 
Turk, qaftnn, a dress. 

Cage. (F. -L.) F. rai'^.-Late L. 
cavea, L. caitea, a cave, den, cage. — L. 
catiiis, hollow. See Cave. 

Gaiqne, a boat. (F. — Turk.) ¥. caique. 

— Turk, kaik, a boat. 

Gaim, a pile of stones. (C.) Gael., 
Irish, W., Bret, car/i, a crag, rock ; also a 
pile of stones. 

Caitiff. (F. -L.) M.E. caiii/.- 
A.F. cai/if, a captive, a wretch (F. cMt'if). 

— L. captiuum, ace. of captmus; see 

Cajole. (F.) F. cajoler, to cajole; 
formerly, to chatter like a jay. Perhaps 
of imitative origin ; cf. cackle. 

Cajnput, Cajeput (with j as y), a 
tree yielding an oil. (Malay.) Malay 
Myu piitih, lit. 'white wood.' -Malay 
kdyu, wood; piitih, white. 

Cake. (E. or Scand.) M.E. cake. 
N. Fries, kdk, kag, late Icel. and Swed. 
kaka; Dan. kage. Tent, stem *kakdn-, 
fem. ; from Teut. root *kak-^ of which the 
strong grade ii *kdk- (whence prov. E. 
cookie, Du. koek, G. kuchen, a cake). 


Calabash, the shell of a gourd. (F. 

— Span. —Arab. — Pers.) F. calebasse.— 
Span, calaliam (Port, calaba(a). — Arab. — 
Pers. kharlmz, a melon ; lit. ' ass-gourd,' 
i. e. large gourd.- Pers. khar, ass (hence, 
coarse) ; husah, odoriferous fruit. Cf. Skt. 
kha7-a, an ass. 

Calamint, a herb. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
M. F. calameM, Cot. — Late L. calauiiiithd, . 

— Gk. KaKafui/0jj^ 

Calamity. (F. — L.) Y.calamiti.— 
L. ace. calamiidtem, a misfqrtupe. 

Calash., a sort of carriage. (F. — G. — 
Slavonic.) F. caliche. — G. kalesche. — Pol. 
kolaska, a small caiTiage, dimtn. of kolasa, 
a carriage; Russ. koliaska, a carriage.— 
Pol. A(*, awheel; O. Slay. /w/o. (y'QEL.) 

Calcareous. (L.) Should be cal- 
carious. — L. cakSrius, pertaining to lime. 

— L. calc-, stem of calx, lime. 
calcine. (F. — L.) F. caldner. — 

Mod. L. calcindre, to reduce to a calx. — 
L. calc-, stem of calx, lime. 

calculate. (L-) L. cakuldt-ns, pp. 
of calculdre, to reckon by help of small 
pebbles. — L. calculus, pebble ■• dimin. of 
calx, a stone. 

Caldron, Cauldron. (F.-L.) M.E. 

cauderon, A. F. caudrun. — O. Norih F. 

(Picard) cauderon, for O. F. chauderon, 
mod. F. chatidron (Ital. calderone. Span. 
calderon), a vessel for hot water. Extended 
from L. caldar-ia, a hot bath. — L. caldtis, 
contr. form of calidus, hot. — L. calere, to 
be hot. 

Calendar. (L.) L. calcndiirium, an 
account-book kept by money-changers; so 
called because interest was due on the 
calends (ist day) of each month ; also, a 
calendar.- L. calendce, calends. 

Calender (Oj ^ machine for pressing 
cloth. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. calandre.- 
Med. 'L.*calendra, celendra, a calender; an 
adaptation of L. cylindrus, a cylinder; see 
Cylinder. Der. calender, a smoother of 
linen, a mistaken form for calendrer. 

Calender (2), a kind of wandering 
monk. (F.— Pers.) F. calender. -VeTs. 
qalandar, a kind of wandering Mnham- 
madan monk, who abandons everything 
and retires from the world. 

Calends. (L.) L. calendce, s. pi., 
the first day of the (Roman) month. Orig. 
obscure ; but certainly from the base cal-, 
as in O. Lat. caldre, to proclaim. + Gk. 
Ka\(iv, to summon. Allied to Hale (2). 

Calenture, a feverous madness. (F, 


— Span. — L.) Y. caleniure. — Spaa. calen- 
tura. — h. calent-, stein of jiires. pt. of 
calere, to be hot. 

Calf (I). (E.) M.E: kalf. O. Merc. 
calf; A. S. ceal/.-\-T)i\. kalf; Icel. kalfr; 
Swed. kalf; Dan. kalv; Goth, kalbo; 
G. kalb. Der. fa/zi^, vb., A. S. cealfian. 
Perhaps allied to Skt. garbha, womb, a 
fcetus. Brugm. i. § 656. 

Calf (2), the thick hind part of the 
shank. (E.) Perhaps the same as the above; 
cf. Gaulish L. galba, great-ballied ; Icel. 
kalfi, calf of the leg. See Cave in. 

Caliber, Calibre, bore of a gun. 

(F.) F. calibre, size of a bore ; Span. 
calibre (1623). Etym. unknown. Perhaps 
from Arab, qdlib, a form, mould, model. 
Rich. Diet. p. mi (Diez). Mahn sug- 
gests L. qua libra, with what measure. 

Calico, cotton -cloth. (E. Indian.) 
Named from Calicut, on the Malabar 
coast, whence it was first imported. 

Calif, Caliph.. (F.- Arab.) Y.calife, 
a successor of the prophet. — Arab, kha- 
lifah, successor. — Arab, khalafa, to suc- 
ceed. Doublet, khalifa. 

Caligraphy, Calligraphy, good 

writing. (Gk.) Gk. KaAAi7/)aiJ)ia. — Gk. 
KoXKi-, prefix (for «a\\os, beauty, from 
KaXhi, good, fair) ; and ypiipnv, to write. 

calisthenics, callisthenics, 

graceful exercises. (Gk.) From Gk. 
KaWiffffeK-ijs, adorned with strength. — 
Gk. KaWi- (for xaWos, beauty, from 
ica\6s, fair) ; and a$iv-os, strength. 

Calipers, compasses. (F.) For caliber- 
compasses, i. e. compasses for measuring 
diameters; see Caliber. 

Calisthenics ; see Caligraphy. 

Caliver, a sort of musket. (F.) Named 
from its caliber or bore ; see Kersey's Diet. 
See Caliber. 

Calk ; usually Caulk, q. v. 

Call. (Scand.) Late A. S. ccaUian; 
cf. hildecalla, a herald. E. Fries, kallen. — 
Icel. and Swed. kalla; Dan. kalde.-\-T>\ii, 
kallen ; O. H. G. challon. Tent, type 
*kallm- or *kallojan-, weak verb ; cf. W. 
galw, to call, Russ. golos', voice, sound. 

Callet, Callat, a worthless woman. 
(F.-Low L.-Low G.) In Oth. iv. 2. 
121. — F. caillette, a gossip, chatterer; 
lit. a little quail ; dimin. of caille, a quail, 
also a woman. Littre gives caille coiffSe, 
femme galante. See Quail. (Doubt- 

Callous, hard. (F.-L.) Y.calleux.- 


L. callosus, thick-skinned. -L. callus, cal- 
lum, hard skin. 

Callow, unfledged, bald. (I-.) M. E. 
calu, calewe. A. S. calu, bald.+Du. kaal, 
bald ; Swed. kal ; G. kahl. Teut. *kahvoz, 
early borrowed from L. caluus, bald. 

Calm. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cahiie, adj. 
Allied to Prov. chaume, the time when the 
flocks rest ; F. chdmer (iotmeily chattmer), 
to rest from work ; Ital. calma, rest. - Late 
L. cauma, the heat of the sun (whence, 
time for rest) ; Job xxx. 30. [It is sug- 
gested that the change from au to al was 
due to association with L. cal-ere, to be 
hot.]-Gk. KoS/iO, heat.-Gk. Kaiuv, to 
burn. Der. be-calm. 

Calomel, a preparation of mercury. 
(Gk.) Coined to express a white product 
from a black substance. — Gk. Ka.\o-s, fair ; 
and fitK-as, black. 

Caloric. (F. — L.) F. caloriqtie. — 'L. 
calor, heat. — L. calere, to be hot. 

calorific, making liot. (L.) L. calori- 
_;ffaj,makinghot. — L. caldri-,%\.tia.oi calor, 
heat ; and -fie-, foifacere, to make. 

Calthrop, Caltrap, a star-thistle, u. 
ball with spikes for annoying cavalry. 
(L. and Teut.) M. E. kalketrafpe, A. S. 
calcetreppe, a star-thistle. Coined from 
L. caki-, stem of calx, the heel ; and the 
Teutonic word trap. Lit. ' heel-trap ' ; see 
Trap. So also F. chaussetrappe, the same. 

Calumet, a kind of pipe for tobacco. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) Norman F, calumet, a 
pipe ; parallel form to O. F. chalemel, F. 
chalumeau, a pipe. — L. calamus, a reed. — 
Gk. xaKaiios, a reed. See Shawm. 

Calumny. (F.— L.) Y . calomnie. — 'L. 
calumnia, false accusation. — L. caluJ, 
caluere, to deceive. 

Calve ; see Calf. 

Calx. (L.) L. calx, stone, lime (stem 
calc-") ; in Late L., a calx. 

Calyx. (L. - Gk.) L. calyx. - Gk. 
KoXv^, a covering, calyx (or cup) of u. 
flower. Allied to Helm (2). 

Cam, a projection on a wheel. (Du.) 
Du. kamm, a comb (see Kilian"! ; Low G. 
kamm ; cf. Dan. kam, comb, also a ridge 
on a wheel, cam, or cog. See Comb. 

Cambric. (Flanders.) Named from 
Kamerijk, also called Cambray, a town 
in Flanders, where it was first made. 

Camel. (F.-L.-Gk.-Heb.) M.E. 
camel, catnail, chamel. — O. North F. camel, 
O. F. chamel. — L. camelus. — Gk. naiirjKos. 
— Heb. gdmdl. Cf. Arab. _/«/««/. 



eamelopard, a giraffe. (L.-Heb. 
and Gk.) Formerly camelopardalis. — ' 
melopardSlis. — Gk. Kaiitj\oiripSa\is, giraffe; 
l^artly like a camel, partly like a pard. — 
Gk. leaiuiKo-s, a camel (Heb. gamal) ; and 
irdpSa\is, a pard ; see Pard. 

Camellia. (Personal name.) A plant 
named (by Linnieus) after Geo. Jos. Karael, 
a Moravian Jesuit (17th cent.), who de- 
scribed the plants in the island of Luzon. 

Camelopard ; see Camel. 

Cameo. (Ital.) Itol. cammeo, a cameo, 
precious stone carved in relief. Origin 

Camera. (L.) L. camera, a chamber ; 
hence camera obscura, a dark chamber, 
box for photography ; see Chamber. 

Camlet, a stuff. (F. — Arab.) Formerly 
camelot. — M.'S. cavmlot, Cot.; supposed 
to be named from containing camefs hair. 
Really from Arab, khamlat, khamalat, 
camlet ; Rich. Diet. p. 628. 

Camomile ; see Chamomile. 

Camp. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. camp (Cot.). 
—Ital. campo, a field, caxa^-. — X,. camptim^ 
aca of campus, a field, ground held by an 
army. Brugm. i. % 563. 

campaign, orig. a large field. (F. — 
Ital.— L.) F. campaigne, campagne, an 
•open field. — Ital. campagna, a field ; also 
a campaign. — L. campdnia, open field. — 
L. campus, a field. (Also spelt champaign, 
and even champion in old -authors.) 

campestral, growing in fields. (L.) 
From L. campestr-is, growing in fields; 
with suffix -«/. — L. campus, a field. 

Campaunla. (L.) Lit. 'a little bell;' 
dimin. of L. campdna, a bell. Hence also 

Camphor. (F. — Arab. — Malay.) For- 
merly spelt camphire (with an. inserted i). 

— F. campkre, 'camphire;' Cot. — Low 
L. camphora (whence the form camphor). 

— Arab, kdfilr, camphor ; cf. Skt. karpura, 
camphor. - Malay kdpiir, lit. chalk ; kapur 
BdrHs, chalk of Barous, a name for cam- 
phor. Barons is in Sumatra. 

Can (i), I am able. (E.) A. S. can, 
cann, ist and 3rd persons sing. pres. of 
cunnan, to know. The prts. t. can is 
really an old perf. t. ; the same peculiarity 
occurs in Du. kunnen, Icel. and Swed. 
kunna, Dan. kunde, to know, to be able ; 
G. konnen, to know. p. The pt. t. is 
could, with intrusive /; M.E. coude, A. S. 
cutie ; cf Goth, kuntha, Dn. konde, G. 
konnte ; shewing' that A.S. xuSe (for 


*cun^e) has lost an n. y. The pp. couth, 
A. S. ciiH, known, only survives in un- 
couth, which see. Allied to Ken and 
Know. {4/ GEN.) 

Can (2), a drinking-vessel. (E.) A. S. 
camie, a can. + Du. kan ; Icel. hanna ; 
Swed. ka7wa ; Dan. katide ; G. hanne, a 
tankard, mug. (Apparently a true Teut. 

Canal. (F. — L.) F. canal (whence also 
Du. kanaal). — L. canalis, a channel, trench. 

Canary, a bird, a wine, a dance. 
(Canary Islands.) All named from the 
Canary Islands. 

Cancel. (F.-L.) Y.canceHer.-J.nyr 
L. cancelldre, to cancel a deed by drawing 
lines across it. — L. cancellus, a grating, pi. 
cancelli, lattice-work,crossed lines; dimin. 
of pi. cancrl, lattice-work. 

Cancer. (L.) L. cancer, a crab ; also 
an ' ealing' tumour. Cf. Gk. «ap«ii/os, Skt. 
karkaXa, a crab; cf. Skt. karkara, hard. 
Named from its hard shell. Brugm. i. § 464. 

Candelabrum. (L.) L. candelabrum, 
a candle-holder; from candela, a candle. 

Candid. (F.-L.) 'S . candide, %-M\s, 
fair, sincere. — L. candidus, white, shining. 

— L. candere, to shine. — L. *candere, to 
set on fire (in comp. in-cendere).-\-^Vt. 
chand{ior fcltand),io shine. (y'SQEND.) 
Brugm. i. §5 456, 818 (2). 

candidate. (L.) L. candiddhis, 
white-robed ; because candidates for office 
wore white. — L. candidus, white. 

candle. (L.) A. S. candel. — L. can- 
dela, a candle. — L. candere, to glow. 

candour. (F. — L.) F. candeur. — 'L. 
ace. candorem, brightness (hence, sincerity). 
Candy, crystallised sugar. (F. — Ital. -r 
Skt.) F. Sucre candi, sugar-candy; whence 
F. se candir, 'to candie;' Cot— Ital. 
candire, to candy ; candi, candy ; zucchero 
candi, sugar-candy. — Arab, qand, sugar; 
whence Arab, qandl, made of sugar. 
The word is Aryan ; cf. Skt. Mandawo, 
sweetmeats, khania, a broken piece, from 
khand, to break. Der. stigar-candy, Ital. 
zucchero candi. 
Candjrfcuft, a plant. (Hyb.) From 
Candy, 1. e. Candia (Crete) ; and tuft. 
Cane. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. cane, 
canne. — F. canne. — L. canna. — Gk. Kmva, 
a reed. Cf. Heb. jdneh, reed; Arab. 
qcmah, cane. 

canister. (L. — Gk.) L. canistrum, 
a light basket. — Gk. icavaaTpov, the same. 

— Gk. KavTj = Koivva, a reed. 



cannon. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) F. 

canon. — 1X3\. cannone, a cannon, orig. a 
great tnbe, a gnn-barrel. — L. canna, a reed ; 
see Cane. •[T The Span, carton, a tube, a 
deep gorge, is cognate. 

canon (i), a rnle. (L. — Gk.) A. S. 
canon. — L, canon^ a rule. — Gk. kov^v, a rod, 
rule. — Gk. xavri - icivva, a (straight) cane. 
canon (2), a dignitary of the church. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) M. E. canun, canoun.— 
O. F. c(mogne,novichanoine. — 'Lat.canoni- 
cu/n, ace. of canonicus^ adj., one on the 
church-roll or list. - L. canon, the chiirch- 
roU ; also, a rule. See canon (1). 

Canine. (L-) L. canlnus, belonging 
to a dog. — L. canis, a dog ; see Hound. 

Canister ; see Cane. 

Canker. (F. — L.) North F. cancre. 
(F. chancre). — \j. cancrum, ace. oi caiuer, 
a crab, a canker. See Cancer. fl^The G. 
kanker may be Teutonic (Kluge) ; so 
perhaps E. canker in the sense of ' disease 
of trees'; of. Gk. ydyypos, an excrescence 
on trees. 

Cannel-coal. (L. a»rf E.) Lit. a 

' candle-coal,' because it burns brightly. 
Prov. E. cannel, a candle. See Candle. 

Cannibal. (Span. -W. Indian.) For- 
merly canibal. — Span, canibal; for Caribal, 
a Carib, native of the Caribbean Islands. 
The W. Indian (Hayti) word carib means 
' brave.' Hence also Caliban, 

Cannon (i) ; see Cane. 

Cannon (2), at billiards. (F. — Span.) 
A corruption of carrom, shortened form of 
F. caramboler, v., to make a cannon at 
billiards, to touch two other balls with 
one's own ; see Hoyle's Games. Orig. 
sense, to touch the red ball ; whence 
ca7-amboler, to cannon (as above) and 
carambolage, sb., a cannon. — Span, caram- 
bola, a manner of playing at billiards, a 
device, trick, cheat. Origin unknown. 

Canoe. (Span. — W.Ind.) Span. fa«oa; 
orig. a Haytian word for ' boat.' 

Canon (l) and (2) ; see Cane. 

Canopy. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) Should 
be canopy; but we find F. canopi, borrowed 
from Ital. canopi. (Also F. conopie^ — L. 
conopeum, Judith xiii. 9. — Gk. Kwvamiiov, 
an Egyptian bed with mosquito, curtains 
(hence, any sort of hangings). — Gk. kwojtt-, 
stem of Kin>oif, a mosquito, gnat ; lit. 
' cone-faced ' or ' cone-headed,' from the 
shape of its head. — Gk. KSivf>-,i, a cone ; 
and uf , face, appearance, from Gk. base 
on, to see (see Optics). 


Canorous, tuneful. (L.) L. canor-us ; 
with suffix-»«j. - L. canere, to sing. Brugm. 
i. § 181. 

cant (0, to sing in a whinmg way, 
whine. (L.) L. cantare (whence Picard 
and Walloon canter, to sing) ; frequent, 
of cancre, to sing. Cant was at first a 
beggar's whine; hence, hypocrisy; see 

canticle. (L.) L. <-rt«/;V»to;«, a Uttle 
song ; dirain. of canticum, a song ; dimin. 
of canhis, a song; cf. cantus, pp. of 
canere, to sing. 

canto. (Ital.-L.) Ital. ra«/o, a sing- 
ing, section of a poem. — L. ace. cantum, 
a singing, song (above). 

canzonet. (Ital.-L.) Ital. canzo- 

netta, dimin. of canzone, a hymn, song. — 

L. cantidnem, ace. of cantio, a song. — L. 

cantus, pp. of canere, to sing. 

Cant (2), an edge ; as verb, to tilt. (Du. 

— L.) Du, kant, an edge, corner. +I)an. 
and Swed. kant, edge ; G. kante, a corner. 
p. All from Late L. cantus, a corner ; which 
is prob. from L. canthus = Gk. KavBos, the 
corner of the eye, felloe of a wheel. 

Canteen. (F.-Ital.) F. cantine.— 
Ital. cantina, a cellar, cool cave (hence 
the sense of vessel for liquids). Origin 
doubtful. Perhaps from Late L. cantus, a 

Canter, aneasygallop. (Proper name.) 
Short for Canterbury gallop, the pace at 
which pilgrims rode thither. 

Canticle, Canto ; see Cant (i). 

Cantle, a small piece. (F. - L. f) O.F. 
cantel, a small piece (F. chanteaii), dimin. 
of Picard cant (F. chant), a corner ; Late 
L. cantus. Prob. from L. canthus, comer 
of the eye ; see Cant (2). 

Canton, aregion. (F.— Ital.) '?. canton. 

— Ital. canlone, a nook, angle; also, a 
corporation, township (Torriano) ; Late L. 
cantonum, canto, a region, province. 
Origin doubtful. ^ Canton (in heraldry), 
a corner of a shield, is from F. canton, 
a corner, Ital. cantone, from Ital. canto, an 
edge; see Cant (2). 

Canvas. (F.-L.-Gk.) yi.Y..canevas. 
North F. canevas.-'Ls.X.^ L. canabacius, 
hempen cloth. — L. cannabis, hemp. — Gk. 
«dwaj3ts, hemp. Cf. Skt. fana, hemp; 
see Hemp. 

canvass. (F.-L.-Gk.) Orig. to 
toss in a canvas sheet, to criticize or 
discuss thoroughly. From canvas, sb. 

Canzonet; see Cant (i). 



CaontcIlOUC. (F. — Canb.) Y.caottt- 
chotic; orig. a Caribbean word, cahnchu. 

Cap, a head-covering. (Late L.) A. S. 
ri^Z/e. — Late L. cappa, a cap (Isidore). 

Capallle. (F. — L.) Y. capable. — JjAs. 
L. capabilis, comprehensible; afterwards, 
able to hold. — L. capcre, to hold (below). 
capacious, able to contain. (L.) 
Coined from L. capaci-, stem of capax, 
able to hold. — L. capere, to hold, contain ; 
see Heave. Bragm. i. § 635. (.^QAP.) 

Caparison, trappings of a horse. (F. 
—Span. — Late L.) O. F. caparasson. — 
Span, caparazon, cover for a saddle ; aug- 
mentative from Med. L. capaio, a cowl ; 
from Span, capa, a cloak, cover. — Late L. 
capa, a cape ; as below. 

Cape (i), a covering for the shoulders. 
(F. -Late L.) O. North F. cape. — Late L. 
capa, a cape (Isidore of Seville); whence 
also Prov., Span., Port, capa, Icel. Mpa, 
Sec. Allied to cap. Doublet, cope. 

Cape (2), a headland. (F.-Ital.-L.) 
r. cap. — lla\. capo, head, headland. — L. 
caput, head. 

Gaper (1), to dance about. (Ital. — L.) 
Abbreviated from capreole (Sir P. Sidney). 

— Ital. capriolare, to skip as a goat. —Ital. 
capriola, ' a caper in dancing,' Florio ; 
also, a kid ; dimin. of capra, a she-goat. 

— L. capra, a she- goat ; cf. caper, he-goat. 
-fGk. Kciirpos, a boar; A. S. /iirfer, Icel. 

Caper (2), the flower-bud of a certain 
plant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. F. capre {¥. 
cApre). — L. capparis. — Gk. Kimrapis, caper- 
plant ; its fruit ; cf. Pers. kabar, capers. 

Capercailzie. (Gael.) Here a repre- 
sents M. E. j, pron. as j. — Gael, capull- 
coillc, great cock of the wood ; lit. horse 
of the wood. — Gael, capull, a horse (see 
Cavalier) ; coille, gen. of coill, a wood, 
cognate with E. Holt. 

Capillary, like hair. (L.) L. capil- 
Idris, adj. ; from capiUiis, hair. Perhaps 
allied to cap-ut, the head. 

Capital (i), chief. (F.-L.) Y. capital. 

— L. capitalis, belonging to the head. — L. 
capit-, stem oi caput, the head.-J-Skt. tapd- 
la{nC), skull ; A. S. hafela, head. Brugm. 
i. § 641. 

capital (2), stock of money. (F. - 
L.) F. capital. — Late L. capitdk, wealth ; 
neut. ol capitalis, chief; see Capital (i). 

capital (3), head of a pillar. (L. : or 
F. — L.) L. capitellum, head of a pillar; 
dimin. from L. caput, head. Or from O. 


North F. capitel (F. chapiteau) ; from L. 
capitellum (above). 

capitation, poll-tax. (F.-L.) F. 

capitation. — \.^Xe. L. ace. capitationem , 
poll-tax. — L. capit; stem of caput, poll, 

Capitol. (L.) The temple of Jupiter, 
at Rome, called Capilolium. — Y,. capit-, 
stem of caput, a head ; but the reason for 
the name is obscure; see Smith, Class. 

capitular, relating to a chapter. (L.) 
Med. L. capiiularis, adj. of capilulum, 
a chapter of a cathedral, or a chapter of 
a book ; see Chapter. 

capitulate. (L.) 'L&it'L.capituldtus, 
pp. of capituldre, to divide into chapters, 
also to propose terms (for surrender). — 
Late L. capitulum,s, chapter ; see Chapter. ' 
Dei", re-capitulate. 

Capon, (L. — Gk.) A. S. capun. — 'L. 
ace. cdponem, from nom. capo. — Gk. kcltioiv, 
a capon. 

Caprice. (F. — Ital. — L.?) Y. caprice. 

— Ital. capriccio, a whim. Perhaps from 
Ital. capro, a he-goat; so that capriccio 
might mean a frisk like a goat's; see 
Caper (1). 

Capricorn. (L.) L. capricoimis, 
horned like a goat.— L. capri-, for capro-, 
stem of caper, goat ; and corn-u, horn. 

capriole, a peculiar frisk of a horse. 
(F.-ltal.-L.) F. capriole {see Cot.). - 
Ital. capriola, the leap of a kid ; see 
Caper (i). 

Capsize, to upset. (Span. ? — L.) Per- 
haps from Span, capuzar, to sink (a ship) 
by the head ; apparently a derivative of L. 
caput, the head. (A guess.) 

Capstan. (F.-Span.-L.?) F. cabe- 
stan ; Prov. cabestan. — Span, cabestrafite, 
cabrestante, a capstan. Of these forms, 
cabestrante is the better, and is allied to 
Span, cabestrage, a baiter, or a haltering, 
and to cabestrar, to halter. - L. capistrant-, 
stem of pres. pt. of capistrdre, to halter. 

— L. capistrum (Span, cahestro'), a halter. 

— L. capere, to hold; with double suffix 

Capsule, seed-vessel. (F.-L.) F. 
capsule, a small case. — L. capsula, dimin. 
oicapsa, a case ; see Case (2). 

Captain. (F.-L.) tA.'K. capitain.— 
O. F. capitaiti. — 'Late L. capitdneus', capit- 
diius, a leader of soldiers. — L. capit-, slem 
of capitt, head. 

Captions. (F.-L.) F. capticux, cavil- 



ling. — L. capHSsus. — 'L. captio, a taking, 
a sophistical argument. — L. captus, pp. of 
capere, to hold. See Capacious. 

captive. (P'.-L.) F. captif (fem. 
captive). — L. captmiis, a captive. — L. 
captus, pp. of capere, to take.+W. caeth, 
a captive ; O. Irish cachi, a female captive. 
captor. (L.) L. fa/Zo/-, a taker. — L. 
CO/-, as in capere, to take; with suffix -tor. 
capture. (F. — L.) F. capture. — 'L. 
captura, a taking. — L. cap-, as in capere, to 
take ; with fem. suffix -tilra. 

CapncMn, hooded friar, hood. (F. - 
Ital. — Late L.) M. F. capuchin ; F. 
capucin. — Ital. cappucino, a small hood, 
ience a hooded friar ; dimin. of cappiiccio, 
a cowl. — Ital. cappa, a cape ; see Cap and 
Cape (i). 

Car. (F. - C.) M. E. carre. - O. North F. 
carre, a car (Dncange, s. v. Marcellum). 
— Late L. carra, i. ; allied to L. carrus, 
a. car; of Gaulish origin. — Bret, karr, 
ii chariot ; W. car, O. Gael, cdr, Irish 
carr. Allied ia L. currus, a chariot ; 
Brugm. i. § 516. 

Caracole. (F. — Span.) F. caracal, 
caracole, a snail ; whence _/izV« le caracole, 
applied to a manoeuvre by soldiers, and to 
turns made by a horse. — Span, caracal, 
a snail, winding staircase, turning about 
(from the snail-shell's spiral form). Per- 
haps of Celtic origin; cf. Gael, carach, 
circling, winding ; car, a turn, twist. 

Carafe, a glass water-bottle. (F. — 
Span. — Arab.) F. carafe. — Span, garrafa, 
a cooler, vessel to cool wines in. — Arab. 
ghinlf, draughts of water; Arab, root 
gharafa, to draw water. (Dozy, Devic.) 
^ Or from Pers. qarabah, a large flagon ; 
but see Carboy. 

Carat. (F. -Ital.- Arab. -Gk.) F. 
carat, a very light weight. — Ital. carato. — 
Arab, qirrat, a pod, husk, carat, 24th 
part of an ounce. — Gk. mpanav, fruit of 
the locust-tree ; also, a carat ; lit. ' a small 
horn.' — Gk. kc/jot-, stem of xifos, a horn ; 
see Horn. 

Caravan. (F. — Pers.) Y.caravane.— 
Pers. kdrwdn, a caravan, convoy. 

caravansary. (Pers.) Pers. kdr- 
wansardy, an inn for caravans. — Pers. 
kdrwdn, caravan ; sardy, public building, 

Caraway, Carraway. (Span. - 
Arab.) Span, al-carahueya, a caraway ; 
where al is merely the Arab. def. art. ; 
also written carvi. — Kitsh. karwiyd-a. 


karawiyS-a, caraway-seeds or plant. Cf. 
Gk. K&pos, icdpov, cumin. 

Carbine. (F.-Gk.) Formerly cara- 
bine, a musket, the weapon of a carabm, 
or musketeer. — F. carabin, ' an arque- 
buzier;' Cot. Perhaps from O.F. calabrin, 
a light-armed soldier ; of uncertain origin. 

Carbon. (F.-L.) F. carbone.-l.. 
ace. carbonem, a coal. 

carbonado, broiled meat. (Span.— 
L.) Span, carbonado, meat broiled over 
coals. — Span, carbon, coal; see above. 

carbuncle. L- carbunculus, (1) a 
small coal, (2) a carbuncle, gem, from its 
glowing, (3) a red tumour. Double 
dimin. of L. carbo, coal. 

Carboy, » large glass bottle, protected 
by wicker-work. (Pers.) Pers. qarabah, 
a large flagon ; which is prob. of Arab. 
origin. Cf. Arab, qirbah, a water-skin, 

Carcanet. (F. — Teut.) Dimin. of F. 
carcan, a collar of jewels, or of gold.— 
O. H. G. querca, the throat; cf. Icel. 
kverkr, pi. the throat ; \M<Ai. gerkle , throat, 
gerti, to drink. Brugm. i. § 653. 

Carcase, Carcass. (F.-Ital.) From 

M. F. carqiiasse, a dead body. — Ital. 
carcassa, a kind of bomb-shell, a shell i 
also, a skeleton, frame ; cf Port, carcassa, 
a carcase, a very old woman. Of unknown 

Card (1), piece of pasteboard. (F. — 
Ital. — Gk.) Corruption of F. carte, 'a 
card,' Cot. — Ital. carta; L. ckarta. — G\i. 
X"("''?i XopTTjj, a leaf of papyrus. Der. 
cardboard. Doublet, chart. 

Card (2), an instrument for combing 
wool. (F.— L.) F.carde. — Med.h.cardus, 
L. canluus, a thistle ; for wool-combing. 

Cardinal. (L.) L. cardindlis, prin- 
cipal, chief ; orig. relating to the hinge of 
a door. — L. cardin-, stem of cardo, a 

Cardoon, a plant. (F.-Prov.-L.) 
F. cardon;Qa\.. — Vxoy. cardon; with aug- 
ment, suffix from Med. L. card-us, a 
thistle. See Card (2). 

Care. (E.) M. E. care. A. S. caru, 
cearu, anxiety. + O. Sax. kara, sorrow ; 
O. H. G. chara, a lament; Goth, kara; 
Teut. type *kard, f. Hence, care, vb. ; A. S. 
carian. ^ Not allied to L. ciira. 

CareeUi (F.-L.) Lit. 'to clean the 
keel ; ' hence to lay a ship on its side. — F. 
carine, carine, keel.— L. carina, keel. 

Career. (F.-C.) ¥ . carrUre, a. rs.c&^ 



course. -• Late L. canaria uid), a road 
for cars. — Late L. carra^ L. carruSj a car ; 
of Celtic origin ; see Car. 

Caress. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. caresse, 
a fondling. — Ital. carezza, a caress, fondling. 
—Late L. cdritia, dearness. — L. cams, 
dear. Brugm. i. § 637. 

Carfax. (F.-L.) M. E. carfiukes, 
a place where four roads meet. — O. F. pi. 
carrefourgs, the same: from sing, carre- 
fourg. — Late L. guadrifiircus, fonr-forked. 
— L. quadri- (from gtiatuor), four; and 
furca, a fork. See Fork. 

Cargo. (Span. — C.) Span. c«?-^o,freight, 
load ; cf. cargar, to load. — Late L. carri- 
care, to load a car ; see Charge. 

caiicature. (Ital.— C.) Ital. cari- 
caiura, a satirical picture ; so called because 
exaggerated or ' overloaded.' — Ital. cari- 
care, to load, burden. — Late L. carricdre, 
to load a car; see Charge. 

Caries. (L.) L. caries, rottenness. 

Cark, burden, anxiety. (F. — C.) A.F. 
karke. North. F. form of F. charge, i. e. 
load; see Charge. Cf. M.E. karke, a 
load ; as in ' a karke of pepper! 

Carkauet; see Carcanet. 

Carminative, expelling wind from 
the body. (F. — L.) F. carviinatif, ' wind- 
voiding ; ' Cot. — L. carmindt-iis, pp. of 
carminSre, to card wool (hence, in old 
medicine, to cleanse from gross humours) ; 
with suffix -«««. — L. carmin- , ixo\n car- 
men, a card for wool. — L. cdrere, to 

Carmine. (Span. — Arab. — Skt.) Span. 
carmin, short form of carmesin, adj. ; from 
carmesi, crimson. — Arab, qirmizi, crimson ; 
from y?>OT j'0,cochineal. — Skt. krmi, a worm, 
the cochineal insect. 

Carnage ; see below. 

Carnal. (L.) L. camdlis, fleshly.— 
L. earn-, stem of caro, flesh. Brugm. i. 

§ 5'5- ^ , 

carnage. (F. — L.) Y. carnage, Vi^sa- 

time, slaughter of animals. - Late L. carr 

ndticuvK a tribute of flesh-meat ; cf. 

carndttim, time for eating flesh. - L. cam-, 

stem oicaro, flesh. 

carnation. (F. — L.) F. carnation, 

flesh colour (Littre). — L. ace. carndiiSnem, 

fleshiness. — L. earn-, stem of caro, flesh. 
carnival. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y.cama- 

val, Shrovetide. — Ital. camevale, carnovale, 

the last three days before Lent. - Med. L. 

camelevdle, cccmelevdmen , remova 1 of flesh. 

Shrovetide. — 'L.canu-m,z.tx,.oicaro, flesh ; 


and leudre, to lift, remove, take away, 
from leuis, light. 

carnivorous. (L.) L. camiuorus, 
flesh-eating. - L. rar?/;-, decl. stem oicaro, 
flesh ; and uor-dre, to devour. 
Carob-tree, the locust-tree. (F. - 
Arab.) M. F. carobe, caroube. — Arab. 
kharriib, bean-pods. 

Caroche, Carroche, a kind of coach. 

(F.-Ital.-C.) Nearly obsolete; but 
the present sense of carriage is due to it. — 

F. carroche, variant of carrosse, ' a carosse 
or caroach ; ' Cot. — Ital. carroccia, car- 
rozza, a chariot. Extended from Ital. 
ca7-ro, a car. See Car. 

Carol, a song. (F.-L.-Gk.?) For- 
merly, a kind of dance. — O.F. carole, 
a (singing) dance. Godefroy (s. v. carole) 
cites Swiss Rom. coraula, u round-dance, 
also a dance-song. Prob. from L. 
choraules, a flute-player to a chorus. — Gk. 
XOfouAi;?, the same. — Gk. xop-is, a chorus, 
round-dance; and av\6s, a flute. 

Carotid, adj. (Gk.) Gk.KOfittjTiSts,s.iJl., 
the two great arteries of the neck ; it was 
thought that an alteration in the flow of 
blood through thera caused stupor.— 
Gk. Kap6a, I stupefy ; Kapos, stupor. 

Carousal, (l) a drinking-bout; (2), a 
pageant, (i. F.-G. ; 2. F.-Ital.) 1. 
Sometimes used as if from the verb carouse 
below. 2. But, in old authors, cdrousel 
(also carousal) means a sort of pageant, 
of which some kind of chariot-race formed 
a principal part ; Dryden, Virgil, Ma. v. 
777. — F. carrousel, a tilting-match. — Ital. 
carosello, also spelt garosello, a tourna- 
ment ; of uncertain origin. 

Carouse. (F.-G.) F. <ra;m«, ' a ca- 
rousse of drinke,' Cot. — G. garaus, right 
out ; used of emptying a bumper. - G. gar, 
quite ; and atts, out. (Raleigh even writes 
garouse; directly from G.^fljawJ.) Der. 
carous-al, but only in one sense of that 
word ; see above. 

Carp (i), a fish. (F.) M.E. carpe. 
XV cent. -O. F. carpe (Span. Port, carpa, 
Ital. carpa, Florio) ; also Da. karper ; 
Icel. karfi; Dan. karpe; Swed. karp; 

G. karpfen ; O. H. G. charpho ; Russ. 
karf ; Lith. karpa. 

Carp (2), to cavil at. (Scand.) M. E. 
carpen, which often merely means to talk, 
say. - Icel. karpa, to boast ; Swed. dial. 
karpa, to boast, talk much. ^ The pre- 
sent sinister sense is due to confusion with 
L. carpere, to pluck. 



Carpenter. (F.-C.) K.'S. carpenter; 
O. North F. carpentier (F. charpentier). — 
Late L. carpentSrius , sb. ; carpentare, to 
woik in timber. — L. carpentum, a carriage ; 
a word of Celtic origin. — O. Irish carpat, 
Gael, and Irish carbad, W. eerbyd, a car- 
riage, chariot, litter. 

Carpet. (F. — L.) O.7. carpile.—1.3.\.e 
L. carpTta, carpeta, a kind of thick cloth ; 
also carpia (F. charpie), lint. — L. car- 
pere, to pluck, pull to pieces (lint being 
made of rags pulled to pieces, and carpet, 
probably, from shreds). 

Carrack. (F.) O. F. carraque, a ship 
of burden ; Late Lat. carraca, the same. 
Of unknown origin. 

Carriage. (F.— C.) M.E. i-anVrj-^, that 
which \i carried about (as in Bible, A. V.). 

— O. F. cartage ; from carter, to carry ; see 
Carry. ^ Its modern use is due to con- 
fusion with caroch, a vehicle (Massinger, 
Renegado, i. 2) ; see Caroche. 

Carrion. {F. — L.) M. E. c<j;;-i!«f««, a 
carcase. — O. North F. caroigne ; Late L. 
caroiiia, a carcase. — L. caro, flesh. 

Carronade, a sort of cannon. (Scot- 
land.) So named because made at Carron, 
in Stirlingshire. 

Carrot. (F. — L. — Glc.) F. carote, ca- 
rotte. — L. carota. — Gk. tcapoiTuv, u carrot. 

Carry. (F. — C.) O. F. carter. — Late 
L. carricare. — L. carrus, a car ; see Car. 

Cart. (E.) A. S. crcet, crat; cf. Du. 
krat. Or from Icel. karlr, a cart ; whence, 
probably, Picard carti, a cart. 

Carte, a bill of fare. (F.-Gk.") Chiefly 
in the F. phr. carte blanche, lit. white 
paper. — Late L. carta; see Card (t). 

cartel. (F.-Ital.-Gk.) F. cartel. - 
Ital. cartello, lit. a small paper ; dimin. of 
carta, paper, bill; see Card (i). 

Cartilage. (F.-L) F. cartilage, 
gristle. — L. cartildginem, ace. olcartilSgo. 
Der. cartilagin-otis. 

Cartoon. (F. — Ital. — Gk.) F. carton. — 
Ital. cartone, lit. a large paper ; from carta, 
a card ; see Card (i). 

cartouclie, cartridge. (F. - Ital. 

— Gk.) Cartridge (with intrusive r) is for 
carlidge, corrupt form of cartouche. — F. 
cartouche, a roll of paper. — Ital. cartoccio, 
a roll of paper, cartridge. — Ital. carta, 
paper; LateL.rar/<j; see Card (i). 51 The 
cartridge took its name from the paper in 
which it was rolled up. 

cartulary, a register. (Late L. - Gk.) 
Late L. cartularium, chartuldrium, a 


register. - Late L. charttila, a document; 
dimin. of charta, a paper ; see Card (i). 
Carve. (E.) M. E. kemen. A.S. ceorfan ; 
pt. t. cearf, pi. curfon, pp. corfen. [The 
A. S. ceorfan would have given *charve ; 
c was retained from the pt. pi. and pp.] 
■\- Du. kerven ; G. kerben, to notch, cut ; 
also Dan, karve, Swed. karfva, to notch, 
from the 2nd stem. Gk. ypaxpuv. Bmgm. 

i. 5 791. 

Cascade. (F.-Ital.-L.) F.cascade.- 
Ital. cascata, a waterfall ; orig. fem. pp. of 
cascare, to fall. For *casicare. — L. cdsdre, 
to totter. — L. cdsum, sup. oicadere, to fall. 

Case (i), an event. (F.-L.) M.E. 
cas. — ¥. cas. — 'L. ace. cdsum, a fall, a 
case. — L. casus, pp. oicadere, to fall. 

Case (2), a receptacle. (F. — L.) O. F. 
casse. — L. capsa, a box, cover. — L. capere, 
to hold. 

Casemate. (F.-Ital.) Y . casemate, 
a loop-hole in a fortified wall. — Ital. casa- 
matta, a chamber built under a wall or 
bulwark, to hinder those who enter the 
ditch to scale the wall of a fort. It seems 
to mean 'dark chamber.' — Ital. and L. 
casa, house, cottage, room ; and Ital. matta, 
fem. of matto, orig. mad, but the Sicilian 
mattti means ' dim.' 

Casement, frame of a window. (F.— 
L.) Coined with the sense of encasement, 
that which encases or encloses. From 
case, verb ; with suffix -ment. 

Cash, coin. (F. — L.) Orig. a till or box 
to keep money in. — F. casse, a case ; see 
Case (2) aBove. Der. cash-ier, sb., one 
who keeps a money-box or cash. 

Cashew-nut, the nut of a W. and E. 
Indian tree. (F.— Brazilian.) Cashew \% 
a corruption of F. acajou. — Brazil, acaiu, 
the fruit of the tree named acajaba or 
acajaiba. (Mahn, Littri.) 

Cashier, to dismiss from service. 
(Du. — F. — L.) Du. casseren, to cashier ; 
merely borrowed from F. casser, ' to 
breake, burst, . . also to casseere, dis- 
charge;' Cot. [Du. words, borrowed 
from F., end in -eren.'] — 'L. guassdre, to 
shatter, frequent, of quatere, to shake ; 
which annexed the senses of L. cassdre, to 
annul, discharge, from L. casstis, void, null. 

Cashmere, a soft wool. (India.) So 
called from the vale of Cashmere, in India. 
Also spelt cassimere, kerseymere. 

Casino, a room for dancing. (Ital. — L.) 
Ital. casino, dimin. of casa, a cottage, 
house. — L. casa, a cottage. 



Cask. (Span.-L.) Span, casco, a. skuW, 
sherd, coat of an onion ; also a cask of 
wine, a casque or helmet. The orig. sense 
is 'husk'; of. Span, cascara, peel, rind, 
shell, Port, casca, rind. — Span. i-rt««/-, to 
burst open ; formed (as if from Lat. *ijiias- 
sicdre) from an extension of L. tpmsscire, 
to break, burst ; see Quash. 

casque, a helmet. (F. -Span.-L.) 
F. casque. — S^an. casco, a helmet, head- 
piece ; see above. 

Casket, a small box. (Span.— L.) Ap- 
parently confused with F. cassetle, ' a small 
casket ; ' Cot. Formally, it is a dimin. of 

Casque ; see Cask. 

Cassava, a plant. (Span. — Hayti.) 
Span, cazaie ; also cazavi, ' the bread made 
in the W. Indies of the fruit called the 
yuca ; ' Pineda. It properly means the 
plant, which is also called manioc ; said to 
be from the Hayti casahbi, with the same 
sense. See R. Eden's works, ed. Arber, 
p. 175. See Tapioca. 

Cassia, a species of laurel. (L. — Gk. — 
Heb.) L. casia, cassia. — Gk. xaaia, a spice 
like cinnamon. — Heb. qelsi'dth, in Ps. xlv. 
8, a pi. form from qetsi'oh, cassia-bark.— 
Heb. root qdtsci, to cut away ; because the 
bark is cut off. 

Cassimere ; see Cashmere. 

Cassock, a vestment. (F. — Ital.) F. 
cosaque. — Ital. casacca, an outer coat. Of 
uncertain origin. 

Cassowary, a bird. (Malay.) First 
brought from Java. Malay kasuwari. 

Cast. (Scand.) Icel. kasta, to throw ; 
Swed. kasta ; Dan. kaste. Der. re-cast. 

Castanets, instruments used for 
making a snapping noise. (F. — Span.— 
L. — Gk.) F. castagiuttes, 'finger-knack- 
ers, wherewith players make a pretty 
noise in some dances ; ' Cot. — Span, cas- 
tanetas, castanets ; pi. of Castanet a, a 
snapping noise resembling the cracking of 
roasted chestnuts. — Span . castaiia, a chest- 
nut.— Lat. castanea, the chestnut-tree.— 
Gk. KaBTavov ; see Chestnut. 

Caste, a breed, race. (Port. — L.) Port. 
casta, a race, orig. a ' pure' breed ; a name 
given by the Port, to classes of men in 
India. — Port, casta, fem. of casta, pure. — 
L. castus, pure, chaste. 

castigate. (L.) 'L.castTgdt«s,^^.ol 
castigare, to chasten ; lit. ' to keep pure.' - 
L. castus, chaste. Doublet, chastise. 

Castle. (L.) A. S. castel. - L. casr 


tellum, dimin. of castnim, a fortified 
place. Der. castell-an, O. North F. caste- 
lain, O. F. chastelaiii, the keeper of a 
chastel, or castle ; also ch&telaine (fem. of 
F. chdtelttin = O. F. chastelain) , now applied 
to ii lady's chain or 'keeper' of kevs. 
&c. 1 J' . 

Castor. (L. - Gk.) L. castor. - Gk. 
xdaroip, a beaver. But of Eastern origin ; 
cf. Malay kastUri, Skt. kastilrt, musk ; 
Pers. khaz, beaver. 

castor-oil. N.amed from some con- 
fusion with castoreum, ' a medicine made 
of the liquor contained in the little bags 
that are next the beaver's groin ; ' Kersey. 
But it is really a vegetable production. 

Castrate. (L.) L. castrdtus, pp. of 
castrdre, to cut. 

Casual. (F.-L.) F. casuel.-L. cdsii- 
d/is, happening by chance. — L. cdsu-, 
stem of cdsiis, chance. See Case (i). 

Cat. (E.) A. S. cat.+ Bn., Va.n. /lat, 
Icel. kiitir, Sw. katt, G. kater, katze ; L. 
cdttis, W. cath, Ir. Gael, cat, Russ. kof , 
koshka, Arab, qitt, Turk. kedi. (Prob. 

Cata/-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. Kari., down, 

Cataclysm, deluge. (Gk.) Gk. /tara- 
xkvafios, a dashing over, flood. — Gk. koto, 
down ; «Xv(civ, to dash, wash, as waves. 

Catacom'b. (Ital. — L.) Ital. cata- 
comia, a sepulchral vault. — Late L. cata- 
cumbas ; of which the sense and origin are 

Catafalque, a stage or platform, 
chiefly used at funerals. (F. — Ital.) F. 
catafalque. — Ital. catafalco ; of unknown 
origin. See Scaffold. 

Catalepsy, a sudden seizure. (Gk.) 
Formerly catalepsis. — Gk. KaT6Xri\j/is, a 
grasping, seizing. — Gk. koto, down; Xaji- 
fiayeiv, to seize. 

Catalogue. (F. — Gk.) F. catalogue.— 
Late Lat. ace. catalogum. — Gk. KaTaXoyos, 
a counting up, enrolment. — Gk. Kara, fully ; 
Kifiiv, lo say, tell ; see Iiogic. 

Catamaran, a sort of raft. (Tamil.) 
In Forbes, Hindustani Diet., ed. 1859, 
p. 289, we have ' katmaran, a raft . . ; the 
word is orig. Tamil, and means tied logs' — 
Tamil katt.a, binding ; maram, wood 

Cataplasm, a poultice. (F.-L.- 
Gk.) F. cataplasme. — 'L. cataplasma. — 
Gk. KaTatrXaaiia, a plaster, poultice. — Gk. 
KaTauXaaadV, to spread over. — Gk. /fora. 



fully ; and v\aaa(iv, to mould ; see 

Catapult. (Late L.-Gk.). Late L. 
calapulta, au engine for throwing stones. — 
Gk. tcaTairekTTjSf the same. — Gk. KaTa, 
down ; iraKKeii', to swing, hurl. 

Cataract. (L.— Gk.) L. cataracta. 
Gen. vii. II. — Gk. Ka,TappaMTt\^, as sb;, a 
waterfall ; as adj., broken, rushing down. 
Probi allied to KaTap^-fiymiu, I break 
down ; the 2 aor. KaTf^payr/v was used 
of the rushing down of waterfalls and 
storms. — Gk. /card, down ; jiriyi'vin, I 

Catarrh. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) F. 
catarrhe. — Late L. catari'has. — Gk. 
Karajipoos, a flowing down (of rheum), 
a cold in the head. — Gk. Kara, down ; and 
pUiv, to flow. 

Catastrophe. (Gk.) Gk./caTao-Tpo^i?, 

an overturning, sudden turn. — Gk. naTci, 
down ; aTpe<peiv, to turn. 

Catch.. (F. — L.) O. Picard cachier, 
variant of O. F. chacier, to hunt, chase ; 
hence, to catch. It answers to Ital. cac- 
ciare, Late L. *captiare, extended form of 
L. capture, to catch. — L. captus, pp. of 
capers, to seize. % We even find M. Du. 
hctetsen, to catch, borrowed from Picard 
cachier. The M. E. pi. t. caujte imitated 
laa)te, pt. t. of M. E. lacchen, to catch. 
Doublet, chase (i). 
Catechise. (L. — Gk.) LateL. ca/e- 
chizare. — Gk. KaTr\yi(fii.v, to catechise, 
instruct ; lengthened form of KaTrjxf^i", to 
din into one's ears, lit. 'to din down.' — 
Gk. Kar-a, down ; ^x^"') '° sound ; cf. 
^XO'i "■ ringing in the ears ; see Echo. 
Category, a class. (Gk.) Gk. woTij- 
yopia, an accusation ; but in logic, a pre- 
dicament or class. — Gk. aaTjjyopeTv, to 
accuse. — Gk. xar-a, down, against; *d7o- 
piiv, with the sense ofdyopevav, to declaim, 
address an assembly, from iyopa, an 
Catenary, belonging to a chain ; used 
of the curve in which a chain hangs. (L.) 
From L. catena, a chain ; see Chain. 
Cater, to buy provisions. (F. — L.) 
Formed as a verb from M. E. catour, a 
buyer of provisions (whom we should now 
call a cater-er). Catour is short for 
acalour, formed from acat, a buying, pur- 
chase, Ch. prol. 571. — O. F. acat (mod. 
F. achat), a buying. — Folk-L. acaptum, a 
purchase; for accaptum.—'?cXs.-\^. accap- 
idre, to purchase (A. D. 1060), frequent, of 


accipere, to receive, also to buy; see 
Accept and Cates. 

Cateran, a Highland robber. (Gael.) 
Low L. cateranus, answering to Gael. 
ceathaime, lit. ' common people ; ' cf. 
ceathairne-choille, s. pi., freebooters, out- 
laws. From Irish cetltern, ceithern, a 
troop, band ; cf. L. catenta, a band of 
men. See Kern. 

Catercousin. (F.-L.) Nares (ed. 
1876) has : ' Cater-cousins, friends so 
familiar that they eat together.' If so, 
the word is from cater, vb., and 

Caterpillar. (F.-L.) Adapted from 
O. F. chatepelose, a caterpillar (Godefroy) ; 
the latter half of the word was assimilated 
to piller, one who pills, or robs or spoils, 
O. F. chatepelose is lit. ' hairy she-cat.' — 
O. F. chate, fem. of chat, cat ; pelose,^ 
hairy. — L. cdtus, cat ; pilosus, hairy, from 
pilus, a. hair. 

Catexrwaill, (E.) M. E. caterwawen; 
coined from cat, and waiven, to make a 
wailing noise. 

Cates, provisions. (F.-L.) So called 
because provided by the catour, mod. E. 
cater-er ; see Cater. ' Cater, a steward, a 
provider of i'ato ; ' Baret (1580). 

Cathartic, purging. (Gk.) Gk. RaBap- 
tm6s, purgative. — Gk. KoBaipeiv, to cleanse, 
purge. — Gk. KaBapos, pure. 

Cathedral, (L. — Gk.) L. cathe- 
drdlis ecclesia^a, cathedral church, or one 
which has a bishop's throne. — Late L. 
cathedra, a throne. — Gk. leaBiSpa, a seat. 

— Gk. KaS-, for Kara, down ; and iSpa, a 
seat, chair, from i^oiiat (=l5-jo/«i(), I sit; 
see Sit. 

Catholic. (L. - Gk.) L. cathoHcus 
(TertuUian.) — Gk. KaBoKiKos, universal. 

— Gk. icaS6K-ov, adv., on the whole, in 
general. — Gk. /ca9-, for Hard, according 
to ; and o\ov, gen. of oAos, whole. 

Catkin. (Du.) A loose spike of 
flowers, named from its soft downy ap- 
pearance. —M. Du. katteken, 'a killing,' 
Hexham. (It also meant 'catkin'; cf. 
F. chattons in Cot.) Dimin. of Du. kat, a 
cat (M. Du. katte). 

Catoptric, relating to optical reflec- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. (taTOTTTpi/inSs, reflexive. — 
Gk. Karompov, a mirror. — Gk. Kar-li, 
down, inward ; o-n-ropai, I see, with suffix 
-Tfov, of the instrument. 

Cattle. (F.-L.) M.E.ffl/e/, property; 

hence, live stock, cattle O. North F. 



fa/tf/. — Late L. capitdle, capital, property ; 
see Capital (2) and Chattels. 

Caucus, a name applied to certain 
political meetings. (American Indian?) 
Said to be from an Algonkin word mean- 
ing to speak, to counsel, whence kaw-kaw- 
asu, a counsellor. 'Their elders, called 
cawcmvwasscntghes;^ Capt. Smith's Works, 
ed. Arber, p. 347. ' Caucorouse, which is 
captaine;' id. p. 377. ^ This is more 
likely than the entirely unsupported story 
about caulkers' meetings. 

Caudal, belonging to the tail. (L.) L. 
Cauda, the tail. 

Caudle, a warm drink. (F.— L.) O. 
North F. caudel, O. F". chaudel, a sort of 
warm drink. — O. F. ckaiid, chald, hot. — 
L. caldus, for calidus, hot. 

Caul, a net, covering, esp. for the head. 
(F.) O. F. cale, ' a kind of little cap ; ' 
Cot. Origin unknown. 

Cauldron ; see Caldron. 

Cauliflower. (F. — L.) Formerly 
colyflory. From M. E. col (O. F. col), a 
cabbage ; and Jlory, from , O. F. Jlori, 
fleuri, pp. of Jleurir, to flourish. The 
O. F. col is from L. ace. caulem, from 
caulis, a cabbage ; 2ia& Jleurir is from L. 
^o>-^/-e,toflourish. See Cole andFlourish.. 

Caulk, Calk. (F. - L.) M. E. 

cauken, to tread ; hence, to squeeze in (as 
oakum into a ship's seams). — O. F. cau- 
guer, to tread ; to tent a wound with lint. 

— L. calcdre, to tread, force down by 
pressure. — L. calc-, stem of calx, the heel. 

Cause. (F.— L.) Y. cause. — 1-,. catisa, 
caussa, a cause. Der. cause, vb. 

Causeway, a paved way, raised way. 
(F.— L. ; and '£..') Formerly caus-ey-way; 
by adding way to M. E. caiisi, causie, 
causey. — O. North F. caucie (mod. F. 
chaussie, Prov. causada. Span, calzada).— 
Late L. calcidta, for calcidta uia, a paved 
way. — Late L. calcidtus, pp. of cakidre, 
to make a roadway by treading it down ; 
from L. calcdre, to tread. — L. calc-, stem 
of calx, heel ; see Caulk. 

Caustic. (L. — Gk.) L. causticas. — 
Gk. aavoTticos, burning. — Gk. Kavarus, 
burnt.- Gk. Koiciv (fut. Kavaw), to burn. 

cauterise. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) F. 
cauteriser. — ' L. cauterizdre, to sear. 

— Gk. «avTi]pta(eiv, to sear. — Gk. Kavrri- 
piov, a branding-iron. — Gk. xaUiv, to 
burn (above). 

Caution. (F.— L.) F. caution. — 'L. 
ace. catitionem, heed. — L. cautus, pp. of 


cauere, to beware. Of. Skt. kavi{s), wise. 
Brugm. i. § 635. Der. pre-caution. 
Cavalier. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. cava- 
lier, a horseman. — Ital. cavaliere, the 
same. — L. caballaritim, ace. of caballarius, 
the same. — L. caballus, a horse. See 

cavalcade. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. 

cavalcade. — Ital. cavalcata, a troop of 
horsemen; orig. fem. of pp. of cavalcare, 
to ride. — Ital. cavallo, a horse. — L. ca- 
ballum, ace. of caballus, a horse. 

cavalry. (F. - Ital. - L.) O. F. 
cavallerie. — Ital. cavalleria, cavalry. — 
Ital. cavaliere, a knight ; see Cavalier. 

Cave. (F.-L.) m.'E. caue.-O.V. 
cave, a cave. — Folk-L. cava, a cave. — L. 
cauus, hollow. (y'KEU.) Der. cav-ity; 
cav-em (F. caverne, L. cauei-nd). 

Cave in, (M. Du.) Properly to 
calve in, a phrase introduced by Dn. 
navvies. Cf. W. Flanders inkalven, to 
cave in ; E. Friesic kalfen, to calve as a 
cow, whence kalfen in, to cave in. The 
falling portion of earth is compared to a 
calf dropped by a cow. Confused with 
cave, a hollow. 

Caveat, a caution. (L.) L. caueat, 
lit. let him beware. — L. fa2<«-e, to beware. 

Caviare, roe of the sturgeon. (F.— 
Ital.) F. caviar. — Vi.i\. caviaro; whence 
also Turk, khdvydr, caviare. 

Cavil. (F.-L.) O. F. caviller. -1.. 
cauilldri, to banter ; hence, to wrangle, 
object to.-L. cauilla, a jeering, cavil- 

Caw. (E.) An imitation of the cry of 
the crow or daw. Cf. Du. kaauw, Dan. 
kaa, a jackdaw : which are imitative. 

Cayman, an American alligator. (Ca- 
ribbean.) Also caiman. The spelling 
cayman is Spanish. — Caribbean acayiiman 

Cease. (F.-L.) ¥. cesser. — 'L.cessare, 
to loiter, go slowly, cease ; frequent, of 
cedere (pp. cesszis], to yield, go away, 

Cedar, a tree. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
cedre. — L. cedrus, — Gk. niSpos. 
Cede. (L.) A late word (A. D. 1633). 
- L. cedere, to go, to come, to yield. 
Ceil, Ciel, to line the inner roof or 
walls of a room. (F.-L.) Hence the 
sb. ceil-ing or ciel-ing. M. E. ceelen, to 
ceil ; from the sb. syle or cyll, a canopy. - 
F. ciel, a canopy ; the same word as ciel, 
heaven. [Cf. Ital. cielo, heaven, a canopy, 



a cieling.] — L. ccelum, heaven, fl Not to 
be confused with E. sill, nor with seal ; nor 
with seel (F. siller) \ nor with L. celare, 
to hide. The L. crsldre, to emboss, seems 
to have had some influence on the word, 
but did not originate it ; cf. M. E. celure, 
a canopy. Late L. cteWtiira. 

Celandine, a plant. (F. - Gk.) O. F. 

celidoine. — h^te L. celidonia. — L. cheli- 
donia. — Gk. x^^^^^^^^^t swallow-wort.— 
Gk. x^^'Sov-, stem of x^^tSttji/, a, swallow. 
(The n is intrusive.) 

Celebrate. (L-) L. celebrdUis, pp. 
of celehrare, to frequent, to solemnise, 
honour. — L. celeber, frequented, populous. 

Celerity. (F.-L.) 'S. aUriie.-'L. 

ace. cehritdtem, speed. — L. celer, quick. 
Cf. Gk. KtXrfS, a runner; Brugm. i. § 633. 
Celery. (F.-L.-Gk.) ¥.c^leri,m- 
troduced from the Piedmontese Ital. sel- 
leri ; for Ital. selini, pi. of selino, parsley. 

— L. selinon, parsley. — Gk. aiKivov, a kind 
of parsley. 

Celestial. (F.-L.) O.F. celestiel. 

— L. calesti-s, heavenly. — L. cielum, 

Celibate. (L.) The orig. sense was 
' a single life ' ; it was afterwards an adj., 
and again a sb., meaning ' one who is 
single. — L. ccelibatus, sb. celibacy, single 
life. — L. ctelib-, stem oi ccslebs, single, un- 
married. Der. celibacy (for *ccelibatid). 

Cell. (L.) M. E. celle. - L. cella, 
small room, hut. Cf. celdre, to hide. 
See Helm (2). (.y'KEL.) 

cellar. (F.-L.) yi.Y.cchr. A.F. 
celer; O. F.celier. — l^. celldrium, a cellar. 

— L. cella (above). 

Celt (i), a name originally given to the 
Gauls. (C.) From'L. pi. Cellcc, the 
Celts ; the word probably meant ' war- 
riors ' ; cf. A. S. hild, Icel. hildr, war ; 
Lith. kalti, to strike ; L. per-cellere, to 
strike through, beat down (Rhys). 

Celt (2), a primitive chisel or axe. 
(Late L.) Late L. celtis, assumed nom. 
of the abl. celle ( = with a chisel), in the 
Vulgate Version of Job xix. 24. But this 
reading is due to some error, and there 
seems to be no such word in Latin. 

Cement. (F.-L.) O. F. ciment.- 
L. ccsmentum, rubble, chippings of stone ; 
hence, cement. Perhaps for *ccednientum, 
from ccsdere, to cut (Brugm. 1. § ;Al)- 

Cemetery. (L. — Gk.) Late L. cccme- 
terium. — Gk. KOt/irjT'qptov, a sleeping-place, 
cemetery. — Gk. koi/i^<u, I lull to sleep ; in 


pass., to fall asleep. Allied to kuiuu, I 
lie down ; Skt. fi, to lie down. 

Cenobite. (L. - Gk.) L. cienobm 

a member of a (social) fraternity (Jerome). 
-L. ccenobium, a convent. -Gk. icoivu^iov, 
a convent. - Gk. koivoPios, living socially. 
— Gk. Koivi-s, common ; fiios, life. 

Cenotaph. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 

cenotaphe. — L. cenotaphium. — Gv.. xtvo- 
Ta.(piov, an empty tomb. — Gk. xevo-s, 
empty; raiji-os, a tomb. 

Censer^ (F.-L.) M. E. censer. - 
O. F. censier, senser (Godefroy) ; short- 
ened from O. F. encensier. — \A\x^ L. in- 
censdrium, also incensoritim (whence 
mod. Y. encensoir). — L. incensum, in- 
cense; from pp. of incendere, to kindle. 
See Incense. 

Censor. (L.) L. censor, a taxer, valuer, 
assessor, critic. — L. censerci to give aa 
opinion, appraise. -J-Skt. cams, to praise. 

censure. (F.-L.) F. censure. — L. 
censitra, orig. opinion. — L. censere 

census. (L.) L. census, a register- 
ing. —L. censere (above). 
Cent, a hundred, as in per cent. (L.) 
In America, the hundredth part • of a 
dollar. — L. centum, a hundred ; see 

centenary. (L.) L. centendriusj 
relating to a hundred. — L. centenus, a 
hundred (usu. distributively). — L. centum. 

centennial. (L.) Coined to mean 
relating to a century. — L. cent-um, hun- 
dred ; annus, a year. 

centesimal. (L.) L. centisim-us, 
hundredth. — L. cent-um, hundred. 

centigrade. (L.) Divided into a 
hundred degrees. — L. centi-, for centum, 
hundred ; grad-us, a degree ; see Grade. 

centipede, centiped. (F.-L.) F. 

centipide. — L. centipeda, a many-footed 
(lit. hundred-footed) insect. - L. ««/«'-, for 
centum, hundred; and ped-, stem o! pes, 

centuple. (L.) L. centupkx (stem 
cenluplic-), a hundredfold. — L. centu-m, 
hundred ; plic-dre, to fold.- 

centurio^. (L.) L. ace. centurio- 
nem, a captain of a hundred. — L. centuria 

century. (F.-L.) Y.centurie.- 

L. centuria, a body of a hundred men ; 

number of one hundred. — L. centu-m, 


Centaur. (L. - Gk.) L. Centaurus. 



— Gk. icivravpos, a centaur, a creature half 
man and half horse; which some have com- 
pared with Skt. ganii/iarvas, a demi-god. 
centaury, a plant. (L.— Gk.) L. 
cenlaurea. — Gk. xevTavpfiov, centaury ; a 
plant named from the Centaur Chiron. 

Centenary, Centennial, Centn- 
ple. Centurion, &c. ; see Cent. 
Centre, Center. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. 

centre. — L. centrum. — Gk. Kevrpov^ a 
spike, goad, prick, centre. — Gk. k(vt(u, 
I goad on. Cf. W. cet&r, a spike. 

centrifingal, flying from a centre. 
(L.) L. centri-, for centra-, stem of cen- 
trum \ a.nAfug-ere, to fly. 

centripetal, tending towards a 
centre. (L.) L. centri- (above) ; fet-ere, 
to seek. 

Ceramic, relating to pottery. (Gk.) 
Gk. Kepa/itK-is, adj. — Gk. icepa/i-os, potter's 
earth. Cf. Kfpavvvju (fut. Ktpaaai), I mix. 
Cere, to coat with wax. (L.) L. 
cerdre, to wax. — L, cera, wax.+Gk. icripii, 

cerecloth. (L. and E.) Lit. a waxed 

cerement. (L.) From cere; with 
suffix -ment (L. -menttmi). 

ceruse, white lead. (F. — L.) O. F. 
ceruse. — L,. cerussa, white lestd. — T-,. cera, 

Cereal, relating to corn. (L.) L. 
ccreatis. — L,. ceres, corn. 
Cerebral, relating to the brain. (L.) 
From L. cerebr-um, the brain. Cf. Gk. 
Kapa, the head. Brugm. i. § 619. 

Cerecloth, Cerement ; see Cere. 
Ceremony. (F. — L.) M. E. cere- 

vionie. — ¥. cirimonie. — tu. ccerimonia, a 
ceremony, rite. 

Certain. (F. - L.) O. F. certein, 
certain. — L. cert-us, sure ; with snffix 
-c.nus. Allied to L. cernere, to discrimi- 
nate ; Gk. Kfivuv, to separate, decide. 

certify. (F.-L.) U.'E.cerlifien.- 
F. certifier. — Late L. certificare, to make 
sme. — l,. certi-, for certo-, stem of certus 
(above) ; and -fie-, ioxfac-ere. to make. 

Cerulean, azure. (L.) L. caruleus, 
carulus, blue ; for *c(Eluleus, "catlulus, from 
calum, sky. Brugm. i. § 483. 

Ceruse, white-lead ; see Cere. 

Cervical, belonging to the neck. (L.) 
From L. ceruic-, stem of ceruix, neck. 

Cervine, relating to a hart. (L.) L. 
ceruTn-us. — 'L. ceru-us, a hart ; see Hart. 

Cess, limit, measure. (F. - L.) In 


I Hen. IV. ii. i. 8. Orig. a tax, rate, 
rating, assessment ; see Spenser, State of 
Ireland, Globe ed., p. 643, col. 2. For 
sess; from sess, verb, to rate; which is 
short for Assess. 

Cessation. (F. — L.) F. cessation. — 
L. ace. cessationem, a ceasing. — L. cessa- 
ius, pp. of cessdre, to cease. — L. cesstts 

cession. (F. — L.) F. cession. — L. 
ace. cessionem, a yielding. — L. cessus, pp. 
of cedere, to yield, to cede. 

Cess-pool. (Hybrid.) Most probably 
equiv. to {se)cess-pool; see N. E. D. Cf. 
Ital. cesso, a privy (Torriano) ; which is 
a shortened form of secesso, a retreat.— 
L. secessus, ' the draught ; ' Matt. xv. 1 7 

Cetaceous, of the whale kind. (L.— 
Gk.) L. cetiis. — Gk. k^tos, a sea-monster. 


Chablis, a white wine. (¥'.) From 
Chablis, 1 2 mi. E. of Auxerre, in the de- 
partment of Yonne, France. 

Chafe, to warm by friction, vex. (F. — 
L.) M. E. chaufen, to warm. — O. F. 
chaufer (F. chauffer), to warm ; cf. Prov. 
ca/far, to warm. — Late L. *calefdre, to 
warm; for L. cakfacere, to warm, make 
to glow.— L. cale-re, to ^avi ; facere, to 

Chafer, Cockchafer. (E.) AS. 

cefer {a.\so ceafi>r) , a kind of beetle.+Du. 
kever; G. kdfer. 

Chaff. (E.) A. S. ceaf, later chcef, hnsk 
of grain. +Du. kaf; Low G. kaff. ^ The 
verb to chaffs to chafe, i. c. vex. So also 
chaff-wax, for chafe-wax. 

Chafinch, a bird. (E.) I.e. chaff- 
finch ; it frequents barn-doors. 

Chaffer. (E.) The verb is from the 
M. E. sb. chapfare, also chaffare, a bargain- 
ing. -A. S. ceap, a bargain, and faru, a 
journey, also business ; see Cheap and 

Chaffinch ; see Chaff. 

Chagrin. (F.) F. chagrm, melan- 
choly. [Diez identifies it with F. chagrin, 
shagreen ; but wrongly.] 

Chain. (F.-L.) 0.¥.chaine,chaene. 

— L. catena, a chain. 

Chair. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. chaire, 
chaere. — Q. F. chaiere, chaere.—h. cathe- 
dra, a throne, raised seat, chair. -Gk. 
leaBiSpa, a seat. - Gk. «ofl-, for Kara, down ; 



(Spa, a seat, from H^ofiai (= iS-yo/iat), 
I sit ; see Cathedral, 9it. 

chaise, a light carriage. (F.— L,- 
Gk.) F. chaise, a chair, also, a chaise ; a 
Parisian modification oif F. chaire, a pulpit, 
orig. a seat. 

Clialcetloay, a kind of quartz. (L. — 
Gk.) L. chaleidonms. Rev. xxi. 19. — Gk. 
Xa^KrjSaiii, Rev. xxi. 19. 

Chaldron, a coal-measure. (F.— L.) 
O. F. chaldron, orig. a caldron ; see 

Chalice, a cup. (F.-L.) A.¥. chalice; 
O. F. calice. — 'L. calicem, ace. of calix, a 
cup. Allied to calyx, but not the same 

Chalk. (L.) M. E. chalk. - A. S. cealc 
(Southern). — L. calc-, stem of calx, lime. 

Challenge. (F.-L.) U.K chalen^e, 
calenge, often in the sense 'a claim.' — 
A. F. chalenge, O. F. chalonge, calenge, a 
dispute, claim ; an accusation. — L. calum- 
nia, false accusation ; see Calumny. 

Chalybeate. (L. - Gk.) Used bf 

water containing iron. Coined from L. 
chalyh-s, steel. — Gk. x"^^ (stem xo^-"i3-), 
steel ; named from the Chalybes, a people 
of Pontiis, who made it. 
Chamber. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y. chain- 
bre; Prov. cambra. — l^. camera, camara, 
a vault, vaulted room, room. — Gk. na/iapa, 
a vaulted place. 

chamberlain. (F.-O.H.G.-L.- 

Gk.) F. chamberlain, 0.¥.chauil>relenc. — 
O. H. G. chamerliiu, M. H. G. kamerlinc, 
one who has the care of rooms; formed 
with sufRx -l-inc (the same as E. -l-ing), 
from L. camera (above). 

Chameleon. (L.-Gk.) \^. chame- 
leon. — Gk. x"/«i'-^«'w>', lit. a gronnd-lion, 
dwarf-lion ; a kind of lizard. — Gk. X"/*"') 
on the ground (also dwarf, in comp.) ; and 
Kkav, lion. Cf. L. humi, on the ground. 

chamomile. (Late L.-Gk.) Late 
L. camomilla {chamomilld). — G^. x^f^ai- 
fiT/Kov, lit. ground-apple, from the apple- 
like smell of the flower. -Gk. x«/^<"'-> 0° 
the ground (see above) ; nij\ov, apple. 

Chamois. (F. - G.) F. chamois ; 
borrowed from some Swiss dialectal form ; 
cf. Piedmontese camossa. — M. H. G. gamz 
(for *gamuz), a chamois {G.gemse). 

Champ, to eat noisily. (E.) Formerly 
chain or chamm ; of imitative origin, like 
jam, to crush. Cf Swed. dial, kamsa, to 
chew with difficulty. 

Champagne. (F. - L.) A wine 


named from Champagne in France, which 
means ' a plain ' ; see below. 

champaign, open country. (F.-L.) 
In Sh. F. chaiiipaigne, of which thePicard 
form was camfaigne ; see Campaign. 

Champab, a tree. (Skt.) Skt. cham- 
paka, the champak. 

Champion. (F.-L.) O.Y. cham- 
pion.— "L. cainpionem, ace. of campio, a 
combatant (Isidore). -L. campus, a place 
for military exercise; a peculiar use of 
campus, a field. See Camp. 

Chance, hap. (F.-L.) M. E. cheaunce. 

— O. F. cheance, chaaitce. — 'Lute L. caden- 
tia, a falling, a chance. — L. cadere, to fall, 
happen; see Cadence. 

Chancel. (F.-L.) So called because 
orig. fenced off by a latticed screen.— 
O. F. chancel, an enclosure fenced off with 
an open screen. — Late L. cancellus, a 
chancel, screen ; L, cancellT, pi., a grating; 
see Cancel. 

chancellor. (F.-L.) Q.Y. chaiice- 
lier. — L,iLte L. ace. cancelldrium, a chan- 
cellor ; orig. an officer who stood near the 
screen before the judgment-seat. — L. can- 
celll, a grating ; see Chancel, Cancel. 

chancery. (F.-L.) For chance Iry. 
M.E. chancelerie. — G.Y. chancellerie.— 
Late L. cancelldria, the record-room of a 
cancelldrius \ see Chancellor. 

Chandelier. (F.-L.) O.F. chande- 
lier, a candle-holder. — Late L. caiide- 
Idrius, m. ; cf. candetdria, a candle-stick. 

— L. candela; see Candle. 
chandler. (F.— L.) 0.7. chandelier, 

a chandler. — Late L. candelarius, a 
candle-seller. — L. candela; see Candle. 
Der. corn-chandler, where chandler merely 
means seller, dealer. 

Change, vb. (F.-L.) O.Y. changer, 
ehatigier. — 'Ls.te L. cambidre, to change 
(Lex Salica). — L. cambire, to exchange. 
Cf. Late L. cambium, exchange ; whence 
F. change, E. change, sb. 

Channel. (F.-L.) M.E. chanel, 
canel. — 0.¥. chanel, canel, a canal. — L. 
ace. candlem ; see Canal. 

Chant. (F.-L.) Y . chanter,\'a.-'L. 
cantdre, to sing ; frequent, of canere, to 
sing. Der. chantry, M. E. chaunterie, 
Late L. cantdria ; chanti-cleer, M. E. 
chaunte-cleer, clear-singing. 

Chaos. (Gk.) L. chaos, Lat. spelling 
of Gk. xaos, chaos, abyss, lit. a cleft. Cf. 
Gk. xofffffii', to gape. See Chasm. 

Chap (i), to cleave, crack. (E.) M. E. 



chappen, to cut; hence, to gape open like 
a wound made by a cut. E. Fries, kappen, 
to cut ; not found in A. S.+M. Du. kappen, 
to cut ; Swed. kappa, Dan. kappe, to cut ; 
G. kappen, to cut, lop. See Chop (i). 
Chap (2) ; see Chapman. 
Chapel. (F.-L.) O. F. chapele.- 
Late L. cappella, orig. a shrine in which 
was preserved the capa or cope of St, 
Martin. (Brachet).-Late L. capa, cappa, 
cape, hooded cloak; see Cape (i). 

chaperon. (F.-L.) ¥. chaperon, a. 
protector ; orig. a kind of hood. - F. chape, 
a cope. — Late L. sdpa ; as above. 
Chapiter, the capital of a column. 
(F.— L.) O. F. chapilre, -asVialXy a. chapter 
of a book, but representing L. capitulum, 
which meant ' chapiter ' as well as 
' chapter.' See Chapter. 
Chaplet. (F.-L.) U.K. chapelet.- 
O. F. chapelet, a head-dress, wreath. - 
O. F. chapel, head-dress. — O. F. chape, a 
cope 4 see Chaperon. 
Chapman, a merchant. (E.) The 
familiar chap is merely short for cluipman. 
— A. S. ceapman, a merchant. — A. S. ceap, 
price, barter (see Cheap) ; and man, man. 
Chaps, Chops, the jaws. (£.) A 
late word, of unknown origin; possibly 
from Chap (i). ^ Perhaps suggested by 
North E. cha/is or chaj^s, jaws (Cleveland 
Gloss.).- Icel. kjapir (pt pron. as /;■), the 
jaw ; Swed. kii/t, Dan. ki'Jft, jaw. 

Chapter, a division of a book, synod 
of clergy. (F.-L.) U.E.chapilre,mhoth 
senses. — F. chapitre, variant of an older 
form chapitle. — L. capiltdum, a chapter 
of a book (^little head) ; also, in Late L., 
a synod; dimin. oi capul, a head. 
Char (i), a turn of work. (E.) Also 
chare, chore, chewre ; M. E. cher, char, 
orig. a turn, hence, a space of time, turn 
of work, &c.— A. S. cerr (below). Hence, 
char-woman, a woman who does a turn of 
work. See Ajar. 
char (2), usually chare, to do a 

turn of work. (E.) U.Ji. cherren,char- 
ren, to turn ; A. S. cerran, to turn. — A. S. 
cerr {cierr, cyrr), a turn. 1[ The sense 
' bum ' is later than the appearance of the 
sb. char-coal. 
Char (3), a fish. (C. ?) Of unknown 
origin; perhaps named from its red belly 
[the W. name is torgoch, red-bellied, from 
tor, belly, and coch, red]. — O. Gael, ceara, 
red, from cear, blood; Irish cear, red, 
also blood. 


Character. (L.-Gk.) \.. character. 

— Gk. xapaxTfip, an engraved or stamped 
mark.-Gk. xo-paaativ, to furrow, scratch, 

Charade. (F.-Prov.) ¥. charade, 
mtroduced from Provencal charrada, a 
long talk, from charrA, to chatter (Supp. 
to Littre) ; cf. Languedoc charrade, idle 
talk. Cf. also Span, charrada, speech or 
action of a clown, from Span, charro, a 
clown, peasant. 

Charcoal. (E.) From char and coal; 
but the sense of char remains unknown ; 
some refer it to M. E. cherrcn, to turn (as 
if to turn to coal), but there is no proof 
of this. See char (2). 

Charge. (F.-C.) F. charger, to 
load. — Late L. carricdre, to load a car. — 
L. carrus, a car, a Gaulish word; see 
Cark, Car. Der. charg-er, a dish or horse, 
because carrying a burden. 

chariot. (F.-C.) F. c/mna/, aug- 
mentative of F. char, a car. — L. carrus, a 
car ; see Car. 

Charity. (F.-L.) 0.¥. charilet.- 
L. ace. cdritdtem, love. — L. <-(f;-«j, dear. 
Brugm. i. § 637. % Not allied to Gk. 

Charlatan. (F.-Ital.) Y. charlatan. 

— Ital. ciarlatano, a mountebank, great 
talker, prattler. — Ilal. ciarlare, to prattle; 
ciarla, prattle ; prob. of imitative origin. 

Charlock, a kind of wild mustard. 
(E.) Prov. E. carlock. — A.S. cerlic; 
origin unknown. 

Charm. (F.-L.) M.E. charme,sb. 

— O. F. charme, an enchantment. — L. car- 
men, a song, enchantnient. 

Charnel. (F.-L.) Properly an adj. ; 
containing carcases, as in charnel-house.— 
O, F. charnel, adj. carnal ; as sb. a ceme- 
tery. — Late L. carnnle, glossed hy JiSschiis 
(flesh^house) ; Wright-WUlker, Voc. 184. 
37. — L. carndlis; see Carnal. 

Chart. (F.-L. - Gk.) O. F. charle. 

— L. charta, a paper. — Gk. x^P''V> "• '^"^ 
of paper. Doublet, cor(/(i). 

charter. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
chartre. — O. F. chartre. — Late L. carlula, 
a small paper or document. — L. charla, a 
paper ; see above. 

Chary, careful, cautious. (E.) M. E. 
chart. A. S. cearig, full of care, sad. — 
A. S. cearu, cam, care. + Du. karig, G. 
karg, sparing. Chary meant (1 ) sorrowful, 
(2) heedful. See Care. 

Chase (i), to hunt after. (F.-L.) 



O. F. chacier, chacer, to pnrene; see 

Chase (2), to enchase; short for en- 
chase, which see. 

Chase (3), a printer's frame. (F. — L.) 
F. ch&sse, a shrine. — L. capsa, a box ; see 
Case (2). 

Chasm. (L. — Gk.) L. chasma, a 
gulf. — Gk. xo'^A'") * yawning cleft. Allied 
to yaaKtiv, to gape ; see Chaos. 

Chaste. (F.-L-) O.Y.chaste.-^^. 
castas, chaste ; see Casts. 

chasten. (F. - L.) Used in place of 
M. E. cliasty or chastien ; see below. 

chastise. (''• — L.) ^.^. chastisen; 
shorter form chastien. — O. F. chastier. — L. 
castigdre, lit. ' to make pure.' — L. castus, 
chaste ; see Castigate. 

Chasuble, a vestment. (F.-L.) F. 
chasut/e. — I^^te L. casuliuh, with the same 
sense as Late L. casula, a little house ; 
hence, a mantle. — L. casa, a cottage. 

Chat, Chatter. (E.) M. E. chateren, 
also chiteren, to chatter, twitter ; frequent- 
ative form of chat. An imitative word ; 
cf. Du. kwetteren, to warble, chatter, Swed. 
kvitlra, to chirp. 

Chateau. (F. - L.) F. chdteau, O. F. 
chaste I — L. castellum, dimin. of castrtim, 
a fortified place. Der. castellan; also 
ch&telaine ; for which see Castle. 

Chattels. (F.-L.) Pi. of M.E. 

chalel, property, also cattle. — O. F. chalel, 

0. North F. catel, property; see Cattle. 

Chatter ; see Chat. 

Chaudron, entrails. (F.) Macb. Iv. 

1 . 33. The r is inserted by confusion with 
F. chaudron, a caldron. — O. F. chaudun, 
older forms caudun, caliiun, entrails 
(Godefroy). [Cf. G. kaldaunen, entrails ; 
from Mid. Low G. kaldune, the same.] 
Thought to be from Lite L. caUiina, 
a dish containing entrails (Ducange). Per- 
haps from L. calidus, warm (F. chaud). 

Chav ; see Chew. 

Chaws, by-form of Jaws ; see Jaw. 

Cheap, at a low price ; orig, a sb. (E.) 
M. E. chep, cheep, barter, price ; always a 
sb. Hence, good cheap, in a good market 
(F. bon marcM) ; whence E. cheap, used 
as an adj. A. S. ceap, price ; whence the 
verb ceapian, to cheapen, buy. So also 
Du. koop, a bargain, koopen, to buy; G. 
kauf, purchase, kaufen, to buy ; Icel. kaup, 
Swed. kop, Dan. kiob, a purchase ; Goth, 
kaupon (weak vb.), to traffic. ^Some 
say that these words are borrowed from 


L. ; in particular, that O. H. G. choufo, a 
huckster, is from L. cattpo, a huckster. 
But this is now held to be unlikely (Kluge, 

Cheat, to defraud. (F.-L.) Cheat is 
merely short for escheat ; cf M. E. chete, 
an escheat (Prompt. Parv.). The eschea. 
ters were often cheaters ; hence the verb. 
See Escheat. 

Check, a sudden stop, repulse. (F. — 
Pers.) M. E. chek, a stop ; also check ! 
in playing chess. The word is due to the 
game, which is very old. The orig. sense 
of check was ' king ! ' i. e. mind the king, 
the king is in danger. — O. F. eschec, ' a 
check at chess-play,' Cot. -Pers. shah, a. 
king, king at chess; whence shdh-mat, 
check-mate, lit. ' the king is dead,' from 
Arab, mat, he is dead. Similarly we have 
F. ichec, a check, repulse, defeat, pi. ichecs, 
chess ; Ital. scacco, a square of a chess- 
board, also a check, defeat. See chess 
below. % Devic shews that O. F. eschec 
represents Arab, esh-shdg; where esh is 
for al, the def. art., and shag is the Arab, 
pron. of Pers. shah. 

checker, chec|.uer, to mark with 

squares. (F. — Pers.) To mark with 
squares like those on a chessboard. M. E. 
ckekker, chekere, a chess-board. (Hence 
The Checkers, an inn-sign.) — O. F. esche- 
quier, a chess-board, also, an exchequer. 
— Low L. scaccdriutn, a chess-board. — 
Low L. scacci, chess, pi. of scaccus, from 
the Arab, form of Peis. shnh, king. 

checkers, cheq.uers, an old name 

for the game at draughts ; bom the checker 
or chess-board ; see above. 

check-mate. (F. - Pers. atul Arab.) 
From Arab. *shag-inat, for shdh-mat, the 
king is dead; see Check. 

cheque. (F. — Pers.) A pedantic 
spelling of check, from confusion with 
exchequer; it is really a name given to a 
draft for money, of which one keeps a 
memorandum or counter-check. 

chess, the game of the kings. (F. — 
Pers.) Equivalent to checks, i. e. kings ; 
see Check above. —O. F. esches, chess; 
really the pi. of eschec, check, orig. ' king.' 
^ From Pers. shah, a king, were formed 
O. F. eschec, F. ichec, E. check, Ital. scacco. 
Span. xaque,jaque. Port, xaque, G. schach, 
Du. schaak, Dan. skak, Swed. schack, 
Low Lat. Indus scaccorum = game of 
checks, or of kings. 
Cheek. (E.) M. E. cheke, cheoke. O. 



Merc, cdce, A. S. ceace, cheek. + Du. 
kaak, jaw, cheek ; Swed. kdk, jaw. 
Cheer. (F.-L.) M.E. cAere, orig. 

the mien ; hence, ' to be of good ckeei-.' 
-O. F. c/iere, the face. — Late L. cara, 
face. (Relationship to Gk. xapa, the head, 
is doubtful.) Der. cheerrful. 

Cheese. (L.) yi-.Y.. ckese. O. Merc. 
ccse (A. S. cyse, for earlier *cUse<,*ceasi), 
with i-mutation ; prehistoric A. S. *cSsi 
< *casioz. — L. caseus, cheese ; whence 
other forms (G. kase, Du. kaas) are bor- 
rowed. Sievers, 2nd cd. § 75. 2. 

Cheeta, Cheetah, the hunting leo- 
pard, a leopard used for the chase. (Hind. 
— Skt.) Hind, chiid. — Skt. chilraka, a 
cheeta; from chitra, spotted, also visi- 
ble, clear. — Skt. chit, to perceive. See 

Chemise. (F.-L.) F\ chemise.— 
Late L. camisia, a shirt, thin dress ; 
whence O. Irish caimmse, shirt (Stokes). 

Chemist, Chymist; short for al- 
chemist ; see Alchemy. 

Cheque, Cheqner ; see Check. 

Cherish. (F. - L.) O. F. cheris-, 
stem of pres. pt. of cherir, to hold dear. — 
F. cher, dear. — L. cants, dear. 
Cheroot, a ci^j:. (Tamil.) Tamil 
shttt-uUu, a roll ; hence, a roll of tobacco 

Cherry. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. r//m", a 
mistake tor cheris, the final j being mis- 
taken for the pi. inflexion. — O. North F. 
cherise, O. F. cerise; representing Folk- 
L. *ceresia, *ceresea. — X, cerastis, a cherry- 
tree. — Gk. Kepaaos, a cherry-tree ; usually 
said to come from Cerasos, in Pontus ; 
a story which Curtius doubts. 
Chert, a kind of quartz. (?) Unknown. 
Cf. Irish ceail, a pebble. 
Cherub. (Heb.) The true pi. is cherub- 
im.— Yieh. k'rilv (pi. Krtevini), a mystic 
Chervil, a plant. (L. — Gk.) A.S. «;-- 

Jille. — L chccrephylla, pi. oi chcerephyllum. 
— Gk. x°Vf''?"'^^<"'j chervil, lit. pleasant 

leaf. — Gk. x"'/""""! '° rejoice; ^vK\ov, 


Chess ; see Check. 
Chest. (L. — Gk.) M. E. cheste, chiste. 

A. S. cist. — L. cista. — Gk. Kiarr), a chest, 

box (whence G. kiste, Sec). 

Chestnut, Chesnnt. (F.-L.-Gk.) 

Chesnut is short for chestnut, which is 
short for chestcn-nut, nut of the chesten, 
which is the old name of the tree,- called 



in M.E. chcstein.-O.T. chastaigne (F. 
chcUaixne). — L. castanca, chestnut- tree. - 
Gk. immavov, a chestnut. Chestnuts are 
said to have been called xaaiava, or Kapva 
Kao-Tarafa, from KaffTai-a, Castana, the 
name of a city in Pontus where they 
abounded ; but more probably from Armen. 
kaskeni, a chestnut-tree, from kask, a chest- 
nut (Klnge). 

Cheval-de-frise, an obstruction with 
spikes. (F.) I,it. ' horse of Friesland,' a 
jocular name; the pi. chevaux-de-Frise is 
commoner. See below. 

chevalier. (F. - L.) F. chevalier, a 
horseman. — E. cheval, a horse. — L. ca- 
balhim, ace. of caballus, a horse. 

Cheveril, kid leather. (F.-L."! O. F. 
chevrele, fem., a little kid. Dimin. of 
O.F. chevre, F. chivre, a goat, kid.- L. 
capram, ace. oicapra, a she-goat. 

chevron, an ordinary, in heraldry, re 
sembling two rafters of a house. (F. - L.) 
(Most likely meant to represent the saddle- 
peak.)—!'. f/ira>-D«, 'a kid, a chevron in 
building, a rafter;' Cot. Augmentative 
form of chevre, a she-goat. — L. capra, a 
she-goat ; see Caper (1). Cf. L. capre- 
olus, which likewise means a prop. 

Chew, Chaw. (E.) M.E. chewen. 
A. S. ccowan,.\.o chew. eat.+Du. kaatiwen; 
G. katien ; O. H. G. kiuwa/i ; Russ.y>z/«/«. 
Cf. also Icel. tyggja, tyggva, to chew 

Chibouk, a Turkish pipe. (Turk.) 
Turk, chibuk, chybfik, a stick, tube, pipe 
(Zenker, p. 349). 

Chicanery. (F.-Pers.?) F. chica- 
ncrie, wrangling, pettifogging; Cot. — F. 
chicaner, to wrangle ; orig. to dispute in 
the game of the mall ox chicane (Brachet'. 
Perhaps from the medieval Gk. T^vnaviav , 
a word of Byzantine origin (id.) ; from 
Pers. chaiigdn, a club, bat. 

Chichen. (E.) Sometimes shortened 
to chick ; but the M. E. word is chiken. 
A. S. ciceit, earlier *ciucin. + Du. kieken, 
kuiken, a chicken. Low G. kiiken ; cf. G. 
kiichlein, a chicken, Icel. kjukling, Swed. 
kyckling ; related to Cock, which shews the 
weak grade *cuc- ; see Cock (i). Sievers, 
2nd ed. § 165. 

Chicory, a plant, succory. (F. — L. — 
Gk.) F. chicorie. — \,. cichorium. — GV. 
Ktxopia, neut. pi. ; also Kixiipwv, Kix<i>p^, 
succory, p. Succory is a corrupter form 
of the word, apparently for siccory or 
cichory, from L. cichorium. 


Chide. (E.) M.,Y,. chiden. K.9i. cidan, 
to chide, brawl ; pt. t. ctdde. 

Chief. (F.-L.) M..Y.. chef , chief .- 
O. F. chef, chief, the head. — L. tjpe 
*capum (Ital. capo). — L. caput, head. 
Der. ker-chief, q. v. 

Chieftain. (F. — L.) OS. chevetaine. 

— Late L. capitaneus, capitanus, a captain. 

— L. capit-, from caput, a head. 
Chiffonier, a. cupboard. (F.) Lit. a 

place to put rags in. — F. chiffonier, a rag- 
picker, also a cupboard. — F. chiffon, aug- 
ment, of chiffe, a rag. Orig. unknown. 

Chignon. (F.-L.) Hair twisted; 
another spelling of F. chatnon, a link. — 
F. chatne, O. F. chaine, a chain. — L. ca- 
tena, a chain. 

Chilblain. (E.) A Main caused by 
a chill. 

Child. (E.) M. E. child. A. S. cild. 
Teut. type *kilpom, neut. ; cf. Goth, kil- 
thei, the womb. 

Chill, cold. (E.) Orig. a sb. A. S. 
cele, ciele, chilliness. Teut. type *kaliz, 
sb. ; from *kal-an, to be cold, as in A. S. 
calan, to be cold, Icel. kala, to freeze. + 
Du. kil, a chill ; cf. L. gelu, frost. 

Chime, sb. (F. -L. -Gk.) M. E. 

chinibe, of which the orig. sense was cym- 
bal ; henci the chime or ringing of a cym- 
bal. Shortened from O. F. chimbale, dia- 
lectal form of O. F. cimbale, a cymbal. — 
L. cymhalum. — Gk. /cv/j.^aKov ; see Cym- 
bal. N.B. We find M. E. chyme-belle, 
which looks like a popular form for cymbal, 
Der. chime, verb. 

Chimera, Chimsera. (L.-Gk.) L. 

chimara. — Gk. xiii.aipa, a she-goat; also, 
a fabulous monster, with a goat's body. — 
Gk. x'V"/"") he-goat. 

Chimney. (F. — L. - Gk.) F. cheminh, 
' a chimney ; ' Cot. — Late L. camindta, 
provided with a chimney; hence, a chimney. 

— L. cammus, an oven, a fire-place. — Gic. 
ic&iuvos, oven, furnace. 

Chimpanzee, an ape. (African.) I am 
informed that the name is isimpanzee in 
the neighbourhood of the gulf of Guinea. 

Chin. (E.) M. E. chin. A.S. cin.+ 
Du. kin, Icel. kinn, Dan. kind, Swed. 
kind ; Goth, kinnus, the cheek ; G. kinn, 
chin ; L. gena, cheek ; Gk. YtVus, chin ; 
cf. Skt. hanus, jaw. 

China. (China.) Short iorchina-ware, 
or ware from China. The name of the 
people was formerly C kineses; we have 
dropped the final s, and use Chinese as a 


pi. ; hence Chinee in the singular, by a 
second dropping of se. 

Chinchilla, a small rodent animal. 
(Span. - L.) Span, chinchilla, lit. ' a little 
bug,' as if from its smell ; but undeservedly 
so named, — Span, chinche, a bug. — L. ci- 
micem, ace. of cimex, a bug. 

Chinchona ; the same as Cinchona. 

Chincongh, whooping-cough. (E.) 
For chink-cough; cf. Scotch kink-cough, 
kink-host (host means cough). A kink is a 
catch in the breath, nasalised form of a 
base *kik, to gasp. + Du. kinkhoest; M. 
Du. kieckhoest; Swed. kikhosta, chincongh, 
kikna, to gasp ; G. keichen, to gasp. 

Chine. (F.-O.H.G.) O.V.eschine{'e. 
ichitie), the back-bone. - O. H. G. J^««a, a 
needle, prickle (G. schiene, a splint). For 
the sense, cf L. spina, a thorn, spine, 

Chink (i), a cleft. (E.) Formed with 
suffixed k, from the base of M. E. chine, u 
cleft, rift. — A.S. cinu, a chink. — A.S. cin-, 
weak grade of cJnan, to split (strong vb.). 
-|-Du. keen, a chink, also a germ, kenen, 
to bud; cf. G. keimen, Goth, keinan, to 
bud. (Germinating seeds make a crack in 
the ground.) 

Chink {2), to jingle. (E.) An imitative 
word ; cf. clmk; clank ; and see Chin- 
oough. E. Fries, kinken (a. strong vb.) ; 
M. Dan. kinke. 

Chintz. (Hindustani — Skt.) Y or chints, 
pi. of chint. Hind, chhint, spotted cotton 
cloth, named from the variegated patterns 
on it; chhit, chintz, also a spot —Skt. 
chilra, variegated, spotted. See Cheeta. 

Chip, vb. (E.) Related (with a lighter 
vowel) to chap (i) or chop ; as if to cut 
a little at a time. Cf. A. S. for-cyppod, 
gloss to praecisus ^Lye) ; E. Fries, kippen, 
to cut. 

Chirography, handwriting. (Gk.) 
From Gk. x"po7P'«ff"', to write with the 
hand. — Gk. x"?"-) from x"V> the hand; 
ypa(petv, to write. Cf. chiro-mancy, for- 
tune-telling by the hand ; chiro-pod-ist, 
one who handles (and cures) the feet. 

Chirp. (E.) Also chiiTup. M. E. c/zjV- 
pen. Also M. E. elm-ken, chii men, to 
chirp. The forms chir-p, chir-k, chir-m 
are from an imitative base ; cf. Du. kin-en, 
to coo. 

Chirurgeou, the old spelling of siir- 
geon. (F. -^ L. - Gk.) F. chirur^ien, 
' a surgeon ; ' Cot. - F. chirurgie, sur- 
gery.,— L.. chirui-gia. — Gk. x'>povpy'a, a 


working with the hands, skill with the 

hands, art, surgery. - Gk. x^ipo-, from 

Xflp, the hand ; alid ipytiv, to work. 

CMsel. (F. -L.) M. E. chisel.-K. F. 

, chisel, O. F. ciscl (F. ciseau). Cf. Late L. 

; dselliis, scissors (a. d. 1352). O. F. cisel 

answers to Late L. *cTsellum, with the 

sense of L. cisorium. a cutting instrument 

(Vegetius) ; see Scheie r's note to Diez. - 

L. *ctsum, for cas-um, supine of cadere, 

to cut ; whence -also Late L. incisor, a 

carver, cutter ; see Caesura. 

Chit (0, a pert child. (E.) M. E. chil, 
a whelp, cub, kitten. Allied to kit-ling 
(Icel. ketlingr), and to kit-ten; cf. G. kitee, 
a female cat. 

Chit (2), a shoot, sprout. (E.) In Hol- 
land's Fliny, xiii. 4. Perhaps allied to 
M.E. c/i/Me, a sprout (N.E.D.).-A. S. 
ciS, a germ, sprout. Cf. Goth, keinan, to 
produce a shoot ; G. keim, a germ. 

Chivalry. (F. — L.) M.'E.chivalrie.— 
O.F.f//«z'a/«/7«, horsemanship, knighthood. 
- F. c/ieval, a horse. - Late L. caballum, 
ace. of caballus, a horse. 
Chlorine, a pale green gas. (Gk.) 
Named from its colour. — Gk. x^<"P-^^, pale 

chloroform. (Gk. andL.) The latter 
element relates toformyl and, formic acid, 
an .icid formerly obtained fiom red ants. — 
L,. formica, an ant. 

Chocolate, .i paste made from cacao. 
(Span. — Mex.) Span, chocolate. — Mex. 
• chocolatl, chocolate ; Clavigero, Hist. 
Mex. i. 433. % Not allied to cacao. 
Choice. (F. - Tent.) Not E. M. E. 
chois. — O. F. chois (F. ckoix). — O. F. 
choisir, O. North F. coisir, to choose. Of 
Tent, origin. — Goth.' kausjan, to try, 
test; causal of kiusan, to choose. See 

Choir. (F. - L. - Gk.) The choir of a 
church is the pait where the choir sit. 
Also s]-elt quire ; M. E. queir, quer. — 
O. F. cuer, later choeur, 'the quire of a 
church, a troop of singers;' Cot. — L. 
chorum, ace. of chorus, a choir. — Gk. 
X°pos, a dance, a band of dancers or 
singers. See Chorus. 
Choke. (E.) M. E. choken, cheken, 
cheoken. A. S. ceocian ; only in the deri- 
vative aceocung, to translate L. ruminatio, 
which the glossator hardly seems to have 
understood, and in the pp. aceocod, .lElfric, 
Horn. i. 216 : with change from eo to eo, 
shortening of o to in M. E., and subse- 



quent lengthening. Cf. Icel. koka, to 
gulp ; kok, the gullet. 

Choler, the bile, anger. (F. -L. — Gk ) 
Anger was supposed to be due to excess of 
bi e. M.E. coler. - O.F. colere.-L. cholera, 
bile ; also cholera, bilious complaint. - Gk 
XoUfa, cholera ; x^H, bile ; x'-'A.os, bile, 
wrath. Ste Gall. 

cholera. (L. - Gk.) L. cholera, as 
above. And see Melancholy. 

Choose. (E.) M.E. chesen, chtisen. 
A. S. ccosan (also ce6san), to choose 
(pt. t. c^as, «fl'j). + Du. and G. kiesen, 
Icel. /ijosa, Goth, kiiisan; Teut. type 
*kens-an-. Allied to L. gus-iare, to taste, 
Gk. -fiooum, I taste, Skt. jtish, to relish. 
(VGEUS.) See Gust. Brugm. i. § 602. 

Chop (i), to cut; a later form of 
Chap (i). 

Chop (2), to barter. (E.) Piobably a 
variant of chap, a verb Vihich seems to 
ha^ e been evolved from the sb. chapman. 

Chopine, a high-heeUd shoe. (F.— 
Span.) In Hamlet, ii. 2. 447 ; for chafine. 

— O. F. chapin ; later chappin (Cotgrave). 

— Span, chapin, a clog with a cork sole, 
woman's shoe, high cork shoe. Perhaps 
from Span, chapa, a thin plate (of metal), 
used to strengthen the work it covers. 

Chops ; ste Chaps. 
Chord. (L. - Gk.) L. chorda. - Gk. 
Xo^^• the string of a musical instrument, 
orig. a string of gut. Buigm. i. § 605. 
^ The some word as Cord. 

Chorus. (L. - Gk.) L. chorus, a band 
of singers. — Gk. x"?^^' ^ dance, a band of 
dancers or singers. See Choir. Der. 
chor-al, chor-i-ster. 

Chough, a bird. (E.) M.E. cho^e, 
chough. Not foimd in AS., which has 
(however) the foims ceo, cio, and the early 
forms ciae, chyae. Somewhat similar forms 
are seen in Dn. kaauw, Dan. kaa, Swed. 
kaja, a jackdaw. 

Chouse, to cheat. (Turk. ?) To act as a 
chouse or cheat. Ben Jonscn has chiaus in 
the sense of ' a Tuik,' with the implied 
sense of 'cheat'; Alchemist, i. i. The 
allusion is alleged to be to a Turkish 
chiaus or interpreter, who committed a 
notorious fraud in 1609. — Turk, chaush, 
a sergeant, mace- bearer, Palmer's Pers. 
Diet. ; chawush, a sergeant, herald, mes- 
senger. Rich. Diet. p. 534. Or (medi- 
ately) from M. Ital. ciatts. 
Chrism ; see below. 
Christ, the anointed one. (L. — Gk.) 


A. S. Crist.— 'L. C&fistus. — Gk. XP'""''^^! 
anointed. — Gk. XP"". I ™l>, anoint. Der. 
Ckrist-ian, Christ-en-dom, Sec. ; Christ- 
mas (see Mass) ; anti-christ, opponent of 
Christ (from Gk. diri, against; see 
1 John ii. 1 8). 

chrism, holy unction. (L. — Gk.) 
Also spelt chrisome, whence chrisome-child, 
a child wearing a chrisome-clolh, or cloth 
which a child wore after holy nnction ; of. 
O. F. cresme, ' the crisome, or oyle ; ' Cot. 
— Late L. chrisma, holy oil. — Gk. xp^'^l""'! 
an nnguent. — Gk. XP'" (^s above). 

ClirOIIiatic, relating to colours. (Gk.) 
Gk. xP*'M^7''*(5y» ''■f'j'^Grk. xpttifiaT-j stem 
of xpS/ia, colour ; allied to xp^h skin. 

chrome, chromium. (Gk.) A 

metal ; its compounds exhibit beautiful 
colours. — Gk. xpS^-o, colour. 
Chronicle. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) M. E. 
cronide, with inserted /; also cronike, 
Cfonique. — K. F. cronicle; O. F. cronique, 
pi. croniques, chronicles, annals. — Late L. 
chronica, fem. sing. ; for neut. pi. — 
Gk. \.poviied, pi., annals. — Gk. xP'""*"fi 
adj. from XP^""^! time. Der. chron-ic 

chronology, science of dates. fGk.) 
From xpiSf -r, time ; -\o7i'a, from XiSy-os, 
discourse ; see Xiogic. 

chronometer, time-measurer. (Gk.) 
From xp<S''o-r, time ; /itTpov, measure ; see 

Chrysalis, the form taken by some 
insects; (Gk.) Gk. xP""""*^"? the gold- 
coloured sheath of butterflies, chrysalis. — 
Gk. XP""-"^: So'<l- 

chrysanthemum, a flower. (L.— 
Gk.) L. chrysanthemum. '•G\i. xf""^"' 
Bf/iov, a marigold. — Gk. xP^^'^^t gold ; 
aySfiiov, a bloom, from dvBetv, to bloom, 
related to av9os, a flower, <i bud. 

chrysolite, a yellow stone. (F. — L. 
— Gk.) O. F. crisolite. — L. chrysolithus. 
Rev. xxi. 20. — Gk. XP""^^'^"^- — Gk. 
Xpva6-s, gold ; \iBos, stone. 

chrysoprase. (L. - Gk.) L. chiyso- 

frasus, Rev. xxi. 20. — Gk. XP'"'^''P''^'">', a 
yellow-green stone. — Gk. xp""'"-'. gold ; 
Trpavov, a (green) leek. 

Chnh, a fish. (E.) Etym. unknown. 
Cf. Dan. ioMie; a seal, prov. Swed. kubbug, 
chubby, fat ; Norw. kuhbcn, stumpy ; 
Swed. ktihb, a block, log. This does not 
explain the ch ; but see Chump. 

chubby, fat. (E.) Lit. 'like a chub;' 
cf. prov. Swed. ktibbug (above). 



Chuck (i), to strike geiitly, toss. (F. — 
Teut.) Formerly written chock (Tnrber- 
ville). — F. choqtcer, to give a shock, jolt. — 
Du. schokken, to jolt, shake ; allied to E. 
shock and shake. 

Chuck (2), to chuck as a hen. (E.) 
An imitative word ; Ch. has chuk to ex- 
press the noise made by a cock ; C. T. 
15180(6.3464). Cf.cluck. Der.chuck-U,, 
in the sense ' to cluck.' 

Chuck (3), a chicken. A variety of 
chick, for chicken. See above. 
Chuckle. (E.) To chuckle is to laugh 
in a suppressed way; cf. Chaok (2). 

Chump, a log.' (E.) Cf. Swed. dial. 
kumpa, to chop into logs ; kumping, a 
log, round stick ; also Icel. kumbr, ire- 
kumbr, a log of wood, from Icel. kumbr, 
nasalised form of kubbr, a chopping ; 
Icel. kubba, tc| chop. Der. chump-end, 
i. e. thick end. 
Church- (Gk.) M..^.chirche,chireche. 
A. S. cirice, later circe ; (cf. Icel. kirkja ; 
G. kirche, Du. kerk^. — Gk. Kvpiaic6v, a 
church, neut. of xvpiaKos, belonging to 
the Lord ; or (possibly) from Gk. xvpiam, 
pi., treated as a fem, sing. — Gk. Kijpios, 
a lord, orig. mighty. — Gk. icvpo^, strength. 
Cf. Skt. cura, a hero. 

Churl. (E.) M. E. cherl, cheorl. A. S. 
ceori, a man. +Du. keret, G. keri ; Dan. 
Sw. Icel. kar/. Teut. tyj)es, *kerioz, 

Churn, sb. (E.) A. S. cjin'n ; older 
form cirin (printed cirm), Corp. gloss. 
1866. + Icel. kirna, Swed. kiima, Dan. 
kieme, a churn; cf. O. Swed. kerna, 
Swed. karna, Dan. kieme, to churn, Du. 
kernen, to chum. 

Chutney, Chutny, a kind of hot 

relish. (Hind.) Hind, chatni (Yule). 

Chyle, milky fluid. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. 
chyie. — L. chylus. — Gk. x"^<5s, juice. - 
Gk. xf<" ( = Xff-<«), I pour. (VGHEU.) 
chyme, liquid pulp. (L.-Gk.) For- 
merly chymus.-h. ckymus. — Gk. xwA'oj, 
juice. — Gk. xf'-o' ; as above. 

Chymist ; see Alchemist. 

01— Cz. 

Cicatrice, scar. (F.-L.) -f . cicatrice. 
-L. cicdtncetn, ace. oi cicatrix, a scar 

Cicerone. (Ital.-L.) ImX. cicerone, 3. 
guide ; orig. a Cicero. - L. ace. Ciceronem, 
proper name. 

Cid, lit. a chief or commander. (Span. 


—Arab.) Usually a title of Rny Diaz, 
the national hero of Spain. — Arab, sayyid, 
a lord ; Richardson's Diet. p. 864. 
Cider. (F. - L. - Gk. - Heb.) It 
merely means strong drink. M. E. sicer, 
cyder. — Y. cidre\ O. F. cisdre ffor *cisre). 

— L. j/'«nr. — Gk, (riKcpa, strong drink.— 
Heb. shehdr, strong drink. — Heb. shakar, 
to be intoxicated. 

Cielittg' ; see Ceil. 

Cigar, Segar. (Span.) Span, cigam ; 
whence also V. cigare. 

Cinchona, Vemvian bark. (Span.) 
Named after the Countess of Chinchon, 
wife of the governor of Peru, cured by it 
A.D. 1638. Chinchon is S.E. of Madrid. 
(Should be chinchma^ 

Cincture. (L.) L. cinctura, a girdle. 

— L. dnclus, pp. oicingere, to gird. 
Cinder. (E.) Misspelt for sinder (by 

confusion with F. cendre = L. cinerem ; 
see Cinerary). A.S. sinder, 'scoria,' slag. 
+IceI. sindr ; Swed. sinder ; G. sinter, 
dross, whence Du. sintels, cinders. ^ The 
A. S. sinder occurs in the 8th century. 
Cinerary, relating to the ashes of the 
dead. (L.) L. cinenlrius. — L. ciner-, 
stem of cinis, dust, ashes of the c!ead.+ 
Gk. Kovis, dust. Der. cineraria, a flower ; 
named from the ash-coloured down on the 
leaves. Brngm. i. § 84. 

Cinnabar, Cinoper. (L.— Gk.— 

Pers.) L. cinnabaris. — Gk. Kivvapapi, 
vermilion. From Pers. zinjifrah, zinjarf, 
red lead, vermilion, cinnabar. 

Cinnamon, a spice. (L. — Gk. — Heb.) 
L. cinnamontum. — Gk. Kiwajuayiov. — Heb. 
qinndmon; said to be of Malay origin 
(^Gesenius). Cf. ^&\s.y kayumanis, cinna- 
mon ; from kdyu, wood, manis, sweet. 

Cipher. (F. - Span. - Arab.) O. F. 
cifre (F. chiffre), a cipher, zero. — Span. 
cifi-a. — Arah. sjfr, a cipher; lit. 'empty 
thing ; ' from sifr, adj. empty ; Rich. Diet. 
P- 937- (A translation of .Skt. fUnya, (i) 
empty; (2) a cipher.) Der. de-cipher, 
from L. de, in the verbal sense of un-, and 
cipher; ci.'iA..'? . dechiffrer, 'to decypher;' 

Circle. (F.-L.) A.S. «m</; butM.E. 

cercle. — F. cercle. — L. circuhis, dimin. of 

circus, a ring, circle ; see Bing (l). Der. 

encircle, semi-circle ; and see circum-. 

circus, a ring. (L.) L. circus (above). 

Circuit. (F. — L.) F. circuit. — 'L. 
ace. circuitum, a going round. — L. cir- 
cuiitis, also circumitus, pp. of circumire 


(also circaire'), to go round. — L. circum, 
round ; ire, to go. 
Circum-, prefix, round. (L.) L. 
circum, around, round ; orig. ace. of 
circus, a circle ; see Circle. Der circum- 
ambient (see Ambient^ ; circum- ambulate 
(see Amble) ; and see below. 

circumcise. (L.) L. circumcis-us, 
pp. of circuincTdere, to cut round. — L. 
circum, round ; and ccedere, to cut. 

circumference. (L.) L. circum- 

/erentia, hoviidary of a circle. — L circnm- 
/erent-,.stem of, to 
earr jf round ; from /erre, to bear. 

Circumflex. (L.) L. syllaba cir- 
ctwiflexa, a syllable marked with a cir- 
cumflex (a) or ' bent ' mark. — L. circum- 
Jlexus, pp. of circum-flectere, to bend 
lound; iiomJlectere,\.a\ie.xA.. 

circumjacent, lying near. (L.) 
From stem of pres. part, of circum-iacere, 
to lie around ; from iacere, to lie. 

circumlocution. (L.) L. circimi- 

locutio, a periphrasis. — L. circumlocutus, 
pp. of circum-loqui, to speak in a round- 
about way ; from loqui, to speak. 

circumscribe. (L.) L. circum- 

scribere, to write or draw around, to limit; 
from scribere, to write. 

circumspect, prudent. (L.) L. cir- 
cumspecttis, prudent ; orig. pp. of circtim- 
spicere, to look around; from specere, to 

circumstance. (F.-L.) Adapted 

from O. F. circonslance. — L. circumstantia, 
lit. a standing around, also an attribute, 
circumstance (influenced by F. circon- 
stance). — \^. circumsiant-, stem 
oicircum-stare, to stand round ; from stare, 
to stand. 

Circus ; see Circle. 

Cirrus, a fleecy cloud, tendril. (L.) 
L. cirrus, a curl, curled hair. 

Cist, a sort of tomb. (L. — Gk.) L. 
cista, a chest. — Gk. kiVtij, a box, chest. 

cistern. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. cisteme. 
— L. cisterna, a reservoir for water. — L. 
cista, as above. 

cistvaen, a British monument. (L. 
atui W.) W. cistfaen, a stone chest, 
monument made with four upright stones, 
and a fifth on the top. — W. cist, a chest 
(from L. cista) ; and maett, a stone. 

Cit, Citadel ; see civil (below). 

Cite, to summon, quote. (F. — L.) F. 
citer. — L. citdre, frequent, of ciere, to 
rouse, excite, call. + Gk. «.'<u, I go. 



(^KI.) See Hie. Der. ex-cile, in-cite, 

Cithern, Cittern, a kind of guitar. 

(L. — Gk. ) [Also M . E. giteme ; from O. 
¥.guiteme, a guitar.] The n is excres- 
cent, as in bitter-n, in imitation of M. E. 
giteme. — L. cithara. — Gk. uiSapa, a. kind 
of lyre or lute. 

Citizen; see Civil (below). 

Citron. (F.— L. — Gk.) Y. citron. — 
Late L. ace. citronem. — 'L,. citrus, orange- 
Iree; orig. a tree with fragrant wood. — 
Gk. icidpos, a cedar. Brngm. i. § 764. 

City; see Civil fbelowj. 

Civet. (P. — Arab.) F. civette, civet ; 
also the civet-cat ; \\.a.\. ziietto; borrowed 
from medieval Gk. (a-irtriov (Brachet). — 
Arab, zabad, civet ; Rich. Diet. p. 767. 

Civil. (F. — L.) F. civil. — Ij. cimlis, 

belonging to citizens. — L. ciuis, a citizen. 

Allied to A. S. htwan, members of a 

household. Der. civil-ise, civil-i-an. 

cit; short for citizen (below). 

citadel. (F.-Ital.-L.) V.citadelle. 

— Ital. cittadclla, a small town, fort ; 
dim in. of cillcule = cilfate {citth), a city. — 
L. cTuitdtem, ace. of cmitds, a city. — L. 
ciuis, a citizen (above). 

citizen. (F. — L.) M. E. cttesein, 
from A. F. cilisein, in which s was an 
insertion. — O. P'. citeain (F. citoyen) \ 
formed from O. F. cite Ifiti) city, by help 
of the suffix -ain — \i. -anus ; see below. 

city. (F. — L.) M. E. cite, citee. — 
O.F. cite (F. «/^). — Late L. iype*civ'tdtem, 
for ctititatem, ace. of chiitds ; see citadel. 

Clachan, a small village with a church. 
(Gael.) Gael. clachan,{\) a circle of stones, 
(2) a small rude church, (3) a small village 
with a church. — Gael, clach, a stone. So 
also Irish clachan, a hamlet ; clach, O. Ir. 
cloch, a stone. 

Clack. (E.) yi.'E.. clcuken. Imitative; 
allied to Crack. E. Fries. klakken.-\- 
Icel. klaka, to chatter ; Du. hlakken, to 
clack, crack ; Irish clag, the clapper of 
a mill. 

Claim, to demand, call out for. (F.— 
L.) O. F. claimer, clamer. — L. cldmare, 
to call out ; cf. O. L. caldre, to pro- 
claim ; Gk. icaKtiv, to summon. Der. 
ac-claim, de claim, ex-daitn, pro-claim, 
re-claim ; also (from pp. clamdtus) ac- 
clamnt-ion, de-clamation, ex-clamat-ion, 
tro clamat-ion, re-clamat-ion. 
clamour. (F. — L.) M.E. clamour. 

— O.F. clamour. — h. ace. cldmorem, an 


outcry. -L. cldmdre {above). Ver.clamor- 

Clamber, to climb by grasping tightly. 
(E. ; perhaps Scand.) XV. cent. M. E. 
clameren, clambren. Cf. Icel. klambra, 
to pinch closely together; Dan. klamre, 
to grip firmly ; see Clamp. Affected by 
Climb, of which the M.E. pt. t. was 
clamb, clam. 

Clammy, viscous. (E.) Earliest form 
claymy, perhaps from A. S. cldm, clay (see 
Clay) ; but confused with an adj. clam, 
sticky ; with which cf. E. Fries, and Du. 
klavi, Dan. lilam, clammy, moist. See 

Clamour ; see Claim. 

Clamp. (Dn.) XV. cent. Vtw.klampe, 
a holdfast ; whence klampen, to clamp, 
grapple, also to board a ship. + Dan. 
klamme, a cramp-iron ; Swed. klamp, the 
same ; Icel. klSmbr, a smith's vice ; Tent, 
base *-klamp, answering to the 2nd grade 
of M. H. G. klimpfen, to press tightly 
together. Cf Clump. 

Clan. (Gael.) Gael, clann, oftsprmg, 
children ; Irish eland, clann, descendants, 
a tribe ; W. platit, pi, offspring, children. 
Cf. Skt. kula{m), a herd, family, Brngm. 
i. § 669. 

Clandestine. (L.) L. dandestinus, 
secret, close. Allied to clam, secretly. 

Clang, to resound. (L.) L. clangere, 
to resound ; whence clangor, a loud noise. 
+Gk. KKaffr}, a clang ; allied to K\a(eiv, 
to clash (fut. K\dy(w). Der. clang-or. 
See below. 

Clank, a heavy rmging sound. (Du.) 
XVII cent. — Du. klank, 'a. ringing;' 
Hexham. Cf. Du. klonk, pt. t. oiklinken, 
to clink. See Clink. Der. clank, vb. 

Clap. (E.) M. E. clappen. [We only 
find A. S. clceppetan, to palpitate ; Voc. 
473.] E. Fries, klappen, to clap hands. 
The orig. sense is to make a noise by 
striking. + Icel. klappa, Swed. klappa, 
Dan. klappe, Du. klappen, M. H. G. klaffen, 
to pat, clap, prate, make a noise. Allied 
to Clack, Clatter. 

Claret. (F.-L.) Orig.a light red wine. 
M. E. claret. - O. F. claret, clairet (F. 
clairet), adj.; dimin. of clair, clear. — L. 
cldrus, clear. See Clear 

clarify. (F.-L.) O.Y. darifier.- 
L. cldrificdre, to make clear. - L. f/ffrA, 
from cldrus, clear ; and -fie-, for facere, 
to make. 

clarion. (F.-L.) H.M. danoim.- 



O. F. *clarion, claroit (F. clairon), a clear- 
sounding horn. — Late L, ace. ddriSnem.— 
L. clari- (as above). 
Clash. (E.) An imitative word ; sug- 
gested by clack and crash, dash, &c. Cf. 

E. Fries, klatsen, to crack a whip. 
Clasp. (E.) M. E. clasfe, elapse, sb. ; 

elaspen, clapsen, vb. The base seems to be 
klap-s-, extended from klap- (see Clap), 
and influenced by M. E. clippen, to em- 
brace. Cf. G. klafler, a fathom ; Lith. 
glebys, an armful ; and cf. Grasp. 

Class. (F.-L.) F. classe, a rank.- 
L. ace. classem, a class, assembly, fleet. 

Clatter. (E.) A frequentative of c/a/, 
which is a by-form of Clack. A. S. clat- 
rung, a. clattering ; E. Fries, klattem, to 
clatter. + Du. klateren, to clatter. Of 
imitative origin. 

Clause. (F.— L.) F. <-/a«j«. — LateL. 
clausa, a passage from a book, a clause. — • 
L. clausus, pp. of claudere, to shut.+ 
O. Fries, sluta, to shut. See Slot (i). 
(VSKLEU.) Brugm. i. § 795. 

Clavicle, the collar-bone. (P. — L.) 

F. clavicule, the collar-bone. — L. claiiicula, 
lit. a small key ; dimin. of clduis, a. key. 
Allied to claudere ; see Clause. 

Claw. (E.) M. E. clau, dee. A. S. 
claivu (also elect), a claw.+Du. klaauiu; 

G. klaue; Icel. klo, Dan. Swed. klo. 
Allied to Clew ; from a Tent, base *klau-, 
2nd grade of *kleu-, to draw together ; 
cf. O. H. G. kluwi, forceps. 

Clay. (E.) M. E. clai, cley. A. S. 
clSg.-\'Y>\i.. and Low G. klei, Dan. klceg. 
Teut. type *klai-ja, fem. ; from *klai-, 2nd 
grade of Teut. root *klei- ; cf. A. S. cldm 
(for *klai-moz), earthenware ; Gk. 7X01-05, 
sticky matter. See Cleave (2) and Qlue. 

Claymore, a Scottish broadsword. 
(Gael.) Gael, claidheamh mor, a great 
sword. Here claidheamh is cognate with 
W. cleddyf, O. Ir. claideb, sword ; and 
Gael, inor, great, is allied to W. mawr, 
great. Cf. W. cledd, a sword. 

Clean. (E.) M. E. dene. A. S. dane, 
clear, pure. -^ O. Sax. deni, cleini ; O. 
Fries, klen ; Du. klein, small ; G. klein, 
O. H. G. chleini, pure, bright, fine, small. 
All from Teut. *klaini-, orig. ' clear, pure.' 
cleanse. (E.) A. S. dSnsian, to 
make clean. — A. S. clane, clean. 

Clear. (F.-L.) M.E.cfc/-, <:/«?■. -O.F. 
der, dair. — L. cldrus, bright, clear, loud. 

Cleat, a piece of iron for strengthening 
the soles of shoes ; a piece of wood or | 


iron to fasten ropes to. (E.) M. E. clete, 
a wedge (as if from A. S. *cleat), also 
elite, dote, a lump; cognate with Du. 
kloot, a ball, G. kloss, a clot, lump. Allied 
to Clot ; and see Clout. 

Cleave (i), to split. (E.) Strong verb. 
A. S. cleofan, pt. t. deaf, pp. clofen ( = 
E. cloven).-\-'D\i. klieven, Icel. kljf^a (pt. t. 
klauf), Swed. klyfva, Dan. klbve, G. klie- 
ben. Teut. base *kleub ; cf. Gk. f\i- 
<p(iv, to hollow out. 

cleft, clift. (Scand.) The old spelling 
is cli/t. — Icel. kluft, Swed. klyft, Dan. 
kloft, a cleft, chink, cave. — Icel. kluf-, 
weak grade of kljufa (above) ; cf. Swed. 
klyfva, to cleave. 

Cleave (2), to stick. (E.) Weak verb. 
The correct pt. t. is cleaved, not clave, 
which belongs to the verb above. A. S. 
clifian, cleofian, pt. t. clifbdc-^-Ji-a. kleven, 
Sv*ed. klihba sig, G. kleben, to adhere, 
cleave to. All from Teut. base *klib-, 
weak grade of Teut. root *kleib-, found in 
A. S. dlfan (pt. t. claf), Du. be-klijven, 
to cleave to. Allied to Clay, Climb. 

Clef, a key, in music. (F.— L.) F. clef. 

— L. elduem, ace. of clauis, a key. 

Cleft; see Cleave ( I). 

Clematis, a plant. (Gk.) Gk. HXrumTis, 
a creeping plant. — Gk. KXruiar-, stem of 
xKijlia, a shoot, twig. — Gk. xhattv, to 
break off, prune (Brugm. ii. § 661). 

Clement. (F.-L.) F. cle»ient.-L. 
dementem, ace. olclemens, mild. 

Clench ; see Clinch. 

Clerestory, an upper story in a church, 
furnished with windows. (F.— L.) Old 
spelling of clear-story. The triforium 
below is sometimes called the blind-story. 
See Story (2). 

Clerk. (F. - L. - Gk.) A. S. and O. F. 
clerc. — L. clericus. — Gk. H\j]puc6i, one of 
the clergy. — Gk. KA^por, a lot ; in late Gk., 
the clergy, whose portion is the Lord, 
Deut. xviii. 2, i Pet. v. 3 ; cf. Acts i. 17. 
(St. Jerome.) 

clergy. (F.-L.) yi.'K. elergie,Qi\sxi. 
also (2) ' learning.' — (i) O. F. clergie, as if 
from L. *clericTa; (2) mod. F. elergi, 
from Late L. clericdius, clerkship. — Late 
L. clericus, a clerk (above). 

Clever. (E.) Cleverly is in Butler's 
Hudibras, i. i. 398 (1663). For M. E. 
diver, adj., meaning ready to seize, allied 
to M. E. diver, a claw, and to Cleave (2). 
So also E. Fries, klufer, clever, Dan. 
dial, klover, klever (Molbech). ^ It took 



the place of M. E. deliver, quick, nimble, 
Cli. prol. 84. — O. F. delivi'e, free, prompt, 
alert ; compounded of L. dl, prefix, and 
iTber, free ; see Deliver. 

Clew, Clue, a ball of thread. (E.) 
M. E. clewe. A. S. cliwen, a clew ; also 
cleowe (Epinal gl. c/«i)««fl«). +Du. kluwen, 
whence kluwenen, to wind on clews (E. 
clew up a sail) ; M. Low G. kluwen ; and 
cf. G. knduel (for *klduel), a clew. Per- 
haps allied to L. gluere, to draw together. 
Cf. Claw. 

Click, (E.) An imitative word, ex- 
pressing a lighter and thinner sound than 
Clack. E. Fries, klikken. Cf. Du. klik- 
klakken, to clash. 

Client. (F.— L.) F. f&w/, a suitor. - 
L. clientem, ace. of Mens = cliiens, orig. a 
hearer, one who listens to advice ; pres. pt. 
of cluere, to hear. (^KLEU.) 

Cliff, a steep rock, headland. (E.) 
A. S. dif, a rock, cliff. -l-Dn. and Icel. 
klif; O. H. G. klep. Cf. G. and Dan. 
klippe, Swed. klippa, a crag ; and Icel. 
kleif, a ridge of cliffs. 

Climate. (F.-L.-Gk.) MJE-dimat. 

— F. climat. — hate L. dimat-, stem of 
cliinu. — Gk. xKtfjtaT-, stem of K\ifia, la 
slope, zone, region of the earth, climate. — 
Gk. /cKivuv, to lean, slope ; see Lean. 

climacter, a critical time of life. (F. 

— Gk.) M.F.dimacie/'e, 3.6}.; whence l' an 
climactere, ' the cliraatericall (sic) year ; 
every 7th, or 9th, or the 63 yeare of a 
man's life, all very dangerous, but the last, 
most;' Cot. — Gk. K\i.iMKTrip, a step of a 
ladder, a dangerous period of life. — Gk. 
K\iimK-, stem of «xr^a£, a ladder, climax, 
with suffix -T17P of the agent ; see below. 

climax, the highest degree. (Gk.) 
Gk. KKiixa^, a ladder, staircase, highest 
pitch of expression (in rhetoric). — Gk. 
KXxvftv, to slope. Der. anti-climax. 

clime. (L. — Gk.) L. c/H?«a, a climate. 
—Gk. jcXi/ia ; see Climate. 

Climb. (E.) M. E. climben, pt. t. clomb. 
A. S. cliiitban, pt. t. damb, pi. duiitbon.Af 
Du. klimmen, M.H.G. klimmen. Teut. 
type *klitnban-. The m was orig. in- 
serted in the present stem, and did not 
belong to the root ; as is shewn by Icel. 
■kllfa, to .climb. Hence it is allied to 
Cleave (2). 

Clime ; see Climate. 

Clincll, Clench, to rivet. (E.) M.E. 
clenchen, klenien, to strike smartly, to 
make to clink ; causal of klinken,to clink. 


Cf. Uu. klijtk, a latch, rivet ; also, a blow ; 
and O. H. G. klenkan, to knot or bind 

Cling. (E.) M. E. ding-cn, to become 
stift; be matted together. A.S. clingan 
(pt. t. clang, pp. clungen), to dry np, 
shrivel up.+Dan. klynge, to cluster. Allied 
to Swed. kldnga, to climb; O. H. G. 
dunga, a clew. 

Clinical. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y.dinique, 
'one that is bedrid;' Cot. — L. clinicus, 
the same. — Gk. k\ivlk6s, belonging to a 
bed, a physician ; -q ic\ivixfi, his art. — Gk. 
K\ivri, a bed. -Gk. xXivuv, to lean; see 
Lean (i). 

Clink. (E.) E. Fries, klinken. Nasa- 
lised form of Click. +Du. klinken, to 
sound, pt. t. klonk, pp. geklonken ; Swed. 
klinka, to jingle. Cf. Clank. 

clinker, a hard cinder. (Du.) Du. 
klinker, a clinker, named from the tinkling 
sound which they make when they strike 
each other. — Du. klitiken, to clink ; cog- 
nate with E. difik. 

clinq.uant, glittering. (F.-Du.) In 
Shak. Lit. ' tinkling.' — F. clinqiictnt, pres. 
pt. of O. F. dinquer, to clink. — Du. 
klinken (above). 

Clip, to cut. (Scand.) M. E. klippen. — 
Icel. klippa, Swed. klippa, Dan. klippe, to 
clip, shear hair. Cf. Snip. 

Clip (2), to embrace. (E.) A. S. clyppan. 

ClioLlie, a gang. (F. — Du.) F. clique, a 
gang, noisy set. — O. F. diquer, to click, 
make a noise. — Du. klikken, to click, 
clash ;also to inform, tell ; cf. Du. klikker, 
a tell-tale. See Click. 

Cloak, Cloke. (F.-C.) 'iA.'E.cloke.- 

O. North F. cloque, O. F. cloche. — l.a.Ve'L. 
cloca, a bell ; also a horseman's cape, which 
resembled a bell in shape : see below. 

clock. (C.) The orig. sense was ' bell ' ; 
bells preceded clocks for notifying times. 
Either from M. Du. clocke (Du. klok"), a 
bell ; or from O. North F. cloque, a bell. — 
Late L. cloc{c)a, a bell ; of Celtic origin. — 
Irish clog, a bell, clock ; dogaim, I ring 
or sound as a bell ; O. Irish doc, a bell. 
Cf. W. dock, a bell, &c. The G. glocke is 
a borrowed word ; so also Da. klok, &c. 

Clod. (E.) U.'E. clod, dodde. A. S. 
clod (in compounds), a lump of earth. 
Teut. type *klu-do-, from the weak grade 
of Teut. root *kleu-, to stick together. See 
Clew, Cloud. Cf. Clot, 

Clog, a hindrance; a wooden sole of 
a shoe; wooden shoe. (E.) M. E. clog, 



a log, clump. Notfoandin A. S. A late 
word ; cf. Norw. Mugu, a hard log. 
Cloister. (F.-L.) M.E. cloister.— 
0.¥. cloisire (F. clol/re). — h. clmistrttm, 
lit. enclosure. —L. claus-us, pp. oi clau- 
dere, to shut. See Clause. 

close (l), to shut in. (F.-L.) M.E. 
closen. — O.F. das, i pr. s. of O. F. clore, 
to shut in. — L. clmiiiere (above'). Der. 
close, a field ; dis-close, en-close, in-close. 
. close (2), shut up. (F.-L.) M.E. 
chs, cloos. — O. F. clos, pp. of clore (above). 
closet. (F.-L.) O. F. closel, dimin. 
of clos, an enclosed space. — O. F. clos, 
pp. ; see close (2). 

Clot. (E.) M.E. clot, clotte, a ball, 
esp. of earth. A. S. dolt, dot, a lnmp.+ 
G. Motz, a lump. Tent, type *khit-to-, 
from the weak grade of Teut. base *kleut ; 
see Cleat, Clout, Cluster. 
Cloth. (E.) M. E. clotK, clath. A. S. 
cla.S.-\-T>\x.Meed, G. kleid, a dress. Der. 
, clothes, A. S. ddtSas, pi. of cldS. 

clothe, to cover with a cloth. (E.) 
M. E. clothen, clathen, pt. t. clothede (or 
cladde), pp. clothed (or clad). Formed 
from A. S. c/sff.+Du. kleeden, from kleed ; 
so also G. kleiden, from kleid. fl But the 
pt. t. and pp. clad are of Scand. origin : 
cf. Icel. klmdd-r, pp. of klaSa, to clothe ; 
Swed. klddd, pp. of kldda. 
Clond. (E.) M. E. cloud, orig. a mass 
of vapours ; the same word as M. E. dUd, 
a mass of rock. A. S. clitd, a round mass, 
mass of rock, hill. From Teut. root *kleu, 
to stick together ; see Clew, Clod. 
ClOTIgh., a hollow in a hill-side. (E.) 
M. E. dough, doje. Answering to A. S. 
*cldh, not found ; cognate with O. H. G. 
klah. The A. S. *ddh ( = O.H.G. kldk, 
as in Klah-uelde, Fbrstemann) represents 
a Tent, type *klanxo-, from *klanx, 2nd 
grade of *klinx ; cf. G. klinge, O. H. G. 
chlinga, a clongh (Acad., Aug. and Sept. 

Clout, a patch. (E.) yi.Y.. clout. A.S. 
dut, a patch ; whence W. clvjt, Coin, clut, 
a patch, clout ; Ir. and Gael, dud, the 
same. Orig. sense ' mass, piece of stuff' ; 
orig. Teut. type *kliit-oz, from Teut. root 
*klut-, *kleut-, as seen in 'Clot. Closely 
allied to Cleat (which is from the and 
grade of the same root). 
Clove (i), a kind of spice. (F. — L.) 
M. E. claw ; the change to clove, in the 
XVIth cent., was due to the influencej 
.of Ital. chiovo. — F. clou, a nail,; dou\ 


de girofle, ' a clove,' Cot. ; from the 
semblance to a nail. Cf. Span, clavo, a 
nail, also a. clove. — L. clduum, ace. Of 
clduus, a nail.+O. Irish do, a nail. 

Clove (2), a bulb, or spherical shell of 
a bulb of garlic, &c. (E.) A. S. cbifti, f. ; 
cf. chif-'ivyrt, a buttercup (lit. clove-wort). 
Named from its cleavage into shells.— 
A. S. duf-, weak grade cicleofan, to split; 
see Cleave (i). Cf. Icel. klofi, a cleft. 

Clove (3), a weight. (F.-L.) A. F. 
cloti ; the same word as Clove (i).— Late 
L. cldvus, a weight (for wool). 

Clover. (E.) M. E. claver. A. S. 
cldfre, clSfre, trefoil.-)- Du. klaver, whence 
Swed. klofver, Dan. klover; Low G. 
klever \ cf. G. klee. % The supposed 
connexion with cleave (i) is impossible. 
Clown. (Scand.) Icel. ^/?/«kz, a clumsy, 
boorish fellow : Swed. dial, hlunn, a log, 
kluns, a clownish fellow; Dan. klunt, a 
log ; cf. Dan. khmtet, clumsy. Allied to 
Clump. Orig. sense ' log ' or ' clod.' 

Cloy. (F.— L.) Orig. to stop up, hence, 
tosate. M.F.f/tfj'e;-,'tocloy,stopup,' Cot.; 
a by- form of F. doner (O. F. doer), to nail, 
fasten up. [A horse pricked with a nail, 
in shoeing, was said to be cloyed^ — O. F. 
do, F. clou, a nail; see Clove (l). ^ Cloy 
(in E.) is usually short for ac-doy or a-cloy, 
where the prefix a- represents F. en- ; see 
F. endouer, endoyer in Cotgrave. 

Club (i), a heavy stick. (Scand.) M.E. 
clubbe. — Icel. khibba, klumba, a .club ; 
Swed. klubb, a club, log, lump ; Dan. khtb, 
club, klmnp, lump. A mere variant oi 
Clump below. See Golf. 

clnl) (2), an association. (Scand.) 
XVII cent. Lit. 'a clump of people.' 
Cf. Swed. dial, klubb, a clump, lump, also 
a knot of people (Rietz). See above. 
Cluck. (E.) M.E. dokken, to cluck 
as a hen ; a mere variant of Clack. -)- 
Du. klokken, Dan. klukke, G. glucketi ; 
L. gloctre. An imitative word. 
Clue ; see Clew. 

Clump, a- mass, block. (E.) XVI 
cent. Not in A.S., except as in dymp-re, 
a clump. Cf. Dan. khtmp, Swed. klmnp; 
Du. klovip. Low G. klump, a clump, 
lump, log-; (Icel. klumba, a club, with b 
for p). From klump-, weak grade of 
Teut. *klemp-, as in M.H.G. klimpfen, to 
press tightly together. Cf. Clamp. 
-Clumsy. (Scand.) Cf. M. E. clumsed,, 
clomsed, ibenumbed ; laenumbed .fingers are 
clirmsy. This is the pp. of doinsen, to 



benumb, or to feel bemimbed. Cf. Swed. 

dial, klummsen, benumbed (Rietz) ; Icel. 
lilumsa, lock-jawed. Cf. Du. klemmen, to 

pinch; kleumeii,to be benumbed, kkumsch, 
numb with cold ; also A. S. dom, clam, a 

bond, clasp. See Clammy. 

Cluster, a bunch. (E.) A. S. cluster, 
c^j/^;-, abunch.-f Low G. kluster. Suggests 
a Teut. type *klut-tro-, a cluster ; formed 
with suffix -iro from *klut-, weak grade of 
Tent, root *kleut; to mass together; for 
which see Clot, Cleat, Clout. 

Clutch, to seize. (E.) M. E. clucchen, 
clicchen. A. S. clyccan (whence pp. ge- 
cliht, Somner). We find also M. E. cloke, 
a claw; which was superseded by the 
verbal form. 

Clutter, a clotted mass ; also clutter, 
vb., to clot. (E.) Clutter, vb., is a variant 
of clatter, to run into clots ; see Clot, and 
cf. E. Fries, klutern, to become clotted. 
Clutter also meant confusion, a confused 
heap, turmoil, din ; by association with 
Clatter. Cf. E. Fries, kliiter, a rattle. 

Clyster. (L.-Gk.) L. clyster, an 
injection into the bowels. —Gk. KKvarrip, a 
clyster, syringe. — Gk. ic\v^€iv, to wash.+ 
L. cliiere, to wash. (v'KLEU.) 

Co-, prefix. (L.) L. co-, together ; 
used for con- {^=cutri), together, before a 
vowel. Hence, co-efficient, co-equal, co- 
operate, co-ordinate. See others below ; 
and see Con-. 

Coach. (F. - Hung.) F. cache, ' a 
coach ; ' Cot. Etym. disputed. Said, as 
early .is A. D. 1553, to be a Hungarian 
word ; from Hung, iocsi, a coach, so called 
because first made at a. Hung, village called 
/^acsi or ^ocs, near Raab ; see Littre, and 
Beckmann, Hist, of Inventions. 

Coadjutor. (F.-L.) XV cent. A.F. 
coadjutour. — L. co-, (orcon- = cum, together, 
and adiutor, an assistant, from vb. adiu- 
uare, to assist. - L. ad-, to ; iuudre, to 

Coagfnlate, to curdle. (L.) L. coagu- 
Idlus, pp. of caagulare, to curdle. — L. 
coagulum, rennet, which causes milk to 
run together. - L. co- {cum), together; 
ag-ere, to drive. 

Coal. (E.) M.E. fo/. A.S. <:<7/.+ 
Du. koal, Icel. Swed. kol, Dan. kul, G. 
kohle. Cf. Skt. jval, to blaze. 

Coalesce, to grow together. (L.) L. 
coalescere. —', for con- = cum, together ; 
and alescere, to grow, inceptive of alere, to 



Coarse, rough. (F.-L.) Formerly 

course, an adj. which arose from the phrase 

in course to denote anything of an ordinary 

character; cf. mod. E. of course. See 

Coast. (F.-L.) M. E. coste. - O. F. 

caste (F. cdte), a rib, slope of a hill, shore. 

— L. casta, a rib. 
Coat. (F.-G.) M. E. «/«. - O. F. 

cote (F. cotte) ; Low L. cota, cotta, a coat. 

-M! H. G. kotte, kutte, a coarse mantle; 

O. Sax. cot, the same. 

Coax, (E. ?) Formerly cokes, vb., from 
cokes, sb., a. simpleton, dupe. Perhaps 
allied to Cooker or to Cockney. 

Cob (i), a round lump, knob. (E.) As 
applied to a pony, it means short and 
stout. M. E. cab, a great person 
(Hoccleve). In some senses, it seems to 
be allied to A. S. copJ>, a top, summit. 

cobble (i), a small round lump. (E.) 
M. E. cobylstane, a cobble-stone. Dimin. 
oi cab (above). 

Cob (2), to beat. (E.) Cf. W. cobio, to 
thump ; cob, a bunch ; prov. E. cop, to 
strike, esp. on the cop or head. See Cob 

Cobalt, a mineral. (G.) G. kobalt, 
cobalt ; a nickname given by the miners, 
because considered poisonous ; better 
spelt kabald, meaning (l) a demon, (2) 
cobalt. Of G. origin (Kluge). 

Cobble (i); see Cob (i). 

Cobble (2), to patch up. (E.) Origin 
unknown; cf. Cob (2), of which it seems 
to be the freqvieajt*i>,\ze. . . 

Cobra, a hooded snake. (Port.-L.) 
Port, cobra, also cobra de capello, 1. e. snake 
with a hood. - L. colubra, snake ; de, of; 
capellum, ace. of capellus, hat, hood, 
dimin. of capa, a cape. See Notes and 
Queries, 7 S. ii. 205. 

Cobweb. (E.) M. E. copweb, coppe- 
web ; from M. E. coppe, a spider, and web. 
Cf. M. Du. kop, kappe, 'a spider, or a cob,' 
Hexham. From A. S. cappa, as in attor- 
coppa, a spider; lit. poison-bunch; from 
A. S. attor, ator, poison, and cop, a head. 

Coca, a Peruvian plant. (Span. — Peruv.) 
Span. coca. — Peruv. cuca ; Garcilasso, Peru , 
bk. 8. t. 15. Distinct both from cocoa (or 
coco) and cacao. Der. caca-ine. 

Cochineal. (F. - Span. - L. - Gk.) 
F. coclienille. — Spa.n. cochinilla, cochineal 
(made from insects which look like berries). 
— L. coccinus, of a scarlet colour; see 
Isaiah i. 18 (Vulgate). -L. caecum, ^\,exxy\ 


also kennes, supposed to be a berrj'. — Gk. 
kSibcosj a bory, cochineal. 

Coclc(i),amalebird. (E.) M.E. irok. 
A. S. coce ; from the bird s cry. ' Cryde 
anon teA! cak!' Ch. C. T. Nun's Priest's 
Tale, 457- Cf. Skt. kukkuta, a cock; 
Malay kukuk, crowing of cocks. And 

cf. Chickoo. 

COCkr ^^ stop-cock of a barrel, is the 
same word. So also G. kahn, (i) a cock, 

(2) a, stop-cock. 

code, part of the lock of a gun. From 
its or^nai shape ; cf. G. den Hahn span- 
ttea, to cock a gnn. 

cockade, a knot of ribbon on a hat. 
(F.) F. coquarde, fem. of coquard, saucy ; 
also ceputrde, bonnet ct la coquarde, ' any 
bonaetorcapwomproudly;' Cot. Formed 
with suffix -ard from F. coq, a cock (from 
the bird's cry). 

cockerel, a young cock. (E.) Double 
dimin. of Cock (i). Qi.pik-erel. 

COCklofb, Tipper loft. (E. and Scand.) 
From cock and loft. So also G. hahnbalhen, 
a roost, cockloit ; Dan. loftkammer, a loft- 
chamber, room up in the rafters. 

Cock (2), a pile of hay. (Scand.) Dan. 
\kok, aheap; prov. Dan. kok, a hay-cock, 
at kokke kSet, to cock hay ; Icel. kokkr, 
lump, ball ; Swed. koka, clod of earth. 

Gock (3), to stick up abruptly. (E.) 
Apparently with reference to the posture 
of a cocUs head when crowing ; or to that 
of his crest or tail. Cf. Gael, coc, to cock ; 
as in coc do bhoineid, cock your bonnet ; 
coc-shronach, cock-nosed. And see Cock- 

Cock (4), Cockboat, a small boat. 

(F.-I Gk.) O. F. coque, a kind of 

boat, orig. a shell. Cf. Span, coca, Ital. 
cecca, a small ship. Derived (by Diez) 
from L. concha, a shell ; from Gk. K&fKri, 
a cockle ; see Cockle (i). 

Cockade; see Cock (i). 

Cockatoo, a kind of parrot. (Malay.) 
Malay kakatua ; from the bird's cry. Cf. 
Malay kukuk, crowing of cocks. Skt. 
kukkula, s. coc\i. See Cock (i). 

Cockatrice. (F.-LateL.-L.) By 
confusion with cock, it was said to be a 
monster hatched from a cock's egg. — O. F. 
eocatrice, — Late L. cocatriccm, ace. of 
cocdtrix, caucatrix, answering to a Latin 
type *calcdtrix, i. e. ' the treader or tracker,' 
used to render the Gk. ixvfvfo"', and 
afterwards transferred to mean 'crocodile' 
(see account in N. E. D.).— L. ca!ca-re, to 


tread ; with fem. suffix -irix, of the 

Cocker, to pamper. (E. ?) M. E. 
cokeren (whence W. cocri, to fondle, in- 
dulge). Cf. M. Du. kokelen, keukelen, 
' to cocker, to foster,' Hexham ; M. F. 
coqueliner, ' to dandle, cocker, pamper 
(a child) ; ' Cot. Norw. kokra, to call as 
a cock ; also, to cocker. 

Cockerel; see Cock (i). 

Cockle (i), a sort of bivalve. (F. — L. 
-Gk.) U. 'K. cokel. [Cf. «fA, a cockle 
(P. Plowman, C. x. 95); A. .S. sS-cocca; 
(where JiK = sea).] — F. coqtiille, a cockle- 
shell; ci-Ytak. cochiglia.—\,?A, \yps*cochy- 
litcni, for conchylium, a cockle, shell-fish. 
— Gk. Koyxi'Ki.ov , a cockle, dimin. of KOf- 
KvKrj, from xd^Kq, a cockle or mussel. 

Cockle (2), a weed among corn. (E.) 
A. S. coccel, tares ; whence Gael, cogall, 
tares, husks, cockle; cogull, corn-cockle; 
Irish cogall, corn-cockle. 

CocUe (.^), to be uneven, pucker up. 
(Scand.) Of Scand. origin ; cf. Norw. 
koklutt, lumpy, uneven, ' cockled up ; ' 
from Norw. kokle, a little lump, dimin. of 
kok, a lump; see Cook (2). Cf. Swed. 
kokkel, dimin. of koka, a clod. 

Cockloft ; see Cock (i). 

Cockney, orig. an effeminate person. 
(E.) Florio has: ' Cacdierelli, cacklings 
of hens ; also egs, as we say cochanegs' 
From M. E. cokenay, a foolish. person, Ch. 
C. T. 4208. Lit. ' cocks' egg ; ' i.e. yolk- 
less egg. From M. E. coken, gen. pi. of 
cok, a cock ; and ay, ey, A. S. ccg, egg. 
See C. S. I3urne, Shropshire Folk-lore, 
p. 229. 

Cockroach.. (Span.) From Span. 
cucaracha, a wood-louse, cockroach ; from 
cttca (also cuco'), a kind of caterpillar. 
Origin uncertain. 

Cocoa (i). Coco, the cocoa-nut palm. 
(Port.) Port, and Span, coco, a bugbear, 
an ugly mask to frighten children ;■ hence 
applied to the cocoa-nut on account of 
the monkey-like face at the base of the 
nut. Cf. Span, cocar, to make grimaces. 

Cocoa (2), a corrupt form of Caeao. 

Cocoon, case of a chrysalis. (F.— L.— 
Gk.) F. cocon, a cocoon ; from coque, a 
shell. See Cock (4). 

Cod (i), a fish. (E. ?) Spelt codde in 
Palsgrave. Perhaps named from its round- 
ed shape; cf. M. Du. kodde, a club (Hex- 
ham) ; and see below. Der. cod-livg, a 
young cod ; M. E. codlyng. 



Cod (2), a husk, bag, bolster. (E.) 
Mencs, peas-cod, husk of a pea. A. S. codd, 
a bag.+Icel. koddi, pillow, koSri, scrotum; 
Swed. kudde, a cushion. 

Coddle, to pamper, render effeminate. 
(F. - L. X) Perhaps for caudk, vb. (in 
Shak.), to treat with caudle ; see Caudle. 
Cf. prov. E. coddle, to parboil, stew. 

Code, a digest of laws. (F. — L.) F. 
code. — L. cddicem, ace. of codex, a tablet, 
book ; older form caudex, a trunk of a 

codicil. (L.) L. codicillus, a codicil 
to a will ; dimin. of codex (stem codic-'). 

Codling (i), Codlin, a kind of apple. 
(C. ?) Earlier spellings querdling, quad- 
ling, quodling. Apparently formed, with 
E. suffix -ling, from Irish cueirt, an apple- 

Codling (2) ; see Cod (i). 

Coerce. (L-) L- coenere, to compel. 

— L. co-ifuni), together; arcere, to en- 
close, confine, allied to area, a chest ; see 

Coffee. (Turk. -Arab.) l-axV. qah- 
veh. — Arab, qahwah, coffee. 
Coffer. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. (ro/«. 

— O. F. cofre, also cofin, a chest. — L. ace. 
cophinum. — Gk. ic6(j>ivos, a basket. 

C0fS.n. (F. — L. — Gk.) Orig. a case, 
chest. — O.F, co^n, as above. (Doublet 
of coffer.) 

Cog (i), a tooth on a wheel-rim. 
(Scand.) M. E. cogge [whence Gael, 
and Irish cog, a mill-cog ; W. cocos, cocs, 
cogs of a wheel]. Not in A. S. ■• M. Dan. 
kogge, a cog, kogge-hjul, a cog-wheel 
(Kalkar) ; Swed. kugge, a cog ; M. Swed. 
higg (Ihre). 

Cog (2), to trick. (Scand.) Prob. 
to catch as with a cog; to cog a die, to 
check it so as to make it fall as desired. 
Cf. Swed. dial, kugg, Norw. kogga, to 
dupe ; Swed. kugga, ' to cheat, to cog ; ' 

Cogent. (L.) L. cogent-, stem of 
pres. part, of cogere, to compel ; for 
co-agere { = con-agere) , lit. to drive to- 
gether. Brugra. i. § 968. 

Cogitate. (L.) L. cSgitatus, pp. of 
cogitdre, to think; for co-agitare, from 
CO-, con-, together, and agitare, to agitate, 
frequent, blagere, to drive. 

Cognate. (L.) L. co-gnStus, allied 
by birth. — L. co- (for cmii), together; 
gndtus, born, old form of ndlus, pp. of 
naui, to be born; see Ifatal. 


Cognisance, knowledge, a badge. (F. 

— L.y Formerly conisaunce. — O.F. con- 
noissance, knowledge ; M. F. cognoissance. 

- O. F. conoissant, pres. pt. of O. F- 
conoistre, to know. - L. cognoscere, lo 
know. - L. CO- (cum), together, fully; 
gnoscere, to know ; see Know. 

cognition, perception. (L.) Froni 
ace. of L. cognitio. — l.. cognitus, pp. of 
cognoscere (above). 

cognomen, a surname. (L.) L. co- 
gnomen, a surname. — L. co- {cum), with; 
nomen, a name, altered to gnomen by con- 
fusion with gnoscere, noscere, to ■ know. 
See ITouji, Name. 

Colialjit. (L.) L. co-hahitare, to 
dwell together with. — L. co- {cum-), to- 
gether; habitare, to dwell. See Habi- 

Cohere. (L-) L- co-hccrere, to stick 
together (pp. cohcesus). — !.. co-,\.oget\\ei; 
hcerere, to stick. Der. cohes-ion, cohes- 
ive, from the pp. 

Cohort, a band of soldiers. (F. — L.) 
F. cohorte. — L. ace. cohortem, from cohors, 
a court, also a band of soldiers. See 
Court, of which it is a doublet. 

Coif, Quoif, a cap. (F.-G.-L.) 
O. F. coife, coiffe ; Low L. cofea, a cap. — 
M. H. G. kujffe, kupfe, a cap worn under 
the helmet ; O. H. G. chuppha ; stem 
*kupp-j5n-. — 0. H. G. cktipk (G. kopf), a 
cup ; also, the head. — L. cuppa ; see Cup. 

Coign ; see Coin. 

Coif (I), to gather together. (F.-L.) 
' Coiled up in a cable ; ' Beaumont and 
Fletcher. — O. F. coillir, to collect. — L. 
colligere ; see Collect. 

Coil (2), u noise, bustle. (F. — L.!) 
Orig. a colloquial or slang expression ; 
prob. from Coil (i). We find 'a coil of 
hay,' a heap ; and coil, to twist. 

Coin. (F.-L.) M. E. coin. - O. F. 
coin, a wedge, stamp on a coin, a coin 
(stamped by means of u, wedge). — L. 
cuneum, ace. of cuneus, a wedge. % Not 
allied to Cone. 

coign. (F.— L.) F. coing, coin, a 
corner ; lit. a wedge (as above). 

Coincide, to agree with. (L.) L. co- 
(for con- = cum, with); and incidere, to 
fall upon, from in, upon, and caderc, to 

Coistrel, a mean fellow. (F. - L.) 
For coustrel, the older form (Palsgrave). 
An E. adaptation of M.F. coustillier, 
an armour-bearer, lackey ; lit. ' one who 


carries a poinard.' — M. F. coustille, a 
poniard ; variant of O. F. cotistel, belter 
coutel, d knife. — L. cultellnm, ace. oi cul- 
telltis, a knife; dimin. of culler. See 

Coit ; sec Quoit. 

Coke, charred coal. (E. ?) ' Coke, 
pit-coal or sea-coal charred;' Kay, 1674. 
Ktym. unknown ; cf M. E. colk, the core 
(of an apple). 

Colander, Cullender, a strainer. 

(Prov.— L.) M. E. colyiidorc.~0. Prov. 
*colador, orig. form of Prov. cotUadoii, a 
strainer. — Late L. *colaiorem, ace. ; for L. 
colatorium, a strainer. — L. coldre, to strain. 

— L. coluHi, a sieve. Cf. Span, colador, a 
strainer from L. cdldre"). 

Cold. (E.) M. E. cold, kald, adj. ; 
O. Merc, cald, A. S. ceald, adj. + feel. 
kaldr, Swed. kail, Dan. kold, Du. kotid, 
Goth, kalds, G. kalt. Tent. *kal-doz, 
cold ; from Teut. *kal, to be cold (as in 
. Icel. kala, to freeze), with suffix -doz = (jK.. 
-Tos. Cf. Lat. gel-idus, cold ; see Con- 
geal, Chill, Cool. 

Cole, Colewort, cabbage. (L.) For 
-wort, see 'Wort. M. E. col, caul. A. S. 
cdtil, cawel (or Icel. kal). — L. caulis, a 
stalk, cabbage.+Gk. xavKSs, a stalk. 

Coleoptera, sheath - winged insects. 
(Gk.) Gk. «o\€6-s, a sheath ; vTtp-6v, a 

Colic. (F.-L.-Gk.) Short for colic 
pain. — F. colique, adj. — L. colicus. — Gk. 
ko>\m6s, for ko\ik6s, suffering in the colon. 

— Gk. KoKov. See Colon (2). 
Coliseum. (Med. L.—Gk.) The same 

as Colosseum, a large amphitheatre at Rome, 
so named frdm its magnitude (Gibbon). 
The Ital. word is coliseo. See Colossus. 

Collapse, to shrink together, fall in. 
(L.) First used in the pp. collapsed 
Englished from L. collapsus, pp. of colldbl, 
to fall together. — L. col- (for con-,\. e. cuni), 
together ; Idbi, to slip. See Xiapse. 

Collar. (F. - L.) M. E. and A. F. 
coler. — O. F. co/ier, a collar. — L. colldre, a 
band for the neck. — L. collum, the neck.+ 
A. S. heals, G. Jials, the neck. 

collet, the part of the ring in which 
the stone is set. (F. — L.) F. .collet, a 
collar. — F. col, neck. — L. collum, net^. 

Collateral. (L) Late L. collaterdUs, 
side by side. — L. col- (for com- = cutii), 
with; lateralis, lateral, from later-, for 
*lates-, stem of latus, side. 

Collation, a comparisou: formerly, a 


conference. (F. — L.) O. F. collation, a 
conference. — L. ace. colldtionevi, a bring- 
ing together, u conferring. — L. colldtum, 
supine in use with the verb conferre, to 
bring together (but from a different root). 

— Ij.col- {(oTcoii- = cum), together ; latum, 
supine of tollere, to take, bear. See 

Colleague (0. a partner. (F.-L.) 
M. F. coUegue. — L. collega, a partner in 
office. — F. col- (for con-, cum), with; 
legere, to choose ; see Legend. 

Colleague (2), to join in an alliance. 
(F. — L.) O. F. colligiier, colleguer, to 
colleague with. — L. colligdre, to bind 
together. — L. col- (for con-, cum'), to- 
gether ; ligdre, to bind. See League (i). 

Collect, vb. (F.-L.) O.Y . collecter, 
to collect money (Roquefort). — Late L. 
collectdre (the same), from collecta, a col- 
lection, orig. fem. of pp. of colligere, to 
collect. — L. col- (for con-, dim), with; 
legere, to gather ; see Legend. 

collect, sb. (L.) Late L. collecta, a 
collection in money, an assembly for 
prayer, hence a short prayer ; see above. 

Colleen, u girl. (Irish.) Irish cailin, 
a girl ; dimin. of caile, a country-woman. 
Gael, cailin, dimin. of caile. 

College, an assembly, seminary. (F.— 
L.) O. F. college. — L. collegium, society of 
colleagues or companions. — L. collega, a 
colleague ; see Colleague (l). 

Collet ; see Collar. 

Collide. (L.) L. collidere, lo dash to- 
gether. —L. col- (iot con-, «««), together; 
Icedere, to strike, hurt. Der, collis-ion 
(from pp. collis-us). 

Collie, Colly, a kind of shepherd's 
dog. (E.) Formerly, coally, coley; prob. 
the same as coaly, coal-coloured, black. 
Cf. obs. colly, adj., coal-black; collied in 
Shak. M. N. D. i. i. 14.^. 

Collier. (E.) M.."^. colier ; fromM.E. 
col, coal. Cf. bffzu-yer, saw-yer. 

Collocate, to place together. (L.) 
From pp. of L. col-locare, lo place together. 

— L. col- (for con-, «<?«), together; locdre, 
to place, from locus, a place. 

Collodion, a solution of gun-cotton. 
(Gk.) From Gk. KoWdiS-rjs, glue-like.— 
Gk. KoKK-a, glue; -eiSi/r, like, ciSos, 

CoUop, a slice of meat. (E. ?) M. E. 
coloppe, col-hoppe ; pi. col-hoppes (P. Plow- 
man\ whence M. Swed. kollops, Swed. 
kalops. Here col- = coal (see Coal) ; cf. 



Swed. dial. gto{d)hoppa, a cake baked over 
gledes or hot coals. (E. Bjorkman) . 

Colloquy. (L.) From L. colloquium, 
conversation. — L. col-loqul, to converse 
with, lit. to speak together. — L. col- (for 
con-, cum), together-; loqui, to speak. 

Collude, to act with otliers in a fraud. 
(L.) L. colludere (pp. collfisus), to play 
with, act in collusion with. — L. col- 
(for con-, cum), with; ludere, to play. 
Der. collus-ion, from the pp. 

Colocyuth., Colog^uiutida, pith of 

the fruit of a kind ot cucumber. (Gk.) 
Froiii the nom. and ace. cases of Gk. 
KoKoKvvOis (ace. Ko\oKvv6lSa) , a kind of 
round gourd or pumpkin. 

Colon (i), a mark (:) in writing and 
printing. (Gk.) Gk. KS)\oy, a limb, 
clause ; hence, a stop marking off a clause. 

Colon (2), part of the intestines. (Gk.) 
Gk. k6Kov, the same. 

Colonel. (F Ital.-L.) Sometimes 

coronet, which is the Span, spelling; 
whence the pronunciation as kumel. — 7. 
colonel, colonnel. — Ital. colonello,a. colonel; 
lit. a little column, as being ' the upholder 
of the regiment ; ' Torriano. The colonel 
was he who led the company at the head 
of the regiment. Dimin. of Ital. colonna, 
a column. — L. coluinna, a column. See 

colonnade. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. 

colonnade. — Ital. colonnata, a range of 
columns. — Ital. colonna, a column (above). 

Colony. (F. — L.) F. colonic. — L. 
colonia, a colony, band of husbandmen. 
— L. colonus, a husbandman. — L. colere, 
to till. Cole7-e is for *quelere; cf. L. 
j«y«z7/K«w, a sojourner. Brugm. i. § 121. 

Colophon, an inscription at the end of 
a book, with title, and (sometimes) name 
and date. (Gk.) Late L. colophon. — Gk. 
Ko\oipwv, a summit ; hence, a finishing- 
stroke. Allied to Column. 

Coloquintida ; see Colooyutli. 

Colossus. (L. — Gk.) L. colossus.— 
Gk. KoKoaaos, a large statue. Der. coloss- 
al, i.e. large; coliseum, q.v. 

Colour. (F.-L.) U.K.colour.-O.'F. 
colour (F. couleur). — \.,. ace. colorem, from 
color, a tint. 

Colporteur, a hawker of wares. (F. — 
L.) Lit. ' one who carries wares on his 
neck ; ' F. colporteur. — F. colporter, to 
carry on the neck. — F. col, neck ; porter, 
to carry, — L, solium, neck; portare, to 


Colt. (E.) A. S. colt, a young camel, 
young ass, &c.+'Swed. dial, kullt, a boy ; 
Swed. kull, Dan. kuld, a brood ; cf. Dan. 
dial, koltring, a lad. 

Columbine, a plant. (F.-L.) M.F. 
colombiji. — 'L&X.e L. columbina, a colum- 
bine; L. columbinus, dove-like; from a 
supposed resemblance. — L. columba, a 
dove. See Culver. 

Column, a pillar, body of troops. 
(F. — L.) L. columna, a pillar; cf. 
columen, culmen, a summit, collis, a hill, 
Gk. <coA.<u.'(ij,ahill. See Hill. (VQ^L.) 

Colure, one of two great circles on the 
celestial sphere, at right angles to the 
equator. (L. - Gk.) So called because 
a part of them is always beneath the 
horizon. The word means docked, clip- 
ped. —L. coluriiSy curtailed; a colure. 

— Gk. KoKovpos, dock-tailed, truncated ; a 
colure. — Gk. k6\-os, docked, clipped; and 
uvpa, a tail. 

Colza oil, a lamp-oil made from the . 
seeds of a variety of cabbage. (F. — L. and 
Du.) F. colza, better cohat. — 'Du. koohaad, 
rape-seed, cabbage-seed. — Du. kool (bor- 
rowed from L. caulis), cole, cabbage ; and 
Du. zaad='E. seed. 

Com-, prefix. (L.) For L. czim, with, 
together ; when followed by b, f, m, 
p. See Con-. 

Coma. (Gk.) Gk. icSiixa, a deep sleep. 

Comb. (E.) A. S. fo;«^, a comb, crest, 
ridge. -|-Du. kam, Icel. kamhr, Dan. Swed. 
kam ; G. kamin. Teut. type *kamboz • 
Idg. type *gombhos ; cf. Gk. 7<i/x^os, a 
pin, peg; Ski. jambha-s, a tooth. 

Comb, Coomb, a dry measure. (E.) 
A. S. cu7nb, a cup.+Du. koni, a bowl ; G. 
kumpf, kumme, a bowl. 

Combat. (F.-L.) Grig, a verb. - F. 
combattre, O. F. combatre, to fight with. — 
F. com- (for L. cum), with ; and F. b'attre, 
O. F. batre, to fight, from *battere, for 
L. battuere, to beat. Der. combat-ant, 
from the F. pres. pt. 

Combe, a hollow in a hill-side. (C.) 
W. cwm. Corn, cum, a hollow, dale ; 
Celtic type *kumbd, a valley ; cf. Irish 
cumar, a valley. 

Combine. (L.) L, combmSre, to unite, 
join two things together. -L. com- {cum), 
together ; and bintts, twofold. See Binary. 

Combustion. (F.-L.) F. combus- 
tion, r- L. acc. combustionem, a burning up. 

— L. combust-us, pp. of com-biirere, to burn 
up..- L. com- (for, cum), together; and 


(perhaps) fireri, to burn, with b inserted 
by association with amb-iirere. 

Come. (E.) A. S. ciiman, pt. t. c{w)om, 
pp. f«w^«.+Du. komen, Icel. koma, Dan. 
tomme, Sw. komma, Goth, kwiman, G. 
kommen ; L. iien-Tre, (^gtien-ire), Gk. 
Paivttv, Skt. ^w, to go. (VGwEM.) 

Comedy. ^F.— L.— Gk.) OS.comedie, 
' a play ; ' Cot. — L. cdnia'iiia. — Gk. Koiijqi- 
Sia, a comedy. — Gk. Kai/jqiSvs, a comic 
actor. — Gk. mu/io-s, a banquet, revel, 
festal procession ; aoi8<!;, a singer, from 
aeiSdv, to sing. A comedy was a festive 
spectacle, with singing, &c. See Ode. 

comic. (L. — Gk.) 'L. (omicus.—Gk. 
Ktoiimis, belonging to a *3/ios, as above. 

Com.ely. (E.) M. E. comli, ktimli. 
A. S. cymlic, earlier form cymlic, beautiful, 
fair. The A. S. cyme, exquisite, is closely 
allied to O. H. G. ciimig, weak, tender, 
and to O. H. G. kiim, with difficnlty (G. 
Itaum\ The A.S y was shortened before 
ml, and the M. E. comli was associated 
with M.E. comen, to come, and so gained 
the sense of ' becoming.' pleasing, decorous. 
Cf. M. E. kinte, a weak person. 

Comet. (L. — Gk.) Late A. S. fO/««to. 

— L. cometa. — Gk. KojiriTTji, long-haired ; 
a tailed star, comet. — Gk. Kifo}, hair.+L. 
coma, hair. ^ Also O. F. comeie. 

Comfit, sb., a sweatmeat. (F. — L.) 
Formerly confit, coitfite.'-0.¥. confit, lit. 
confected, prepared ; pp. of cmtfire. — L. 
confectum, pp. of conficere, to prepare, put 
together. — L. con- (cum), together ; facer e, 
to make. See Confect. 

Comfort, vb. (F. - L.) M. E. coit- 
forien, later comfoiien. — O. F. cmiforter, 
to comfort. — Late L. con-fortdre, to 
strengthen. — L. con- {cum'), together ; 
^■oA fort-is, strong; see Force (i). 

Com&ey, a plant. (F. - L.) O. F. 
confire, cumfirie ; Late L. cumfiria • pro- 
bably for Lat. conferua (Pliny), comfrey, 
a name given to the plant from its sup- 
posed healing powers. — L. confernerc, to 
grow together, heal up (Celsns). — L. con- 
(cuni), together; feniere, (orig.) to hoi!. 
^ It was also called confirma (from L. 
firmare, to make firm), and consolida 
(from L. solidSre, to make solid). 

Comic ; see Comedy. 

Comity, urbanity. (L.) L. comilatem, 
ace. of comitds, urbanity. — L. comis, 
friendly, courteous. 

Comma. (L. — Gk.) L. comma. — G^. 
K6niia, that which is struck, a stamp, a 


clause of a sentence, a comma (that marks 
the clause). — Gk. kott-tuv, to hew, strike. 

Command. (F. — L.) O. F. 1-0///- 

mander, comander. — L. cominendSre, to 
entrust to; confused with Late L. com- 
mandSre, as if an intensive form of man- 
dare, to command. Both forms are from 
L. com- (cum) , together ; and mandare, to 
put into the hands of, entrust to, command. 
See Mandate. 

Commemorate. (L.) From the pp. 

of L. commemorare, to call to mind. — L. 
com- (for cum), together; vicmorare, to 
mention, from memor, mindful. 

Commence. (F. — L.) Y.commenar; 
O. F. comencer (vfith one m ; cf. Ital. 
cominciare). — L. com- (cum), together; 
initiare, to begin ; see Initiate. 

Commend. (L.) L. commendSre, to 
entrust or commit to ; see Command. 

Commensurate. (L.) From L. 

commensiirdtus, as if from *commeusurdre, 
to measure in comparison with ; a coined 
word. — L. com- (cum), with; mensiira, a 
measure ; see Measure. 
Comment, vb. (F.— L.) Y .commenter. 

— Late L. commcntare, for L. commentdrl, 
to consider, make a note on. — L. com- 
mentus, pp. oi comminisci, to devise. — L. 
com- (ctim), with ; -min- for *men, to 
think, as in mc-min-i ( — *me-men-i), I 
remember, and mens, mind. See Mental. 

Commerce, traffic. (F.— L.) F. com- 
merce.— i-,. commercium, trade. — L. com- 
( = ciwi), with ; mere-, stem of merx, 
merchandise, with suffix -i-um. 

Comminatiou, a threatening, de- 
nouncing. (F. — L.) F. commination.— 
L. ace. comminStidnem, a threatening.— 
L. comminStus, pp. of com-minari, to 
threaten. — L. com- (cum), intensive prefix; 
and mindri, to threaten. See Menace. 

Commingle. (L. ''■"d E.) From 
Com- and Mingle. 

Comminution, a reduction to small 
fragments. (L.) Formed from L com- 
miniii-us, pp. of com-minuere, to break 
into small pieces; see Minute. 

Commiseration. (F.-L.) M. F. 

commiseration. — L. ace. commisernlioncm, 
part of an oration intended to excite pity. 

— L. commiserdrl, to excite pity (pp. -dt- 
us). — \,. com- (cum), with; miserdri, 
to pity, from L. miser, wretched, pitiaMe. 

Commissary, an officer to whom 
something is entrusted. (L.) Med. I-. 
commissdritts, a commissary. — I^. com- 


missus, pp. of cotmnittcre, to commit ; see 

commit, to entrust to. (L.) L. com- 
mitterc, to send out, begin, entrust, 
consign; ^}^, eommissus. — \j. com- (cutn), 
■with; miltere, to send, put forth. Der. 
comniiss-inn , V. commission, from L. ace. 
commissiouem, perpetration. 

Commodious. (F.-L.) O.' 

modieux ; Med. L. commodiosiis, useful. — 
L. commodus, fit, suitable. — L. com- 
\cuvi), with ; modus, measure. 

Com.modore, the commander of a 
squadron. (Du. — F. — L.) Formerly 
spelt commando7-e (1695) ; also comman- 
deur, as in Dutch ; Hexham has : ' den 
Coinmandeiir van em Stadl, The Coni- 
mandeur of a Towne.'— F. commandcur, 
a commander. — 1-,. ace. tyi'.e *comman- 
ddtorem, from Late L. commandare ; 
see Command. 

Comm.on. (F.-L.) M. E. comtnun, 
cornonn^ — O. F. comitn. — L. commtinis, 
common, general. — L. «/«- (rwOT). together 
with ; and milnis, ready to serve (Plautus) ; 
cf. mumis, service. (As if ' helping each 
other.') Cf. Lith. mainas, Russ. miena, 
barter. Erugm. i. § 208. Der. commun- 
ion, commnn-ily. 

commune, verb. (F. — L.) M. E. 
couutnen.^O. F. communer, to commune 
with; Late L. commilndre. — 'L.coi}imi}nis,. 
common (above). 

communicate. (L.) L. communi- 

calus, pp. of comtnunicdre. — L. communis, 
common. Der. excommunicate. 
Commotion. (F. — L.) Y. commotion. 

— L. commotionem, ace. of commotio. — L. 
commot-us, pp. of commoiiere, to disturb. 

— L. com- {cum), intensive; and mouere, 
to move. See Move. 

Commute, to exchange. (L.) L. com- 
mutare, to exchange with. — L. com- {cum), 
with ; mutare, to change. 

Compact (i), adj., fastened together, 
fitted, close, firm. (F. — L.) M. F". cotw- 
pacle. — 'L. compactus, fitted together, pp. 
of compingere. — 'L. com- {cum), together; 
pangere, to fasten. See Pact. 

Compact (2), sb., a bargain, agree- 
.ment. (L.) i,. compactum, sb. — L. com- 
pactus, pp. of compacisct, to agree with. — 
L. com- {cuni), with ; pacisct, to make a 
bargain, inceptive form of O. Lat. pacere, 
to agree. See Pact. 

Company. (F. — L.) M.'E. company e. 

— O.F. companie. [Cf. alsoO.F. iro;«^<«n. 


a companion, O. F. companion (F. com- 
pagnon), a companion.] — Med. L. com- 
pdniem, ace. of companies, a taking of 
meals together. -L. com- {cum), together; 
and pants, bread ; see Pantry. Der. 
companion, from O. F. companion. Also 
accompany, O. F. accompaignier, from F. u. 
(for L. ad) and O. Y. compaignier, to asso- 
ciate .with, from compaignie, company. 
Compare, to set together, so as to 
examine likeness or difference. (F. — L.) 
F. comparer. — 'L. comparare, lo adjust, set 
together. — L. compar, co-equal. — L. cotn- 
{cum), together ; par, equal. 

Compartment. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. 

compartiment, 'a partition;' Cot. — Ital. 
compartimento. — Ital. compart ire ; Late L. 
compartire, to share. — L. com- {cum), 
together ; paiiire, to share, to part, from 
parti-, decl. stem oi pars, a part. 

Compass. (F. — L.) F. compas, a 
circuit, circle, limit ; also, a pair of com- 
passes. — Late L. compnssus, a circuit. — L. 
com- (cum), with ; passus, a pace, step, 
passage, track ; so that cotnpassus — ^ track 
that joins together, circuit. See PaoD. 
Der. compass, verb ; compasses, s. pi,, an 
instrument for drawing ciicle-;. 

Compassion. (F. — L.) F. com- 
passion. — L. compassionem, ace. of cotn- 
passio, sympathy. — L. «/«- {cum), with; 
passio, suffering, from patt, to endure. 

compatible. (F. — L.) F. compati- 
ble, ' compatible, concurrable ; ' Cot. — 
Late L. compatibilis, adj., used of a bene- 
fice which could be held together with 
another. — L. <ro;K/a/i', to endure together 
with. — L. com- {cum), with; pati, to 

Compeer, an associate. (F. — L.) 
M. E. comper. — F. com-, together ; O. F. 
per, a peer, equal. — L. com- {cum), to- 
gether ; parem, ace. of par, equal ; see 

Compel. (L.) L. coiii-pellere, to com- 
pel, lit. to drive together. -L. com- {cuin^, 
together ; pellere, to drive. Der. compuh- 
ioT\, from pp. compuls-us. 

Compendious, brief. (F. — L.) F. 
compendieux. — 'L. compendiostts, adj., from 
compendium, an abridgment, lit. u saving, 
sparing of expense. - L. compendere, to 
weigh together. - L. com- {cum), with ; 
pendere, to weigh. 

compensa,te. (L.) From pp. of L. 
compensare, to weigh one thing against 
another. -L. com- {cum), together; pen- 


sare, to weigh, frequent, of fenders, to 
■weigh {-p-p. peiisus). 
Compete. (L.) L. competere. — L. 
com- (cum), together; petere, to strive 
competent. (F.— L.) M. F. com- 

•fetent; orig. pres. part, oi competer, to be 
sufficient for. — L. competere, to be sufficient 
for. — L. com- {cum), with ; pciere, to seek. 
competitor. (L.) L. competitor, a 
rival candidate. — L. com- (cittii), witli ; 
petUor, a seeker, from petilus, pp. oipctere, 
to seek. 

Compile. (F. — L.) O.'?. compiler.— 
L. coviptldre, lit. to press together. — L. 
com- (for cuiii), together ; and pllare, to 
press down, from pibtm, a pestle, Cf. L. 
pinsere, to pound. See Pile (3).]lt. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of complacere, to please. — L. 
com- (cuni), intensive ; placere, to please. 

complaisant. l^F. — L.) F. com- 
plaisant, obsequious, pres. part, of com- 
plaire, to please. — L. complacere, to please 

Complain. (F. — L.) O. F. com- 
plaign-, a stem of complaindre. — l-aXe L. 
complangere, to bewail. — L. covi- (cuvi), 
with ; plangere, to bewail, lit. to strike, 
beat the breast. 

Complement. (L.) L. complementum, 
that which completes. — L. complere 
(below). Doublet, compliment. 

complete, perfect. (L.) X,. completus, 
pp. of complere, to fulfil. — L. com- (cum), 
-together ; plere, to fill. Allied to ple-nus, 
full. See Plenary. 

Complex. (L.) L. complexus, en- 
twined . round ; hence, intricate ; pp. of 
complectX, to embrace. — L. com- (cum), 
together ; and plectere, to plait, allied to 
plic-are, to twine. See Pleach. 

complexion. (F. - L.) Y. com- 
plexion, appearance. — L. complexionem, 
ace. of complexio, a, comprehending, com- 
pass, habit of body, complexion. —L. covi- 
plexus, pp. of complectl, to surround, 
entwine. — L. com- (cum), together ; plec- 
tere, to plait. 

complicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
complicdre, to fold together. — L. com- 
{cum), together ; plicdre, to fold. 

complicity. (F. — L.) F. compKcite, 
' a bad confederacy ; ' Cot. — F. complice, a 
confederate. — L. complicem, ace. of com- 
plex, interwoven, confederate with; see 

Compliance, Compliant; formed 

with F. suffixes -ance, -ant, from the verb 
to comply, which, however, is not of F. 
origin ; see Comply. 

Compliment. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. 

compliment. — Ital. complimento, compli- 
ment, civility. — Ital. complire, to fill up, 
to suit. — L. complere, to fill lip ; see Com- 
plete. Doublet, complement. 

compline. (F. — L.) M. E. complin, 
the last chnrch-service of the day ; it was 
orig. an adj. (like ^ij/i/-«» from gold), and 
stands for complin song ; the sb. is compUe 
(Ancren Riwle). — O. F. complie (mod. F. 
complies, which is pi.), compline. — Late 
L. completa (sc. hora), fem. of computus, 
complete; because it completed the 'hours' 
of the day's service ; see Complete. 

comply, to yield, accord with. (Ital. 
— L.) It has no doubt been supposed to 
be allied to ply (whence compliant, by 
analogy with //?a«/), but is quite distinct, 
and of Ital. origin. — Ital. complire, to fill 
up, fulfil, to suit, 'also to use compli- 
ments, ceremonies, or kind offices and 
offers;' Torriano. Cf. Span, complir, to 
fulfil, satisfy. — L. complere, to fill up ; see 
Complete. Cf supply. 

Complot, a conspiracy; see Plot (i). 

Component, composing. (L.) L. 
component-, stem of pres. pt. oi componere, 
to compose. — I,. co)n- (cum), together; 
ponere, to put. See Compound. 

Comport, to behave, suit. (F. — L.) F. 
se comporter, to behave. — L. comportdre, 
to carry together. — L. com- (cum), to- 
gether ; portdre, to carry. 

Compose. (F. — L. and Gk.) F. 
composer, to compound, make; Cot. — 
' (L. cum), together; and Y. poser, 
to put, of Gk. origin, as shewn under 
Pose, q.v. % Distinct from compound. 

Composition. (F.— L.) F. composi- 
tion. — L. ace. compositioncm, ace. of com- 
posilio, a putting together. — L. compositus, 
pp. of L. componere ; see compound. 

compost, a mixture. (F,— L.) O. F. 
compost, a mixture. — L. composilum, neut. 
oi compositus, pp. oi componere (below). 

compound. (F. — L.) The a? is ex- 
crescent; M. E. compounen. — O. F, com- 
ponre (Bartsch). — L. componere, to com- 
pound, put together. — L. com- {cum), 
together ; ponere, to put. See Component. 

Comprehend. (L.) L. com-prehendere, 
to grasp. — L, com- {cum), together, and 
prehendere, to seize ; see Prehensile. 



Compress. (L.) L. compressare, to 
oppress. — L. com- (cum), together ; /«J- 
sare, frequent, oi premere, to press. 

Comprise. (F.— L.) From O. F. 
compris, comprised, comprehended ; pp. 
oi csmprendre, to comprehend, — L. com- 
prehendere ; see Comprehend. 

Compromise, a. settlement by con- 
cessions. (F. — L.) F. compromis, ' a 
compromise, mutual promise;' Cot. Orig. 
pp. of F. compromettre, ' to put unto com- 
promise ; ' Cot. — L. comprdmittere, to 
make a mutual promise. — L. «f«- (cum), 
mutually ; promittere, to promise ; see 

Com.ptroller, another spelling of con- 
troller-, see Control. 

Compulsion. (F.— L.) See CompeL 

Compunction, remorse. (F. — L.) 
O. F. compunction. — Late L. ace. com- 
punciiSium. — L. compuactus, pp. of com- 
piingJ, to feel remorse, pass, oicompungere, 
to prick. — L. com- (cum) ; pungere, to 

Compute. (L.) L. computdre, to 
reckon. — L. com- (cum), together; put are, 
to clear up, reckon. Doublet, count (2). 

Comrade. (F.— Span.— L.) Y.camar- 
iKJI;. — Span, camarada, a company; also 
an associate, comrade. — Span, camara, a 
chamber, cabin. — L. camera, a chamber. 

Con (l), to study, peruse, scan. (E.) 
M. E. cunnen; A. S. cunnian, to test. 
Allied to A. S. cunnan, to know ; see 
Can (j). Der. ak-conner, i. c. ale-tester. 

Con (2), short for contra, against, (L.) 
In the phrase ' pro and con.^ 

Con-, prefix. (L.) For com- (cum), 
with, when the following letter is c, d, g, 
j, n, q, s, t, or v. Before b, m, p, it is 
com- ; before /, col- ; before r, cor- ; before 
f, com- or con-. 

Concatenate. (L.) L. concatenatus, 
pp. of concatendre, to link together. — L. 
con- (cum), together; catena, a chain. 

Concave. (F. — L.) F. concave. — h. 
concauus, hollow. — L. con- (cam), with, 
together ; cauus, hollow. 

Conceal. (F. — L.) O. F. conceler. 
— L. concelSre, to hide. — L. con- (cum), 
completely; «/«?v, to hide. See Helm (2). 

Concede. (L.) L, concedere, to retire, 
yield. — L. con- (cum), together; cedere, 
to yield, Der. concess-ion (from pp. con- 

Conceit. (F.— L.) li.E. conceit, con- 
ceite. Formed as if from the pp. of O. F. 


concevoir, to conceive, though the real 
pp. was conceu (F. confu); by analogy 
with deceit, q.v. See below. 

conceive. (F,-L.) M..'E.. conceveit, 
conceiven. — A. F. conceiv-, a stem of O. F, 
cencever, coiunioir, to conceive. — L. con- 
cipere, to conceive. — L, con- (cum), alto- 
gether ; capere, to take. 

conception. (F.-L.) 7. cotueption. 
-L. concepiionem. — 'L. concept-us, pp. of 
concipere, to conceive (above). 

Concentre, to draw to a centre. (F.— 
L. a«rfGk.) F. concentrer. - L. con- (cum), 
together; and centr-!im,a centre, from Gk. 
KtVTpov; see Centre. Der. concenir-ic, 
concentr-ate (modem). 
Concern, vb. (F,— L.) Y . concenter. 

— L. concernere, to mix; in Late Lat., to 
refer to, regard. -L. con- (cum), with; 
and cernere, to separate, decree, observe. 
■\- Gk. Kpivuv, to separate, decide ; Lith, 
sliir-ti, to separate, distinguish. Brugm. 
ii. § 612. (VSKER.) 

concert. (F, — Ital.— L.) Often con- 
fused with consort in old writers. — F. con- 
certer, ' to consort, or agree together ; ' 
Cot. — Ital. concertare, 'to agree or tune 
together, sing in consort,' Florio ; cf. con- 
certo, sb., agreement. The Ital. forms 
shew that it was derived from L, concertare^ 
to contend, struggle together ; indeed, we 
find also Span, concertar, to settle or adjust, 
covenant, bai^ain ; which also points to 
the same origin. [It would seem that the 
L. vb. took up the sense of to settle by 
debate, and so, to agree.] — L. con- (cum), 
together ; certdre, to contend; vie with ; 
orig. ' to decide by contest ; ' freqnent. of 
cernere, to decide. See Concern. Der. 
concert, sb., concert-ina. 
Concession. (F.-L.) ¥. concession. 

— L. ace. concessionem. — L. concessus, pp. 
oi concedere, to concede ; see Concede, 

Conch, a marine shell, (L. — Gk.) L. 
concha. — Gk. icofxv (also icoyx"^), a cockier 
shell.-fSkt. faiikha, a conch. Der. con- 
chology (from KiSyxo-s)- 

Conciliate. (L.) From the pp. of L. 
concilidre, to bring together, conciliate,—. 
L. concilium, a council ; see Coimoil. 

Concise. (F.-L. ; or L,) F. coiuis. 

— L. conclsus, brief, cut short ; pp. of con- 
ctdere.—X.. con- (cum), intensive; cadere, 
to cut. Der. concis-ion. 

Conclave. (F.-L.) F. comlave, a 
small room (to meet in).-L. concldue, 
a room; later, a place of assembly of 



cardinals, assembly. Orig. a locked wp 
place. — L. c(m- {cum), together; clmiis, 
a key. 

Conclude. (L.) L. condaderc, to 
shut up, close, end. -> L. con- (cuiii), 
together ; and -cliidcre =■ claudere, to shut. 
Der. concbis-ion. Similarly ex-clude, in- 
clude, pre-clude, se-clude; whence in-clus- 
ive, fre-clus-ion, se-clus-ion (from pp. 
-cliisus =claasus). 

Concoct. (L.) From L. concoctus, pp. 
of concoquere, to cook together, digest. — 
L. con- icui?i) ; coquere, to cook. 

Concomitant, accompanying. (L.) 
From L. con- {cum), together; and 
comiiant-em, ace. of pres. pt. of comitari, 
to accompany, from cotnit-, stem of comes, 
a companion ; see Count (i). 

Concord. (F. — L.) F. concorde. — 'L. 
Concordia, agreement. — L. concord-, stem 
of con-cors, agreeing. — L. con- {aim) ; cor 
(stem cord-), the heart. 

concordant. (F.-L.) F. concord- 
ant, pres. pt. of concorder, to agree. — L. 
concordare, to agree. — L. concord- (abo^re). 
concordat. (F. — L.) F. concordat, 
an agreement. — Late L. concorddtum, a 
convention, thing agreed on, esp. between 
the pope and F. kings ; pp. of concordare, 
to agree (above). 

Concourse. (F. — L.) V.concours.— 
L. ace. concursum, a running together. — 
L. concursus, jjp. of con-currere, to run 
together. — L. con- {cum), together ; and 
currere, to run. See Concur. 

Concrete, formed into one mass. (L.) 
L. concret-tis, pp. of concrescere, to grow 
together. — L. con- {cum), together; cres- 
cere, to grow. 

Concubine. (F. — L.) O. F. concubine. 

— L. concubli?a.—lj. con- {cum), together; 
cubdre, to lie. 

Concupiscence. (F-— L) J -concu- 
piscence. — L. concupiscentia, desire. — L. 
concttpiscere, to desire ; inceptive form of 
concupere. — L,. con- (««»(), intensive ; and 
cupere, to long for. 

Concur. (L.) L. concurrere, to run 
together, agree. — L. con- {cutn), together ; 
currere, to run. Der. concourse. 

Concussion. (F.— L.) Y . concussion. 

— L. concussionem, ace. of concussio, a 
violent shaking. — L. (oncussus, pp. of 
concutcre, to shake together. — L. con- 
{cum), together; quatere, to shake. 

Condemn. (F.— L.) O.Y.condemner. 

— L. condemndre, to condemn wholly, pro- 



nounce to be guilty. - L. con- {ctim), 
wholly ; damnare, to condemn. 

Condense. (F.-L.) 'P. condenser.—: 
L. condensdre. — 'L. condenstis, very thick. 

— L. con- {cum),very ; densus, thick, dense. 

Condescend. (F. — L.) F. condc- 

scendre. — L.aie L. condescendere, to grai.t 
(lit. to descend with). — L. con- (««?«), with ; 
descendere, to descend ; see Descend, 
Der. condescens-ion, from the pp. 

Condign, well merited. (F.-L.) O. F. 
condigne. — ii. condignus, very worthy.— 
L. con- {cum), very ; dignus, worthy. 

Condiment. (L.) L. condimentum, 
seasoning, sauce. — L. condire, to season, 
spice, preserve (as fruit). 

Condition. (F.-L) "S . condition.— 
L. conditionem, ace. of conditio, a late 
spelling of comiicio, a. covenant, condition. 

— L. condicere, to talk over together, agree 
upon. — L. con- {cum), together ; dicere, to 

Condole. (L.) L. condolere, to grieve 
with. — L. co7t- {dim), with ; dolere, to 

Condone. (L.) L. condSndre, to remit, 
pardon. — L. con- {cum), wholly; donare, 
to give ; see Donation. 

Condor, a large bird. (Span. -Peru- 
vian.) Span, condor. — Peruv. cuntur, a. 

Conduce. (L.) L. conducere, to draw 
together towards, lead to. — L. con- {cum), 
together ; diicere, to lead. 

conduct, sb. (L.) Late L. conductus, 
defence, protection, guard, escort. — L. £•»«- 
ductus, pp. of con-ducere (above), 

conduit. (F. — L.) M.'E. conduit.— 
O. F. conduit, a conduit. — Late L. con- 
ductus, a defence, escort ; also, a canal, 
tube ; see above. 

Cone. (F.-L.-Gk.) U.Y.cone.-'L. 
conns. — Gi. Kwvos, a cone, peak, peg. + 
Skt. fdna s, a whetstone ; cf. L. cos, the 
same. See Hone. Brugm, i. § 401. 

Coney; see Cony. 

Confabulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

con/dbuldri, to talk together. — L. con- 
{cuiii), with; fdbuldri, to converse, from 
fdbula, a discourse ; see Fable, 

Confect, to make up into sweetmeats. 
(L.) L. confectus, pp. of conficere, to put 
together, make up. — L. con- {ctim), to- 
gether ; facere, to put. Der. confcct-ion, 
confection-cr. See Comfit. 

Confederate. (L.) L. confa:derdlus, 
united by a covenant, pp. of confccderdre. 



— Li. con- {cum), togeliier ; feeder-, for 
*fades-, stem of fadus, a treaty. See 

Confer. (L.) From L. confei-re, to 
bring together, collect, bestow. — L. con- 
{cam), together; ferre, to bring, bear. 
•IT Not from F. 

Confess. (F..-L.) O.Y . confesscr.— 
Late L. confessarc — L,. coitfesstts, pp. of 
confiteri, to confess. — L. «»- (cuvi), fully; 
fateri, to acknowledge, allied to fart, to 
speak. Cf. Gk. ^drir, a speech. Bnigm. 

i- § ip.";- 

Confide. (L.) L. confidere, to trust 
fully. — L. con- (cum), Inlly; ftdere, to 
trust, allied to fides, faith ; see Faith. 

Confignratiou. (F_. - L.) F. con- 
figuration. — L. configiiratidnem, a con- 
formation. — L. configiirStus, pp. of con- 
figurare, to put together. — L. con- (cum) ; 
fiigurdri, to fashion, from^^^j, a figure. 
See Figure. 

Confine, to limit. (F. — L.) F. con- 
finer, to keep within limits. — M. F. 
confin, near ; Cot. — L. conftnis, bordering 
on. — L. cojt- (cum) , with ; finis, boundary. 
See Final, % Mod. F. has only coitfins, 
sb. pi., confines; representing O. F. con- 
fines, L. confinia, pi. ; whence E. confines, 
Confirm. (F. — L.) M. E. confermen. 

— O. F. ccmfermer. — L. confirmdre, to 
make iirm, strengthen. — L. con- (cum), 
ially; fir mare, to strengthen, horofirmus, 

Confiscate, to adjudge to be forfeit. 
(L.) L. £onfiscatus, pp. of confiscdre, to 
lay by in a coffer, to confiscate, transfer to 
the treasury. — L. con- (cuni) ; fiscus, a 

Conflagration. (F. — L.) F. con- 
flagration. — L. ace. confidgrdtiouem, a 
great burning. — L. con- (cum)., together; 
fidgrdre, to burn. See Flagrant. 

Conflict, an encounter. (L.) L. con- 
fiictus, a striking together ; from the pp. 
of confilgere, to strike together, —L. con- 
[fum\ together ; fiigere, to strike. 

Confluent. (L.) From stem, of pres. 
pt. of confiuere, to flow together ; see 
Fluent. So also conflux, sb., from the 
pp. confiuxus. 

Conform. (F-— L-) E. conformer.— 
L. conformdre, to fashion like. — L. con-, 
together ; formdre, to form, from forma, 

Confound. (F. — L.) 'S^confondre..— 


L. cofKfundere, to pour together, confound. 
- L. con- (cum), together ; fundere, to 
pour. See Fuse (i). 

Confraternity. (F.-L.) From L. 

con- (cum), with ; and Fraternity, q v. 

Confront. (F.-L) Y.conf renter, Xo 
bring face to face. - Med. L. confrontart, 
to be near to.-L. con- (cum), together; 
front-, stem oifrons, forehead, front. 

Confuse. (L.) M. E. confus, used as 
a pp. in Chaucer. - L. confUsus, pp. of 
cmfundere, to confound'; see Cttufound. 

Confute. (F. -L.) F. confuter. - L. 
confutdre, to repress, also to confute. 
-L. con- (cum), together; *fiitdre, to 
repress, beat back; probably from the 
same root as A. S. beatan, to beat 
(Walde). If so, it is not allied to L. 

Congeal. (F.-L.) F. congehr.-\.. 
congelare, to cause to freeze together.— L. 
con-, together ; geldre, to freeze, from gelu, 
frost. See Gelid. 

Congee, Cong4, leave to depart. (F. 
— L.) F. congS, leave, dismission ; ' Cot. 
O. F, congie, cunge, congiet (Burguy) ; the 
same as Pro v. comjat.— 'L^i.e L. comidtus, 
leave, permission (VIII cent.) ; the same 
as L. commedtus, a travelling together, 
also leave of absence. — L. co7n- (cum), 
together; meatus, a course, from pp. of 
medre, to go. 

Congenial, kindred. (L.) Coined 
from L. con- (cum), with ; and genial, 
adj. from 'L. genius; see Genial. 

Congenital. (L.) Coined by adding 
-al to the obs. word congenite (XVII 
cent.).— L. congenitus, born with. — L. con- 
(cum), with; gcnitus, born, pp. ofgignere, 
to produce. See Genital. 

Conger, a sea-eel. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
M. E. congre. — O. F. congre. — L. congrum, 
ace. of congrus, by-form of conger, a sea- 
eel. — Gk. 7U77/10S, the same. 

Congeries, a mass of particles. (L.) 
L. congeries, a heap. — L. congerere, to 
bring together. - L. fo??- (ck/«), together; 
gerere, to carry. 

congestion, accumulation. (L.) From 
L. ace. congestidnem. — L. congestus, pp. of 
congerere (above). 

Conglobe, to form into a globe. (L.) 
I.. con-globdre.-'L. con- {cum), together; 
globus, a globe. 

Conglomerate. (L.) From pp. of 

conglomerdre, to wind into a ball, heap 
together. -L. con- {cum), together; and 



glomer-, for *glo?iies-, stem of glomus, 
a ball, clew of yarn. 

Conglutinate. (L.) From pp. of 
L. congliltindre, to glue together. — L. 
con- {cum), together; glutinSre, to glue, 
iromglniin-, stem of^/;7/««, glue. 

Congou, a kind of tea. (Chinese.) In 
the Amoy dialect, called kang-hu U, where 
kang-hu is lit. ' work, labour ; ' i. e. tea on 
which labour has been expended (Douglas). 
The true Chinese is kung-fu ih'a, with 
the same sense. 

Congratxilate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

eongrdtuldri, to wish much joy. — L. con- 
icuiii), fully ; gratuldri, to wish joy, from 
adj. grdtus, pleasing. See Grace. 

Congregate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
cotigregdre, to collect into a flock. — L. 
con- {cum), together; gregdre, to assem- 
ble a flock, from greg-, stem of grcx, a 

Congress, a meeting together. (L.) 
L. cofigresstts. — L. congressus, pp. of con- 
gredi, to meet together. — L. coti-, together; 
gradi, to advance, walk. 

Cougrue, to agree, suit. (L.) L. con- 
grtiere, to suit. (Root uncertain.) Der.. 
rongni-ous, from L. congruiis, suitable ; 

CoujectTire. (F.— L.) F. conjecture. 
— L. coniectura, a casting together, a 
guess. — L. conieclus, pp. of conkei'e, to 
throw or put together. — L. con- {cum), to- 
gether; iacere, to throw. 

Conjoin. (F.— L.) O.Y. conjoindre. 
L. coniungere (pp. coniunctus), to join 
together. — L. con- (cum), together4 iun- 
gere, to join. See join. Der. conjunct- 
ion, conjuncl-ive, from the pp. 

Conjllgal, relating to marriage. (F. — 
L.) "F. conjugal. — L. conmgdlis, adj. — 
L. conitigem, ace of coniux, a spouse.— 
L. con-, together ; tug-, allied to iungere^ 
to join, iugum, a yoke ; see Join. 

conjugation. (L.) From L. coniu- 
gdtio, a conjugation (Priscian) ; lit. a 
yoking together. — L. coniugdtus, pp. of 
coniugdre, to yoke together. — L. con- 
{cum), together; iug-um, a yoke. 

Conjure. (F.— L.) ^l.Y.. coniuren.— 
F. conjurer. — "L. coniurdre, to swear to- 
gether, combine by oath. — L. con-, to- 
gether ; iiirdre, to swear ; see Jury. 

Connect. (L.) L- connectere, to tie 
together. — L. con- {cum), together; and 
nectere, to bind (pp. nexus). Der. con- 
nex-ion [not connection'], from the pp. 



Connive. (F.— L.) ¥. conniver. — L. 
conntuere, to close the eyes at, overlook. 

— L. con- (cum), together ; and *niguere, 
to wink ; cf. nic-iare, to wink. + Goth. 
hneiwan, to bow; Brugm. i. § 664. 

Connoisseur, a critical judge. (F.— 
L.) F. connaisseur , formerly connoisseur, 
a knowing one. — O. F. connoiss-ant, pres. 
pt. of O. F. conoislre ; see Cognisance. 

Connubial. (L.) L. connubidlls, re- 
lating to marriage. — L. co(n)niibium,m?ix- 
riage. — L. con- (cuni), with; nnbere, to 
marry. See ITuptial. 

ConCLuer.. (F. — L.) 'iA.'E. conqueren. 

— O. F. conquerre. — L. conquirere, to seek 
after, go in quest of ; in Late L., to con- 
quer. —L. con- (cuni), with; qiiarere, to 
seek. Der. conquest, M. E. conquesie, 
from Late L. conquesia, L. conquislta, 
fem. oi conquTsitus, pp. oi conquirere. 

Consanguineous. (L.) From L. 

consanguine-US, related by blood, with 
suffix -ous. — I., con- (aim), together; 
sanguin-, stem of sangtiis, blood. 

Conscience. (F. — L.) F. conscience. 
'L.conscientia,consaonsaess. — L,.conscient-, 
stem of pres. pt. of conscire, to know along 
with. — L. coti- (cuni), with; scire, to 
know. See Science. Der. conscionable, 
an ill-contrived word, used as a contrac- 
tion oi conscien{ce)-able. 

conscious. (L.) From L. consci-us, 
aware, with suffix -ous. — L. conscire, to be 
aware of (above). 

Conscript. (L.) L. conscriptus, en- 
rolled, pp. of conscrtbtre, to write down 
together. — L. ton- (ctim), together; scri- 
bere, to write. 

Consecrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
consecrdre, to render sacred. — L. con- 
(cum), with, wholly; sacrdre, to conse- 
crate ; see Sacred. 

Consecutive. (F.— L.) M.Y.consecu- 
tif. Cot. Formed with suffix -if(l^. -iuus) 
from L. consecilt-us, pp. of consequi, to 
follow together. — L. con- (cum)., together ; 
sequi, to follow. See Sequence. 

consequent. (L.) L. consequent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of consequi (above). 

Consent, vb. (F.— L.) F. consentir. 

— L. consentire, to agree to. — L. con- 
(cum), with ; sentire, to feel. See Sense. 

Conserve, vb. (F. — L.) V . conserver. 

— L. conserudre, to preserve. — L. con- 
(cuni), fully ; serudre, to keep. Der. con- 
serve, vb. ; conserv-atory. See Serve. 

Consider, (F.— L.) O.'P. considerer. 



— Ij. considerare, to consider, orig. to con- 
template the stars (Festus). — L. con- {mm), 
together ; stdcr-, for *stties; stem of sidus, 
a star. 

Consign. (F. — L.) F. consigner.— 
L. consignare, to attest, register, record. 

— L. con- {cum) , together ; signare, to 
mark ; see Sign. 

Consist. (F — L) F- consisler, to 
consist, rest, abide, &c. — L. consistere, to 
stand together, consist. — L. con- {cum), 
together; sistere, cansal form from stare, 
to stand ; see State. Der. consistory. 

Console. (F. — L.) F. consoler. — "L. 
consoldrT, to comfort. — L. con- {cum), with ; 
solarl, to comfort ; see Solace. 

Consolidate. (L.) From pp, of L. 
consolidare, to render solid. — L. con- 
{cum), together; solidare, to make solid, 
from solidus, solid. Der. consols, a 
familiar abbreviation for consolidated an- 

Consonant, agreeing with. (F.-L.) 
F. consonant, accordant; Cot. — L. conso- 
nant-, stem of pres. pt. of consonare, to 
sound together. — L. i:o«- («<»«), together ; 
sonare, to sound; see Sound (3). 

Consort, sb. (F. — L.) Y. consort.— 
L. consort-, stem of consors, one wlio shares 
property with another, a partner. — L. con- 
(cum), together ; sort-, stem of sors, a lot, 
share. See Sort. 

Conspicuous. (L.) L. conspicu-us, 
visible, with suffix -ous. — L. conspicere, to 
see thoroughly. — L. con-, fully ; specere, to 
see. See Species. 

Conspire. (F-— L.) Y. conspirer.— 
L. conspirdre, to breathe together, com- 
bine, plot. — L. co)i- {cuni), together; 
spirdre, to' breathe. 

Constable, a peace-officer. (F. — L.) 
O. F. conestable (F. connitable). -X^. comes 
stabuli, lit. ' count of the stable,' the title of 
a dignitary of the Roman empire and after- 
wards in use among the Franks. See 
Count (i) and Stable. 

Constant, firm. (F. — L.) F. con- 
stant, — L. constant-, stem of constans, 
firm ; orig. pres. pt. of constdre, to stand 
together. — L. con- {cum), together ; stare, 
to stand; see State. 

Constellation. (F.-L.) 7. constel- 
lation. — L. ace. constelldtionem, cluster of 
stars. — L. con- («««), together; stelldl-us, 
pp. of stelldre, to set with stars, from 
Stella, <i star. See Star. 

Consternation. (F.-L.) F. con- 


stei nation. - L. ace. consternStionem, 
fright. -L. consterndtus, pp. of conster- 
udrc, to frighten. -L. con- (for ctim), to- 
gether; and *sternare, prob. allied to 
Gk. iTTvpeiV, to fiighten (Walde). See 
Brugmann, i. § 499. 

Constipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
constlpdre, to join closely, press together. 
- L. con- {cum), together; stipdre, to 
press, cram. 

Constitute. (L.) L. constitntus, pp. 

of constituere, to cause to stand together, 
establish. - L. con- {cum), together; sta- 
tuere, to set up, denom. vb. from status, 
a position ; see Statute. 

Constrain, to compel. (F. - L.) O. F. 
constraign-, a stem of conslraindre, later 
contraindre. — L. constringere, to bind 
together, fetter. — L. con- {cum), together; 
stringere, to draw tight. 

Construct. (L.) From L. construc- 
tus, pp. oi construere (below). 

construe. (L.) L. constntere, to 
heap together, build, construct ; in Late L., 
to construe a passage. — I^. con- {cum), to- 
gether; struere, to pile, build. Der. 

Consul. (L.) L. consul, a consul. 
Etym. doubtful ; but allied to consulere, 
to consult ; see below. 

consult. (F.-L.) Y. consuUer. — 'L. 
consultSre, to consult ; frequent, form of 
con-suleie, to consult. Root imcertain ; 
prob. allied to scdere, to sit ; cf. solium, 
a seat. 

Consume. (L.) L. consUmere, lit. to 
take up wholly. — L. con- {cum), together, 
wholly; siimere, to take up, from "sups-, 
allied to sui, under, up, and emere, to take, 
buy. Brugm. i. § 240, Der. consumption, 
from the pp. 

Consummate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
consummdre, to bring into one sum, to 
perfect. — L. con- {cum), together; sum- 
mdre, to sum, from summa, a sum ; see 

Consumption ; see Consume. 

Contact, sb. (,L.) L. contacttts, a 
touching. — L. contacttts, pp. of contingere, 
to touch closely ; see Contingent. 

contagion. (F.-L.) F. contagion. 
— L. contagioncm, ace. of contdgio, a 
touching, hence contagion. — L. con- {cum), 
with ; tag-, 2nd grade of tag-, as in *tag- 
tus {>tac-tus), pp, of iangere, to touch. 

Contain. (F.-L.) From a tonic stem 
of O. F. contenir. — t,. continere, to hold 



together, contain ; pp. conUnltis. — L. con- 
{ciini), together; tenere, to hold. 

Contaminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

contaminare, to defile. — L. contSmin-, 
stem q{ contamen, contagion ; which stands 
for *coniaginen. — L. con- (cum) ; tag-, 
as in ituitis, for *tag-tus, pp. of tangere, to 
touch. Brugm. i. § 768. 
Contemn. (F.-L.) M.'B.conlemner. 

— L. contemnere, to despise. — L. con- 
{c2i»i), with, Vholly ; temnere, to de- 

contempt. (F.-L.) M..Y. contempt: 
Cot. — L. contemptus, scorn. — L. con- 
temftiis, pp. of contemnere (above). 

Contemplate. (L.) From pp. of 

contemplSri, to observe, consider; used at 
first of augurs. — L. con- {cuni) ; temphcm, 
an open space for observation (ijy augurs) ; 
see Temple. 
Contemporaneous. (L.) L. con- 

tempordne-us , adj., at tlie same time ; with 
suffix -ous. — 'L,, con- (cum), witli ; temper-, 
for *temfos-, stem of tempiis, time. 

contemporary. (L.) L. con-, with; 

and L. tempordrias, temporary, adj., from 
temper- (above). 

Contend. (F.-L.) O.V.contendre.— 
L. contendere, to stretch out, exert, fight.— 
L. con- (cu)n), ful ly ; tender e, to strive. 
Der. content-ion (from the pp. contentus). 

Content, adj. (F.-L.) F. content, 
satisfied. — L. contentus, content; pp. of 
continere ; see Contain. Der. dis-con- 

Contest, vb. (F.-L.) ¥. contester.— 
L. contestdri, to call to witness, to bring 
an action. — L. con- (cum), together; tes- 
tdri, to witness, from testis, a witness. 
Der. contest, sb. 

Context. (L ) L. contextns. a joining 
together, order (hence, context of a booli). 

— L. contextus, pp. of contexere, to weave 
together. — L. con- (cuni), together; 
texere, to weave. 

Contiguous. (L.) L. contigu-tis, that 
may be touched, near ; with suffix -otis. — 
L. con- (cum), with ; and tag-, as in 
tac-tus (for *tag-tus), pp. of tangere, to 
touch ; see Contingent. 

Continent. (F. — L.) F. continent, 
adj., moderate. — L. continent-, stem of 
pres. pt. of continere ; see Contain. 

Contingent, dependent on. (L. ) 
From stem of pres. pt. of contingere, to 

touch; relate to. — L. co«- (f«»j) ; toj^e^, I gether. — L. con- (cum), together; tri- 
to touch. See Tangent. I buere, to bestow ; see Tribute. 



Continue. (F.-L.) Y. contimier.— 
L. continudre, to continue. — L. contitiuus 
(below). Der. dis-continite. 

continuous. (L.) L. continu-us, 
lit. holding together; with suffix -oits.— 
L. continere, to hold together, contain. See 

Contort. (L.) L. contoi-tus, pp. of 
contorquere, to twist together. — L. con- 
(cum), together; torquere, to twist. 

Contour, an outline. (F. — Ital.— L.) 
F. contour, esp. in an artistic sense. — Ital. 
conto7-no, a circuit; ccntornare, 'to en- 
circle; ' Florio. — L. con- (cum), together ;. 
torndre, to round off, to turn ; see Turn. 

Contra-, prefix. (L.) L. contra, 
against ; orig. the abl. fem. of an obs. adj. 
*con-t(e)r-us, a comparative form from con-, 
prep, together ; cf. extra from exterus. 

Contraband. (Span.— Ital. — L.ff»rf 

Teut.) Span, contrabando, prohibited goods. 
— Ital. contrabbando, prohibited goods. — 
Ital. contra ( = L. cotitrd"', against; bando, 
a ban, from Late L. hanmim, a word of 
Teut. origin, viz. from O. H. G. bait, a 
command. See Ban. 

Contract (i)> to draw together. (L.) 
L. contractus, pp. of contrahere, to diaw 
together. — L. con- (cum), together; ira- 
here, to draw. 

contract (2), a bargain. (F.-L.) 
M. F. contract ; Cot. — L. contractum, 
ace. of contractus, sb., a drawing together, 
a bargain. —L. contractus, pp. (above). 

Contradict. (L.) L. contrddictus , 
pp. of contradicere, to speak against. — L. 
contra, against ; di'cere, to speak. 

Contralto. (Ital. — L.) Ital. contr- 
alto, counter-tenor. — Ital. contra, oppo- 
site to, and alto, high. — L. contra-, against ; 
altus, high. 

Contrary. (F. — L.) A..7. contrarie; 
F. contraire. — L. contrarius, contrary ; 
from contra, against ; see Coulra-. 

Contrast, vb. (F.-L.) ¥. contraster, 
to strive, contend against (hence to be in 
opposition to, &c.). — Late L. conirdstdre,. 
to stand against. — L. contra, against ; 
stare, to stand. 

Contravene, to-hinder. (F. — L.) F. 
contrevenir, ' to thwart ; ' Cot. — Late L. 
contrduemre, to oppose ; to break a law. 
— L. contrd, against ; uenire, to come. 
Contribute. (L.) From pp. of L. 
contribuere, to contribute, lit. pay to- 

Contrite. (F. - L.) F. contrit. - L. 

contrJlus, thoroughly bruised, hence, peni- 
tent ; pp. of L. coiiterere, to rub together, 
bruise. —L. con- [cum), together; terere, 
to nib. See Trite. 

Contrive. (F. — L. and Gk.) An 
altered spelling ; M. E. conlrouen, con- 
treuen (= controven, conireven). — O. F. 
controller, to find, find out (Bartsch).— 
O. F. con- (L. con-, for cum) ; O. F. trover, 
to find; see Trover. ^ Contrive (cf. 
retrieve) is from M. E. contreve, answering 
to O. F. contriiiv-, stressed stem of c6n- 

Control, sb. (F. — L.) Control vi ^oit 
for cotttre-roU, old form of counter-roll. — 
O. F. eontre-rol{l)e ,a. duplicate register, used 
to verify the official or first-made roll. — 
O.F.contre,ovei against; ?-o/(/)«, aroll.— 
L. contra, against ; rotulum, ace. of ro- 
tulus, a roll ; see Roll. 

Controversy. (F.— L.) K.Y. con- 

iroversie {i'iO'j). — 'L.contrduersia, a quar- 
rel. — L. conirouersus , opposed. — L. 
contro-, masc. or neut. form corresponding 
to fem. contra, against ; uersus, pp. of 
uertere, to turn. See Contra-. 
Conttiiuacy. (F. — L.) A. F. contu- 
macie (i 303). — 'L.contumdcia,ohs, . — 
L. contumaci-, stem of contumax, stub- 
born. —L. con- (cum), ye:ty; a.nA.*tzim-ax, 
prob. from tum-ere, to swell with pride ; 
see Tumid. 

Contumely. (F.— L.) M. F. contu- 

ntelie. — L. conttimelia, insult, reproach ; 
prob. allied to contumacia ; see Cou- 

Contuse, to bruise severely. (L.) L. 
contusus, ]3p. of contundere, to bruise 
severely. — L. con- (cum),viiih, much ; and 
iundere, to strike. +Skt. ttid, to strike ; 
Goth, stautan, to strike. (ySTEUD.) 
Brugm. i. § 818. 

Conundrum. (Unknown.) Formerly 
used in the sense of whim, crotchet, or 
hoax. Also quommdritm ; orig. in tuiiv. 
slang ; prob. of L. origin. 

Convalesce. (L.) L. conualescere, to 
begin to grow well ; an inceptive form. 
— L. con- { = cum), fully; ualere, to be 

Convene, to assemble. (F. — L.) F. 
convenir, to assemble. — L. conuemre, to 
come together. — L. con- (<:»;«), together; 
venire, to come. 

convenient, suitable. ( F. — L. ) 
From stem of L. conneniens, suitable; 


orig. pres. pt. of comientre, to come to- 
gether, suit (above). 

convent. (L.) L. conuentus, an as- 
sembly. - L. conuentns, pp. of con-uenire. 

convention. (F.-L.) i\co,iven- 

tion, 'a compact;' Cot.-L. ace. con- 
uentionem, a meeting, compact. — L. con- 
uentus, pp. of con-uenire, to meet. 

Converge. (L-) Late L. conuergere, 
to incline together (Ibidore). - L. con- 
{cum), together; uertere, to bend, in- 

Converse, vb. (F.-L.) V.converser, 
to associate with ; Cot. - L. conuersari, to 
live with. -L. con- {ctwi), with; uersdri, 
to dwell (lit. turn oneself about), orig. 
pass, of the frequent, of uertere, to turn. 

convert, vb. (F.-L.) O.F. con- 
vertir. — Folk-'L. *convertire, for L. con- 
uertere, to turn wholly, change. — L. con- 
icuni), wholly ; uertere, to turn. 

Convex. (L.) L. conuexus, arched, 
vaulted. — L. con- {cum), together; and 
*uaxus = *iiac-sus,\i^Tit,ixoTa*uac-{^uaq-), 
to bend, as in uac-illdre, to reel, go crook- 
edly. See Vacillate. Cf.A.S.WffA, crooked. 

Convey, Convoy, vb. (F. - L.) 

M. E. contieien, conuoien {conveien, con- 
voien), to convey, also to convoy. — A. F. 
conveier, O.Y .convoier, to convey, convoy, 
accompany on the way. — Late L. ^onuidre, 
to accompany. — L. con- {cum), with; uia, 
way. ^ Convey is the A. F. or Norman 
form ; convoy is Parisian. 
Convince. (L.) L. conuincere, to 
overcome by proof. — L. con- {cum), 
wholly ; uincere, to conquer. Der. con- 
vict, verb and sb., from A.F. convicKX" 
contiictus, pp. of conuincere. 
Convivial. (L.) Coined as adj. from 
L. comiiui-utn, a feast. — L. coti- {citm), 
together; uiuere, to live (hence, eat). 

Convoke. (F.— L.) F. convoquer.— 
L. conuocdre, to call together. — L. con-, 
together; uocdre, to call. 

Convolve. (L.) L. conuoluere, to roll 
together, writhe about. — L. con- {ctim'^, 
together ; uoluere, to roll. Der. convolut- 
ion, from pp. conuoliltus • convolv-ul-us, 
L. conuoluuhis, a twining plant. 
Convoy ; see Convey. 
Convulse, to agitate violently. (L.) 
L. conuuhus, pp. of conuellere, to pluck 
up, convulse. — L. con- {cum), with, 
severely ; uellere, to pluck. 
Cony, Coney, a rabbit. (F. — L.) 
M. E. coni; also conyng. Anglo-F. conil, 


conm; O.F. connil. — L. cunicuhls, a 
rabbit ; a word of uncertain origin. 

Coo. (E.) A purely imitative word ; 
also spelt croo. C£ cuckoo, cock. 

Cook. (L.) M. E. coken, to cook; 
A. S. coc, a cook. — L. coqtnts, a cook ; co- 
qtierCy to cook.+Gk. Ttiaauv; Skt. pack, 
to cook ; Russ. peck{e), to bake. (Vl^EQ ; 
whence Lat. *pequere, becoming *quequcre 
by assimilation, and then coqttere; Gk. 
*Teiq-iiai, whence niaaeiv.) Bmgm. i. § 
661. A.S. coc = L,ate L. cocus, for coquiii, 

CooUc, a cake ; see Cake. 

Cool. (E.) A.S. fff/, cool.+Dn. ^o«/; 
Teut. type *hol-uz ; also, with mntalion, 
Dan. kiil, G. kiihl ; from kol-, and grade 
of kal-y as in A. S. calan, Icel. ia/a, to 
freeze (pt. t. kol) ; see Cold. 

Coolie, Gooly, an East Indian porter. 
(Hind, or Tamil.) Hind, kiill, a labourer, 
porter, cooley (Forbes) ; prob. from Koli, 
a tribal name (Yule). Or from Tamil kuli, 
daily hire or wages; hence, a day- 
labourer (Wilson). 

Cooiub ; see Comb. 

Coop. (L.) M.E. cupe, a basket; 
answering to A. S. *cupe, not found, though 
cype (with «-mutation) occurs as a gloss 
to liolium.—h. ciipa, a tub, whence also 
Du. ktdp, Icel. kiipa, a bowl ; also Late L. 
copa, whence G. kzife, tub, vat, coop ; 
O. Sax. copa, a tub. Cf. Skt. kfipa, a pit, 
hollow. Der. coop-er, tub-maker. 

Go-operate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

ca-operdri, to work with; from co- (cum), 
with;, and operari, to work; see Operate.. 

Co-ordinate. (L.) From L. co- {cmn), 
with ; and the pp. of ordinare, to order. 
See Ordinate. 

Coot. (E.) M. E. cote, coote, a water- 
fowL+Du. koet, a coot. Origin unknown. 

Copal. (Span. — Mexican.) Span, copal. 
— Mex. copalli, resin. 

Co-parcener, a co-partner. (F.— L.) 
Parcener is the true old spelling oipccrtner; 
see Partner. 

Cope (i), orig. a cape. (Late L.) M. E. 
cope, earlier cape ; A. S. *cdpa, not found ;. 
but Icel. kapa occurs. — Late L. cdpa, a 
cape; see Cape (l). [Cf. pope, from 
A. ?i.papa.'\ Der. coping-stone. 

C(^e (2), to vie with. (F. — L.— Gk.) 
M. E. copen, coupen, to fight. —O. F. coper y 
cottper, colper, to strike (F. couper, to cut). 
— O. F. copf coup, coif, a blow. —Late L. 
colpus^ L. colaphus, a blow. — Gk. KcSAmf os, 
a blow on; the ear. See Coupon. 


Copeck, a small Russian coin, worth 
less than \d. ; a hundredth part of a rouble. 
(Russ.) Russ. kopieika, a copeck ; dimin. 
of Russ. kopeS, a lance. So called from the 
figure of Ivan IV, holding a lance (1535).. 
See Bouble. 

Copious, ample. (F.— L.) O.F. co- 
pieujc. — lj. cdpidsns, plentiful. — L. copia, 
plenty; for *co-opia. — 'L. co- (for cmii), 
together ; op-, base of op-es, wealth, Cf^. 
in-opia, want. 

Copper, a metal. (Cyprus.) M.E. coper'.- 
A. S. copor. — 'Laie L. cuper, L. cuprum, n 
contraction for Cuprium cbs, Cyprian brass. 

— Gk. Ki'irpios, Cyprian ,* Kifir^or, Cyprus, 
whence the Romans got copper. 

copperas, sulphate of iron. (F.— L.) 
M. E. coperose. — O.F. coperose (couperose) ; 
cf. Ital. copparosa. According to Diez, 
from L. cupri rosa, rose of copper, a trans- 
lation of Gk. x''**-"''*''^, brass - flower, 
copperas. But this is prob. only a popular 
etymology ; and the Late L. cuprdsa seems 
to be merely an adj. form from cuprum. 
See N.E.D. 

Coppice, Coppy, Copse, a small 

wood. (F. — L. — Gk.) C0//J' is short for 
coppice, and copse is contracted. — O. F. 
copeiz [Low L. copecici\, underwood fre- 
quently cut, brushwood. — O.F. coper (F. 
couper), to cut. —O.F; cop (F. coup), a 
stroke. — LowL. colpus, L: colaphus, stroke, 
blow. - Gk. ic6Ka<poi, a blow. ^T O. F. 
copeiz answers to a Late L. type *colpa:ti- 
cium, from colpdre, to strike. Coppy arose 
from coppice being taken as coppies, pi. ; 
and copse (cops) from reducing a supposed 
pi. *coppis to cops. 

Coprolite. (Gk.) Lit. ' dung-stone.' 
Made from Gk. /coirpo-s, dung ; and Xi0-os, 
a stone. For -lite, cf. Aerolite. 

Copulate. (L.) From pp. of L. copu- 
Idre, to join. — L. copula, a band; see 

Copy. (F. — L.) M. E. copy, abun- 
dance ; the mod. sense is due to the mul- 
tiplication of an original by means oi copies. 

— O. F. copie, abundance ; also a copy. — 
L. copiia, plenty; see Copious. 

Coq.liette. (F.) F. Ci;y«<eft?^, 'apratling 
; or proud gossip,' Cot. ; fem. of coquet, a 
little cock, dimin. oicoq, a cock. Cf. prov- 
E. cocky, i. e. strutting^ as a cock. 

Coracle, a light wicker boat. (W.) W. 
corwgl, cwrwgl, coracle ; dimin. of corwg, 
a carcase, civrwg, a boat, frame. So Gael. 
cnrachcm, coracle, fi^m cttrach, boat of 


wicker-work ; cf. Ir. corrach, O. Ir. cttrach, 
a boat. 

Coral. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. coral. - 
L. corallwn, cordlium.^GV, KopaWtov, 
coral. See Schade, p. 1374. 

Corban, a gift. (Heb.) Heb, qorban, 
ati offering to God, in fulfilment of a vow ; 
from qdrah, to draw near. Cf. Arab, qur- 
idn, a sacrifice. 

Corbel. (F. -L.) O. F, coi-bd, a raven, 
n corbel (in architecture), from the notion 
of a projecting beak. — Folk-L. (orbellum, 
for corvellum, ace. of corvellus, dimin. 
of L. coruus, a raven. ^ Distinct from 
corbeil, a basket full of earth (F. corbeille, 
L. corbicula, dimin. oicorbis, a basket). 

Cord. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. corde.- 
F. corde. — Late L. corda, a thin rope ; the 
same as L. chorda. — Gk. x^P^i '1^^ string 
of a musical instrument. Der. cord-age 
(F. cordage) ; cord-on (F. cordon) ; cord- 
-elier (F. cordelier, a twist of rope, also 
a Gray Friar, who used such a twist ; from 
cordeler, to twist ropes). See Chord.. 

Cordial. (F. — L.) F. ^/-rf/a/, hearty. 
— L. cordi-, decl. stem of «r, heart ; with 
suffix -dlis ; see Heart. 

Cordaroy, a thick-ribbed or corded 
stuff. (F. — L.) F. corde du roi, a trade- 
name, invented in England ; lit. ' king's 
cord.' See Cord and Boyal. 

Cordwainer, shoemaker. (F.— Span.) 
M. E. cordewaner, a worker in cordewane, 
i. e. leather of Cordova. — O. F. cordouan, 
Cordovan leather. —Late L. Cordoa, Cor- 
dova in Spain (L. Conluba). 

Core, hard centre in fruit, &c. (F.— L.?) 
Htym. doubtful. Perhaps from F. cor, a 
ihorn, also, a corn on the foot, callosity. — 
L. cornu, a horn, a horny excrescence. 

Coriander. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cori- 

andre. — 'L. coriamlrum (whence A.S. eel- 
lendre).^G\i. Kopiavvoi/, Kdpiov, coriander. 

Cork, (Span. — L.) Apparently from 
O. Span, alcorque, a cork shoe, which 
seems to be an Arab, form allied to Span. 
al-cornoque, the cork-tree, where al is the 
Arab. def. art., and corn-oqiie is formed 
from L. quern-US (for *quercnus), oaken, 
adj. from L. quercus, an oak. ^ But the 
bark of the tree was called, in Span., corche, 
corcho. — l^. corticem, ace. of cortex, bark. 
Hence cork is often derived from Span. 
corcho, though k for ch seems improb- 

Cormorant, a bird. (F.— L.) The t 
is excrescent. — F. cormoran ; O, F. carina- 


rant, cormaran (Littr^). - O. F. (orp, a 
crow; and O.F. *marenc, belonging to 
the sea, deriv. of L. mare, sea, with G. 
suffix -?«^; cf Y.Jlamant, flamingo. -L. 
coruum, ace. of coruus, a crow; &c. 
Cf. Port, corvomarinho, a cormorant ^ lit.' 
' marine crow ; ' from L. coruus marinus. 
But probably -moran was due to, or con- 
fused with, Bret, morvran, a cormorant 
(from inor, sea, and bran, a crow). 
Corn (i), grain. (E.) A. S. conL+Dn. 
korcn, Icel. Dan. Swed. G. korn, Goth. 
kaurn. Teut. type *kurnom, Idg. type 
*g9ntom, corn ; whence O. Slav, zrtino, 
Kuss. zerno, corn. Cf. Lat. granum, 
grain; SH-jirna-, worn down, pp. of_;Vv. 
Doublet, ^/-flwi. See Grain. Brugm. i. 
§ 628. (VCP^R.) 

Corn (2), a hard excrescence on the 
foot. (F.— L.) O. v. corn (Y. cor), ahoxn, 
horny swelling. — L. cornu, a horn ; see 

cornea, homy membrane in the eye. 
(L.) L. cornea, fem. oi corneus, horny.— 
L. cornu, a horn. 

cornel, a shmb. (Du.— L.) M. Du. 
kornelle, ' the fruit of the cornelle-tree,' 
Hexham ; cf. M. H. G. cornelbaum, cornel- 
tree ; Weigand. [Cf M, F. cornille, a cor- 
nel-berry; cornillier, cornel-tree.] — Late L. 
cornolium, cornel- tree.- L. cornus, a cor- 
nel-tree ; from the hard, horny nature of 
the wood. — L. cornu, a horn. 

cornelian, a kind of chalcedony. 
(F. — L.) Formerly cornaline. — F. corna- 
line, 'the comix or cornaline, a flesh- 
coloured stone;' Cot. Cf. Port, corne- 
lina; also Ilal. corniola, (i) a cornel-tree, 
(2) a cornelian, prob. so named because 
its colour resembles that of the fruit of the 
comel-tree (Schade). — Late L. corniola, 
cornel-berry; cornolium, cornel. — L. cor- 
neus, adj. of cornus, a cornel. % Altered 
to carneolus in Late L. (Schade, p. 1379), 
carnelian in E., and carneol in G., from 
a popular etymology which connected it 
with L. cam-, stem of caro, flesh. Cf. 
0}tyx = Gk. ovv(, finger-nail. 

corner. (K. — L.) A.F. comere; O.F. 
comiere. — Med. L. corneria, comer, angle. 
-Med.L. coma, angle. -L. cornua, pi. of 
ftfr;j«, horn, projection; taken as a fem. 

cornet. (F.-L.) yi.F.. cornet, a.\\am; 

later, a troop of horse (who carried a cor- 

nette or standard) ; also an officer of such 

a troop. - F. cornet, cornette, dimin. of F. 



corne, a horn. — Med. L. coma, a horn 
Cornice. (F.-Ital.) M. F. and Picard 
cornice ; F. comiche, — Ital. cornice, .a 
ledge for hanging tapestry (Florio) ; 
usually, a crow (from L. ace. cornice?/!, a 
crow). Origin uncertain ; by some identi- 
fied with coronix, a square frame. — Glc. 
Kopojvls, curved ; as sb. , a wreath. 
Corolla. (I-..) L. corolla, dimin. of co- 
rona, a crown. .See Crown. 

corollary. (L.) 'L. corollarium, apTe- 
sent of a garland, a gratuity ; also, an 
additional inference. — L. corolla (above). 

coronal, a crown. (F.—L.) Properly 
an adj. — F. coronal, adj. — L. corondlis, 
belonging to a crown. — L. corona, a crown. 

coronation. (L.) LateL. ace. corond- 
tionein, fiom pp. of corondre, to crown.— 
L. corona, a crown. 

coroner. (F. — L.) Also crowner; 
both forms represent A. F. coruner, coroner, 
Latinised as corondrius, a crown- officer, a 
coroner (afterwards Latinised as coro- 
ndior). — 0. F. corone, a crown. — L. corona, 
a crown. 

coronet. (F.—L.) Dimin. ofO. F. 
corone, a crown. — L. corona, a crown. 

Coronach, a dirge. (Gael.) Gael, cor- 
ranach, a dirge, lit. ' a howling together.' — 
Gael, comh- ( = L. cum), together; ranaich, 
a howling, from the verb ran, to howl, 
cry, roar, which is from ran, sb., an outcry. 
So also Irish co7-anach, a dirge. 
Corporal (i), a subordinate officer. 
(F.—L.) O. F. corf oral. -TuaXa X,. cor- 
f oralis, a captain ; a leader of a body of 
troops. — L. corpor-, for *corfos-, stem 
of corpus, body. % F. has now the form 
caporal, from Ital. caporale, a chief of a 
band ; as if from Ital. capo, head (L. 
caput) ; but this does not explain the -oi--. 

corporal (2), belonging to the body. 
(F. — L.) O. F. corporal, corporel. — 'L. 
corpordlis, bodily. — L. corpor-, iax *cor- 
pos-, stem of corpus, the body. Der. 
(from L. corpor-) corpor-ate, corpor-e-al 
(L. corpore-us), &c. Brugm. i. § 555. 

corps, corpse, corse, a body. 

(F. — L.) [Here corps is F. ; corse is from 
the O. F. cors?[ M. E. cors, corps. — O. F. 
corSj^l-.Y .corps,'iii&hoAy. — 'L.corptis,\iO&j. 

corpulent. (F. — L.) Y. corpulent.— 
L- corpulentus, fat. — L. corpus, body. 

corpuscle. (L.) L. corpus' cu-lum, 
double dimin. of corpus, body. 
. Corral, an enclosure for animals, pen. 



(Span.— L.) Span, corral, a court, yard, 
enclosure. — Span, corro, a circle, a ring of 
people met to see a show. From the 
phrase correr toros, to hold a bull-fight, 
lit. to run bulls. — L. currere, to run (Diez). 
See Kraal. 

Correct, adj. (L.) L. corrcctus, pp. 
of corrigere, to correct. — L. cor- (for 
con- — cum), together; regere,\ox\At. 

COrregldor, a Spanish magistrate. 
(Span. — L.) Span, corregidor, lit. ' cor- 
rector.'- Span, corregir, to correct.— L. 
corrigere (above). 

Correlate, to relate or refer mutually. 
(L.) Coined from L. cor- (^ = cu!n), to- 
gether ; and Eelate, q. v. 

Correspond. (F. — L.) Y.correspon- 
dre—h. cor- (for con-, cum), together; 
and Bespond, q. v. 

Corridor. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. corridor. 

— Ital. corridore, a swift horse ; also, a 
long (running along) gallery. — Ital. cor- 
rere, to run. — L. cttrrere, to run. 

Corrie. (Gael.) Gael, coire, a circular 
hollow surrounded with hills, a mountain 
dell ; also, a cauldron. [Cf. G. kessel, a 
kettle, a ravine.] + O. Irish coire, core, a 
kettle ; W. pair, A. S. hwer, a cauldron. 
Brugm. i. § 123. 

Corroborate. (L.) From pp. ofL. 

corroborare, to strengthen. — L. cor- (for 

con- ^ cum), wholly ; robor-, stem oirobur, 


Corrode. (F. — L.) ¥. corroder. — 'L. 

corrodere, to gnaw to pieces. — L. cor- (for 

con- = cum), wholly; rodere, to gnaw. 

Der. corrosive, from pp. corros-us. 

Corrody, Corody, allowance, pen- 
sion. (LowLat. — Teut.) A.Y . corodie.— 
Low L. corrodium, earlier corrediuvi, L. 
form of A. F. conrei, preparation, pro- 
vision, allowance. See Curry (i). 

Corrugate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
corriigare, to wrinkle. — L. cor- {cuni), 
wholly ; and rugare, to wrinkle, from 
ruga, a wrinkle. 

Corrupt, adj. (F.—L.) k.Y.corupt. 
— L. corruptus, pp. oi corrumpere, to break 
wholly, corrupt. — L. cor- (for con- = cum) , 
wholly ; rumpere, to break. 

Corsair. (F.-Ital. — L.) Y.corsaire 
(Prov. corsari, one who makes the course, 
corsa). — Ital. corsare, earlier corsaro, a 
pirate. — Med. L. cursSrius, a pirate. — 
L. cursus, a course. See Course. 

Corse, a body. (F. — L.) M. E. cors. —. 
O. F. cors. — L. corpus, a body. 



corset. (F.— L.> ¥. corsef, apm of 
stays ; dimin. of O. F. cors, body. 

corslet. (F. — L.) F. corselet, ' a little 
body,' Cot. ; hence, body-armour. Double 
diraln. of O. F. cars, body (above). 
Cortege. (F.-Ital.-L.) F.ceri^^e.a 
train, retinue. — Ital. corieggio, a retinue. 
— Ital. corle, a court. — L. cortem, co- 
horiem, ace. of cohors, a court ; see Court 


COrteS, the Span, national assembly. 
(Span-. — L.) Span, cartes, pi. of corte, a 
court. — L. cortem (above). 

Cortex, bark. (L.) L. cortex (gen. 
corticis), bark. Der. cortical. 

Coruscate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
coruscdre, to glitter. 

Corvette, a small frigate. (F. — Port. — 
L.) F. corvette. — VoTt. corveta ; Span. 
corieta, a corvette. — L. corbTta, a slow- 
Sitiling ship of burden. — L. corbis, a basket. 

Cosmic, relating to the world. (Gk.) 
Gk. icoaiuie6s, adj., from K6aitos, order, also 
the world, universe. Der. cosmo-gony, 
cosmo - graphy , cosmo -logy, cosmo - polite 
(citizen of the world, Gk. TioXiTrjs, a 

cosmetic, that which beautifies. (Gk.) 
Gk. «o<r/ti)Ti/£of, skilled in adorning ; 
whence also F. (osmitique. — Gk. KoaiUai, 
I adorn. — Gk. «6(riios, order, ornament. 

Cossack, a light-armed S. Russian 
soldier. (Russ.— Tatar.) Russ. kozak', 
kazai' ; of Tatar (Tartar) origin. — Turki 
quszdq, a vagabond; a predatory horse- 
man (Yule). 

Cosset, to pet. (E.) From i6th cent. 
cosset, a pet-lamb, a pet. Prob. the same as 
A. F. coscet, cozet, a cottar; A. S. cot-s&ta:, 
a dweller in a cot, ' cot-sitter.' From 
A. S. cot, cot ; s&ta, dweller, from sittan, 
to sit. Cf. prov. G. kossat, a cottager. 
[So Ital. casiccio, pet lamb (Florio) ; from 
casa, 2L. cottage.] 

Cost, vb. (F. - L.) M. E. costen. - O. F. 
coster (F. coHter), to cost. — L. constdre, to> 
stand together, last ; also to cost. — L. con- 
(cum), together; and stare, to stand. 

Costal, relating to the ribs. (L.) From 
L. casta, a rib. See Coast. 

Costermouger. (F. and E.) For- 
merly costerd-vionger, or costard-monger, 
a seller of costards or apples. [The suffix 
-manger is E. ; see Monger.] M. E. 
castard, an apple, where the suffix -ard is 
F. ; prob. from O. F. coste, F. c6te, a rib; 
cf. Y. fruit cdteU, ribbed fruit (Hamilton). 


Costive. (F.-L.) YTma.O.'S.costevi. 
-L. constipStus, constipated. See can- 
stifer in Littre ; and Constipate. 
Costume. (F.-Ital.-L.) O.V. cos- 
tiime, a costume. - Ital. costume ; Low L. 
costuma; see Custom. Doublet of cus' 

Cosy, Cosy, comfortable, snugly shel- 
tered". (Scand.) Lowl. Scotch cosie, cozie 
(Bums). Etym. unknown ; perhaps cf. 
Norw. kosa, to refresh ; kosa seg, tp enjoy 
oneself; hoseteg, snug, cosy;, kosmg, re- 

Cot, a small dwelling; Cote, an en- 
closure. (E.) M. E. cote. A. S. cot, cote, a 
cot.den ; Northumbrian cot.-^V)Vi..kot, Icel. 
kof, cot, hut; prov. G. koth, cot. Der. 
cott-age- (with F. suffix) ; colt-ar or catt-er ; 

coterie, a set of people. (F.— Teut.) 
F. caterie, a set of people, company; 
allied to O. F. coterie, pervile tenure 
(Littre) ; Low L. coteiia, a tenure by 
cottars who clubbed together. - Low L. 
cota, a cot. - Du. kot (above) . 

Cotillon, Cotillion, a dance for 4 or 
8 persons. (F. — M. H. G.) F. cotillon, lit. 
a petticoat; see Cotgrave. Formed, with 
suffix -ill-on, from O. F. cote, a coat, 
frock ; see Coat. 

Cotton (i), a downy substance. (F.— 
Span. —Arab.) M. E. and A. F. cotoun. — 
F. colon. — ?>^xa. colon, algodon, cotton 
■ (where al is the Arab. art.). — Arab, qutn, 
' qutun, cotton. 

cotton (a), to agree. From a technical 
i use of cotton, to form a down upon ; from 
Cotton (i) ; see N"ares. 
Cotyledon, seed-lobe. (Gk.) Gk. 
KOTvKrjSwv, a cup-shaiped hollow. — Gk. 
xoTv\i], a hollow vessel, cup. 
Couch., to lay down, place, set. (F.— 
L.) M. E. couc/ien, to set, arrange. — O.F. 
coucher, cokher, to place. — L. collocdre-, to- 
put together. — L. col- icum), together; 
and locdre, to place, from locus, a place. 
Der. couch, sb., a plaee on which one is 
couched or laid. 

Coucll-graSS, a grass which is trouble- 
some as a weed. (E.) Here couch is a 
variant of quitch, palatalised form of 
quick, i. e. tenacious of life ; see Quick. 
Congll. (E.) M. E. coughen, cowhen. 
A. S. *cohhian, only found in the deriv. 
cohhetan, to make a noise. [The usual 
A. S. word is hzvosfan?[ Cf. Du. kitchen, 
to cough - M. H. G. kuchen, G. heuchen, 



to gasp. From an imitative base *kezt/i, 
*kuh, to gasp ; see Chincough. 

Could ; see Can. (i). 

Coillter, part of a plough. (L.) M. E. 
colter. A. S. citlter. — 'L. culter, a coulter, 
knife. Ci. per-cellere, to s,in\ie. 

Gotmcil. (F-— L-) F. conciU. — 'L. con- 
cilium, an assembly called together. — L. 
cofi' (aim), together; and caldie, to 
summon. ^ Often confused with counsel. 

Connsel. (F. — L.) M.E. conseil.— 
O.F. conseil.—l-,. consilium, deliberation. 
— L. consulere, to consult ; see Consult. 
^ Often confused with council. 

Count (i), a title of rank. (F.-L.) 
The orig. sense was ' companion.' A. F. 
counte (not in M. E.). — O. F. conte ; also 
comte. — L. comitem, ace. of comes, a. com- 
panion (stem com-it-). — (for cum-), 
together; and it-um, supine of ire, to go. 
Der. count-ess ; also couni-y (below). 

Count (2), to reckon. (F. — L.) F. 
confer, formerly also compter. — L. compu- 
tdre, to compute ; see Compute. 

Countenance. (F.— L.) O. F. con- 

tenance, gesture, demeanour; also look, 
visage. — L. continenlia, continence, which 
in Late L. meant ' gesture, demeanour.' — 
"L. continent-, stem of pres. pt. oiconiinere; 
see Continent. Der. dis-countenance , vb. 

Counter, a piece to count with, a 
bureau. (F. — L.) W.^. countour. — O.'S. 
conteour, coiintoiir. From O. F. confer ; 
see Count (3). , 

Coxai^XS-, prefix. (F. — L.) F. contre, 
against. — L. co7ifrd, against. 

Counteract. (F. — L.) See Counter-, 
prefix, and Act. 

Connterfeit, imitated. (F. - L.) 
M.E. counterfeit. — O.F. confrefait, pp. 
oi contrefaire, to imitate. — F. contre, over 
against, like ; /aire, to make. — L. contra, 
against ; facere, to make. 

Countermand, to revoke an order. 
(F. — L.) F\ contremander, to recall a 
command. — F. contre (L. contra), against ; 
mander (L. manddre), to command. 

Counterpane (i ), a coverlet for a bed. 
(F.— L.) An altered form, in place of 
counterpoint, as in Shak. — M. P". contre- 
foinct, the back-stitch or quilting-stitch, 
also a quilt ; Cot. p. Thus .named, by a 
popular etymology, from a fancied connec- 
tion with M. F, contrepoincter, to work the 
back-stitch (from contre = 1^. contra). But 
really connected with M. F. coutrepointer, 
to quilt (also in Cotgrave). In fact, contre- 


poinct is a corruption of O. F. coutepointe, 
a counterpane (see courtepointe in Liltre). 

— L. culcita ptmcta, a counterpane, a 
stitched qviilt (see Ducange). — L. culcita, 
a quilt ; puncta, fem. of punctus, pp. of 
pungere, lo prick.. See Quilt. 

Counterpane (2\ counterpart of a 
deed. (F. — L.) M. F. contrepan, contrc- 
pant; Cot. — F. contre (L. contrd), over 
against; pan, a piece, part ; see Pane. 

Counterpoint, the composing of 
music in parts. (F.— L.) M. F. contre- 
poinct, ' a ground or plain song, in music ; ' 
Cot. The lit. sense is point against point, 
from the points or dots which represented 
musical notes, and were placed on staves 
over or against each other in compositions 
in two or more parts. — F. contre (L. con- 
tra), against; point, a point ; see Point. 

Counterpoise. (F.-L.) 'Smva. coun- 
ter and poise ; see Poise. 

Counterscarp, exterior slope of a 
ditch. (F.-Ital.-L. aWTeut.) F. con- 
trescarpe ; Cot. — Ital. contrascarpa. — 
Ital. contra, over against ; Scarpa, a scarp. 
See Counter- and Scarp. 

Countersign, to attest by signing in 
addition. i^F.-L.) F. contresigner, 'to 
subsigne ; ' Cot.— F. contre, over against ; 
signer, to sign ; see Counter- and Sign. 

Countertenor. (F.-ltal.-L.) M.F. 
contretcneur ; Cot. — Ital. contrafenore, a 
countertenor, the highest adult male voice. 

— liA.contra, against, over against ; tenore, 
a tenor ; see Tenor. 

Countervail. (F.-L.) M.E. con- 

trevailen. — O. F. contrevail-, a stem o£ 
confrcvaloir, to avail against. — O. F. con- 
tre, against; valoir, to avail. — L. contra, 
against ; tialere, to be strong. 

Country. (F.-L.) M.E. contree.— 
O. F. contree ( = Ital. contrada). — !^^^ L. 
contrdda, contrdta, a region, lit. that which 
lies opposite ; cf. G. gegend, country, lit. 
opposite, from gegen, opposite. — L. contrd, 
opposite ; see Contra-. 

Country-dance. (F.) '^rora. country 
and dance. (The F. contredanse was bor- 
I'Owed from this E. form.) 

County, orig. a province governed by a 
count. (K. — L.) M . E. countee. — O. F. 
counte (i. e. coun-te), F. comti, a province. 

— L.a'ie I-,, comitdfum, ace. 6t comitdtus, a 
county (.though the old meaning was a com- 
pany or suite). —L. comit-, stem of comes, 
a count ; see Count (i). 

Couple. (F.-L.) O.F. cople, later 



couple.— T.. copula, a bond, band, that 
which joins; short ior *co-ap-nla.—h. co- 
ifuni), together ; and O. L. apere, to join, 
preserved in the pp. aptus ; see Apt. 

Coupon, one of a series of conjoined 
tickets or certificates. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. 
fo«/o», apiececut ofl", acoupon. — F.£-o«(^«;-, 
to cut, slash. — F. f««</, a blow. — Late L. 
colptcs, short for colaphus, a blow. — Gk. 
tc6\a(l>os, a blow on the ear. 

Courage. (F. — L.) F. counrg-e,O.V'. 
corage; formed with suffix -a.^x (L.-diicuni) 
from O. F. coy, heart. — L. cor, heart. 
Der. encourage. 
Courier, (,F. — Ital.— L.) M,¥.cotirier, 
a runner; F. courrttr. — liaX. co7-riere, lit. 
' runner.' — Ital. correre, to run. — L. cur- 
rere, to run. 

course. (F. — L.) F. course. — 'L. cur- 
sum, ace. of cursus, a course ; from pp. of 
currere. Der. cours-er, a swift horse. 

Court ( 1 ) , a yard ; royal retinue, judicial 
assembly. (F. — L.) M. E. cort, curt. — 
O. F. corl, curt (F. court'), a court, a yard, 
also a tribunal. — L. ace. cortein, cohoi-tem 
(nom. cohors), a pen, enclosure, cattle- 
yard, court, also a cohort, or band of sol- 
diers.— (f;(?7i), together; and hort-, 
as in hoit-us, a garden, yard, cognate with 
yard. (V'GHEK.) 

court (2), to seek favour. (F. — L.) 
From the sb. court ; hence, to practise arts 
in vogue at court. 

courteous, of courtly manners. (F. 
— L.) M. E. cartels, later corteous.— 
O. F. corteis, courteous. — O. F. cort, a 
court ; with suHix -els (L. -ensls). 

courtesan. (F.— Ital. -L.) Fem. 
of F. courtisan, a courtier. — Ital. corti- 
giano (in Florio cortegiano), a courtier. For 
*cortesiano, an extension of cortese, cour- 
teous ; from Ital. corle, court. — L. ace. 
cortem ; see Court (i ). 

courtesy. (F. — L.) M.E. cortesie. 

— O. F. coi-tcsie, courtesy. — O. F. corteis, 
courteous ; see courteous. 

courtier. (F. — L.) yi-F. courteour. 
From A. F, *cortei-er (O. F. cortoi-er), to 
live at court ; with suffix -our (L. -atoreni), 

— O. F. coi-t, a court. 

Court cards ; a corruption of coat 
cards, pictured cards, the old name. 

Courteous, &c. ; see Court. 

Cousin. (F. - L.) M. E. cosin. - O. F. 
cosin (F. cousin ; Late L. cosinus, Ital. 
cu'gino, Romaunsch cusrin, cusdrin'^ . — \,. 
csnsoirinus, the child of a mother's sister, 


a cousin. i-L. con- (ciwi), together; sohrt- 
nus, for *swesr-tnus, belonging to a sister; 
from L. soror (for *swesor); a sister ; cf . 
Skt. svasT, a sister. See Sister. (Ct. 
Brngm. i. § 319.) 

Cove, a nook. (E.) A. S. cofa, a cham- 
ber, a cave. + Icel. kofi, a hut ; Swed. 
kofva; G. kobcn, a cabin, f Distinct 
from cave, coop, alcove. Brugm. 1. § O58. 

Covenant, agreement. (F.-L.) O.F. 
covenant, also convenant, agreement. — 
O. F. co{n)venant, pres. pt. of co{n)venir, 
to assemble, agree. — L. conuenire, to as- 
semble, come together; see Convene. 

Cover, to hide. (F. - L ) O. F. ccmnr 
{couvrir).-!^. cooperire, to cover. — L. co- 
{cum), wholly ; operire, to shut, hide. For 
*op-uerlre ; cf Lith. az-weriu, I shut, 
wartai, doors, Oscan ace. veru, a door. 
Brugm. i. § 350. 

coverlet. (F. — L.) yi.'E. coverhte. 
— A. F. coverlet, coverlit (not in O. F.), 
a bed-cover. — O. F. covrir, to cover; lit, 
a bed, from L. lectutn, ace. of lectus, a 

covert. (F. — L.) O. F. coveH, pp. 
al covrir, to cover (above). 

Covet. (F. — L.) yi.'E. couei/cn {co- 
veilen). — A. F. coveiter (F. convoiter!), 
Cf. Ital. cubitare (for cupitare), to covet. 
Formed, as if from L. *cupiditdre, from 
cupidita-tem, ace, eager desire, which 
is from cupidus, desirous of — L. cupcre, 
to desire. See Cupid. 

Covey. (F. — L.) O. F. covee (F. cou- 
vee), a brood of partridges; fem. of pp. of 
cover (F". ccuver), to hatch, sit. — L. cubdre, 
to lie down, sit. Cf. Gk. /ci/i/xJs, bent. 

Covin, secret agreement, fraud ; a law- 
term. (F. — L.) M. E. covine. — O. F. 
covine, agreement. — O. F. covenir, to as- 
semble, agree. — L. conuenire, to come 
together. See Convene, Covenant. (The 
O. F. covine answers to Late L. convenia, 
pi. of convenium, an agreement.) 

Cow (1), female of the bull. (E.) A,S. 
cH ; pi. cy, whence M. E. ky, and the 
pi. kine; see below. Teut. stem- *ku-, 
whence also Icel. kyr. + Du. koe, Swed. 
Dan. ko, G. ktili ; Teut. stem *ko-. Also 
Irish and Gael, bo, W. l/uw, L. bos (gen. 
bou-is), Gk. /Soi/s, Vets.gaw, Skt. go- (nom. " 
gaus) ; cf. Russ. goviado, oxen. ; Idg. 
stems *g(w)ou-, *g{w)ow-. See Beef. 

Mne, cows. (E.) A new pi. ; due to 
A. S. cyna, i;en^ pi., 'of cows.' Cf. 
M. E. ky, A. S. cy, cows. The A. S. cy,, 


]>1, of cu, a cow, is formed by vowel- 
change from ft to y. 

Cow (2), to dishearten. (Scand.) Icel. 
kt'iga, to tyrannise over ; Dan. kue, to 
coerce, subdue; Swed. kufva, to sup- 

Coward. (F.— L.) A.F.fOzmy(/,ahare, 
a coward, F. cmiard, a coward ; cf. Ital. 
codardo, a coward. Probably named from 
the 'bob-tailed' hare.-O. F. coe (Ital. 
coda), a tail ; with F. snffix -ard, from 
Teut. -hart, orig. hard. — L. caiida, a 

Cower. (Scand.) M.E. fD«(re?j. — Icel. 
kura, Dan. ^««, to doze, lie quiet; Swed. 
hira, to cower, lie quiet ; Swed. dial, kura, 
to sit hunched up. Cf. G. katiern, to 

Cowl (i), a monk's hood. (L.) M. E. 
cute, coule. A. S. cugele, cugU. — 'L. ctt- 
culta, a cowl ; cf. also ciictilhts. 

Cowl (2), a vessel carried on a pole. 
(F. — L.) M.E. couel. — O.F. cuvel (cuveau), 
a little tub; dimin. of cuve, a vat, tub. — 
L. cilfa, a tub.'' Der. cowl-staff. 

Cowry, a small shell used for money. 
(Hind. — Skt.) Hind, kauu, a small shell 
{Cypraa moneta) used as coin in the 
lower provinces of India. — Sk(. kaparda. 

Cowslip, «■ flower. (E.) M. E. cou- 
dofpe. A. S. cu-sloppe, cii-slyppe, lit. cow- 
slop, i. c. a piece of dung. (Other A. S. 
names of plants are of a very homely 
character.) Cf. oxlip, q. v. ; and prov. E. 
bull-slop, a large kind of oxlip (Britten). 

Cozcoiub. (E.) A fool, named from 
his cock's comb, or fool's cap, cap with a 
cock's crest. 

Coxswaiiu. (F. and Scand.) For 
cock-swain; from cock (4), a boat, and 

Coy. (F.— L.) O. F. f02, older form 
qiiei, quiet, still ; spelt coy, quoy, in Cot- 
grave. — Folk-L. *quetum, ace. of *quetus, 
for L. quietus, still. See Quiet. 

Coyote, a prairie-wolf. (Mexican.) 
From coyote. Span. pron. of Mex. coyotl. 

Cozen. (F. — L.) To cozen is to act 
as cousin or kinsman, to sponge upon, 
beguile. — F. cousiner, to call cousin, to 
sponge, live on other people ; see Hamil- 
ton and Cotgrave. — F. cousin, a cousin ; 
see Cousin. 

Crab (i), a shell-fish. (E.) A. S. 
craWa.+Icel. krabbi, Swed. krabba, Dan. 
krabbe, Du. krab, G. krabbe. Allied to 
E. Fries, and Du. krabben, to scratch, 



claw ; G. krebs (O. H. G. crebiz), a crab, 
Du, kreeft, a crab. See Crayfish. 

crabbed, peevish, cramped. (E.) 
From crab, sb. ; i. e. crab-like, snappish 
or awkward. Cf. Du. krabben, to scratch, 
kribben, to be peevish. 

Crab (2), a kind of apple. (E.) Cf. 
Swed. krabbaple, crab-apple. Perhaps 
allied to crabbed (above). 

Crabbed ; see Crab (i). 

Crack. (E.) A. S. cracian, to crack. 
+Du. kraken, to crack, cieak ; G. kra- 
chen. Cf. Gael, crac, a fissure, cnac, a 
crack, to crack (from E.). Imitative, like 
crake, creak, croak, crash, gnash, knock. 

cracknel. (F. — Du.) Formerly <-?-«fe- 
nel, corruption of F. craquelin, a cracknel. 
— Du. krakeling, a cracknel. Named fi om 
its crispness. — Du. kraken, to crack. 

crake, corncrake, a bird. (E.) 

From its cry ; M. E. craken, to cry out. 
Allied to crack, croak. 

Cradle. (E.) A.S.cradol. Cf. O.H.G. 
cratto, a basket ; also O. H. G. crezzo, 
prov. G. kralze, a basket. 

Craft, skill. (E.) A. S. !•;•(?/?. +Du. 
kracht, Icel. kraptr,kraftr, Swed. L'an. G. 
kraft, force: Cf. A. S. crafian, to ciave, 
demand. Der. handi-crajt. 

Crag. (C.) W. craig, Gael, creag, 
crag, rock ; Irish creag, a rock ; cf. \V. 
careg, Gael, carraig, rock, cliff, Bret. 
karrek, O. Irish carric, a rock. 

Crake ; sec Crack. 

Cram. (E.) A. S. crammian, to stuff. 
+ Icel. kremja, Swed. kiama, Dan. 
kramme, to squeeze. From cramm-, 2nd 
grade of the str. vb. crimm-an, to crumble. 
And cf. Cramp. 

Cramp. (F.-Teut.) Y.crampe,"Cs\e 
crampe,' Cot. ; cf. crampon, ' a cramp- 
iron.' — Du. kramp, a cramp, spasm. From 
the 2nd grade of Tent. *krempa7t-, *irim- 
pan-, to draw together, as in O. H. G. krim- 
phan, to draw together, str. vb, Cf. E. 
crimp, cramp, crumple; Icel. krappr, 
cramped; kreppa, to pinch. And com- 
pare Crank. 

Crane, a bird. (E.) A. S. cran.Jf-Vm. 
kraan, Icel. Irani (for krani), Swed. 
trana, Dan. trane, G. kran-ich; W. and 
Uret. garan, Gk. ylpavos, a crane, also a 
crane for raising weights. Cf. L. grus, a 
crane, Lith. garnys, a stork. From 
.^CER, to cry out; cf. Gk. 7^pi's, voice 

cranberry. (Low G.) Modern; from 



Low G. kraanbere (Berghaus), G. kran- 

beere, lit. craneberry ; cf. Dan. tranebar 

(from trane = krone, as above); Swed. 

Crauinni. (L. — Ok.) Med. L. cra- 
nium. — Gk, KpSviov, skull ; allied to Kafm, 

Crank (i), a bend. (E.) M. E. cranke. 

Allied to E. Fries, krunken, pp., bent. 

Cf. Du. kronkel, a wrinkle, kronhelen, 

to wrinkle, turn, wind. Teut. hase *krenk-, 

variant of *kreng-. Cf. Cringe, Crinkle. 

crank (2), easily upset, as a boat. 

(E.) I. e. easily bent or twisted aside. 
Cf. Da. krank, ill, poor ; also krengen, to 
careen a boat ; Swed. krdnga, Dan. 
krange, to heel over ; see Cringe. 

crank (3), lively. (E.) The same 
word, from the idea of turning quickly. 
Cf. Norw. kring, active, brisk ; Dan. dial. 
krceng, dexterous. 

Cranny. (F. — L. ?) M. E. crany. 

— F. cran, a notch ; with E. suffix -y. 
Allied to Ital. a-ena,anotc\i (Florio). Cf. 
Late L. crma, a notch (a word of doubt- 
ful authority). See Crenellate. 

Crants, a garland. (M. Du. — G.) M. 
Du. krants, Du. krans, a garland, wreath 
(whence Dan. brands, Sw. krans). All 
from G. kranz, a wreath. 

Crape, (f^.— L.) F. cr^pe, formerly 
cresfe, ' frizzled, crisped, crisp ; ' Cot. 
From its wrinkled surface. — L. crispus, 
curled. See Crisp. 

CrarCi a small ship. (F.) In Cymb. 
iv. 2. 205. M.E. crayer. — 0,Y . craier, 
creer, a war-vessel. Of unknown origin. 

Crash, vb. (E.) Of imitative origin ; 
closely allied to crack. Cf. clash, dash:, 
and see Crazs. 

Crasis. (Gk.) Gk. xpaais, a mixing ; 
hence, contraction. — Gk. Kip&vnpi, I 

Crass. (L.) L. crassus, thick, dense. 

Cratch, a crib, manger. (F. — O.H. G.) 
M. E. crtcche. — O. F. creche {criche) ; 
Prov. crepcha. — O. H. G. crippea (whence 
G. krippe), a crib. See Crib. 

Crate. (L.) L. crates, a hurdle ; hence, 
a wicker-case, &c. 

Crater. (L. — Gk.) L. crater, a bowl, 
a crater. — Gk. Kparrip, a large bowl in 
which things were mixed. — Gk. /cfpavvv/u, 
I mix. 

Cravat. (F. — Slavonic.) F. cravate, 
(i) a Croatian, (2) a cravat. Cravats 
were introduced into France in 1636, as 


worn by the Croatians, who were called 
in F. Creates or Cremates or Cravates. 

Croat is a name of Slavonic origin ; cf. 
Russ. Kroaf, a Croatian. 

Crave. (E.) A. S. crafian, to crave, 
ask. Cf. Icel. krefja, Swed. krdfva, Dan. 
krcfve, to demand; led. krafa, a de- 

Craven. (F.-L.?) The oldest form 
is M. E. cravant, with the sense of beaten, 
foiled, or overcome, i. Mr. Nicol sug- 
gested that it is a clipped form of O. F^ 
cravantd, pp. explained by Cotgrave by 
'oppressed, foiled'; this is the pp. of 
O. F. cravanter, to break, oppress = Late 
L. *crepantdre, formed from crepant-, stem 
of pres. pt. of crcpare, to crack, break. 
Cf. Span, quebrantar, to crack, break. 
2. But it seems rather to be due simply 
to the O. F. cravant, pres. participle 
of the O. F. craver, crever, to burst, 
break ; hence, to fail, to be overcome, 
to yield. — L. citpantem, ace. of the pres. 
part, of crepdre, to burst. Cf. O, F. 
creve, dead ; Span, quebrar^ to fail 4 
quebranls, want of strength, great loss. 
See Phil. Soc. Trans. 1 902 ; p. 659. 
See Decrepit. 

Craw, crop of fowls. (E.?) M.E, 
crawe. As if from A. S. *craga, the neck ; 
not found; N. Fries, krage, neck, craw. 
Allied to Du. kraag, G. kragen, neck, 
collar (whence Late Icel. kragi, Swed. 
krage, Dan. krave, a collar). Note also 
Dan. kro, the craw of a bird ; Swed. krdfva. 

Crawfish, the same as Crayfish. 

Crawl. (Scand.) Prov. E. craffle, 
crqffle, to crawl. — Icel. krajla, to paw, 
crawl ; Swed. krafla, to grope ; Dan. 
kravle, to crawl. Cf. N. Fries, krabli, 
krawli, to crawl ; Low G. kraueln. Fre- 
quentative from Teut. base *krab-, to 
scratch, claw ; see Crab. 

Crayfish. (F. - O. H. G.) Altered 
from M. E. crevise. — O. F. crevisse, es- 
crevisse {icrcvisse). — O. H. G. crebiz, G. 
krsbs, a crabi allied to G. krabbe, a crab; 
see Crab (i). 

Crayon, (F.-L.) F.«-(yo»; extended 
from F. craie, chalk. — L. creta, .chalk. 

Craze. (Scand.) M. E. erased, i. e. 
cracked. — Swed, krasa, Dan. krase, to 
crackle ; whence also F. ^eraser, to break 
in pieces. Cf. Swed. sla. in kras, Dan. 
slaae i kras, to break in shivers. 

Creak. (E.) M. E. kreken. Allied to 
crake, crack. Cf. Du. krick, a cricket, 



M. F. criquer, to creak, allied to craquer, 
to crack. Of imitative origin. 

Cream. (F.— L. — Gk.) 0.¥. cresme 
(F. crime) ; really the same word as O. F. 
cresme (F. chrime), chrism (though con- 
fused with L. cretnor, thick juice). — Late 
L. chrisma, consecrated oil. — Gk. xp'<'f"^i 
anungnent; see Chrism. 

Crease (i), a wrinkle, as in folding 
paper, &c. (F.— L.) Earliest spelling 
creast, a ridge (later, a furrow). Variant 
of crest, ridge (as of a roof). Cf. Walloon 
cress, a crest, ridge of a roof, hretU, 
wrinkled (Remade) ; Prov. crest^ creis, a 
ridge; and prov. E. crease, a ridge-tile of 
a roof. {Athen. Sept. 18, 1897.J 

Grease (a). Creese, a dagger. (Ma- 
lay.) Malay iris, 'a dagger, kris, or 
creese ; ' Marsden. 

Create. (L.) From pp. of L. credre, 
to make.+Skt. hr, to make. Der. creat- 
ure, O. F. creature, L. creatura. And see 
Crescent. Brugm. i. § 641. 

Creed. (L.) M. E. crede ; A. S. creda. 
— L. credo, I believe : the first word of 
the creed. + O. Irish cretim, I believe ; 
Skt. frad-dadhami, I believe. Der. cred- 
ence (O. F. credence, L. credential ; cred- 
ible ; credit (L. pp. creditus) ; cred-ulous 
(L. cridulm), &c. Brugm. i. § 539. 

Creek. (E. ?) M. K. creie, a creek. + 
Du. kreei, M. Du. ireie ; cf. Icel. iriki, a 
crack, nook (whence F. crique). The 
orig. sense is 'a bend,' as in Swed. dial. 
armkrik, bend of the arm ; krik, an angle, 

Creel, an angler's osier basket. (F.— 
L.) O. F. creil^ wicker-work (Ducange, 
s.v. cleia). — !^. type *craticulum, for 
craticula, wicker-work, double dimin. of 
crates, a hurdle. See Crate and Grill. 

Creep. (E.) M. E. crepen ; A. S. 
creopan.+'Dii. kruipen, Icel. krjupa, Swed. 
krypa, Dan. krybe, to crawl. Teut. type 
*kreiifan-, str. vb. 

Creese ; see Crease (2). 

Cremation, burning. (L.) L. crenid- 
tidnem, ace. of cremdtio ; from pp. of cre- 
mdre, to bum. 

Creuate, notched. (L.) From Late 
L. crena, M. Ital. crena, a notch. 

crenellate. (LateL.— F. — L.) From 
pp. of Late L. crlnellare, to furnish with 
battlements.— O. F. c^-ewe/, a battlement; 
dimin. of O. F. cren, F. cran, a notch, 
from Late L. crena (above). 

Creole, one born in the W. Indies, but 

of European blood. (F. — Span. — L.) F. 
c;-^o/«. — Span, criollo, a negro corruption 
of *criadillo, dimin. of criado, one edu- 
cated, instructed, or brought up ; hence, a 
child of European blood. Criado is pp. 
of criare, to cieate, also, to educate. — L. 
credre, to create, make. ^ Cf. Span. 
criadilla, dimin. of criada, a seivant-maid. 

Creosote, a liquid distilled from tar. 
(Gk.) Lit. ' flesh- preserver.' — Gk. «/)fo-, 
for Kpeas, flesh ; and Gim-, short for aoiT^p, 
preserver, from cii^tiv, to preserve. (Ill- 

Crescent. (L.) The 'increasing' 
moon. — L. crescent-, stem of pres. pt. of 
crescere, to grow, increase (pp. cre-tus), 
inchoative form allied to cre-dre, to 
make ; see Create. 

Cress. (E.) M. E. cres, also kerse (by 
shifting of r). A. S. ccerse, cerse, cressee, 
+Du. iers, M. Du. and Low G. kerse, G. 
kresse, O. H. G. cressa. 

Cresset. (F. - L.) M. E. cresset, 
a light in a cup at the top of a pole. — 
O. F. cresset, craisset, a cresset (with 
grease in an iron cup). — OF. craisse (F. 
^ow.r^), grease; Littre. — Folk-L. *crassia, 
grease, from L. crassus, thick, dense. So 
also Walloon crachi, a cresset, from 
crache, grease. 

Crest. (F.-L.) O. F. creste (F. 
crlte.) — L. crista, a comb or tuft on a 
bird's head, crest. 

Cretaceous, chalky. (L.) L. cre- 
tdce-us, adj. from creta, chalk ; with suffix 

Crevice, Crevasse. (F.-L.) M.E. 

crevice, crevase, crevasse. — O. F. crevasse, 
a rift (Late L. crepdtia). — O. F. crever, to 
burst asunder. — L. crepdre, to crackle, 

Crew. (F.-L.) Formerly o^i;, short 
for accrue, a. re-inforcement. — O. F. ac- 
creue, increase ; orig. fem. of pp. of ac- 
croistre, to increase. — L. accrescere, to 
grow to, — L. ac- (for ad), to ; crescere, to 

Crewel, a thin worsted yam. Origin 

Crib, a manger. (E.) A. S. crib.+ 
O. Sax. kribbia, Du. krib, G. krippe ; 
allied to Icel. Swed. krtibba, Dan. krybbe. 
Allied perhaps to M. H. G. krebe, a basket; 
but not to Du. korf, G. korb, if these are 
from L. corbis. Der. crib, verb, to put by 
in a crib, purloin ; cribb-age, where crib is 
the secret store of cards 



Crick, a spasm or twist in the neck, 
(E.) M. E. crykke ; also used in the sense 
of wrench. Prob. allied to Crinkle. 

Cricket (i)i an insect. (F.— Teut.) 
M. E. criket. — O. F. crequet, criquet, 
cricket. — O. F. criquer, to creak, rattle, 
chirp. — Du. kriek, a cricket ; krikkrakken, 
to rattle. From the imitative base krik ; 
cf. prov. E. cracket, creaker, a cricket. 
Hexham has M. Du. kricken, ' to creake.' 

Cricket (2), a game. (F. — Du.) The 
game was once played with a hooked 
stick (Cot., ». V. crosse). — O. F. criquet, 
' bSton servant de but au jeu de boule ; ' 
Godefroy. — M. Du. krick, kricke, a crutch ; 
Hexham. Cf. A. S. cricc, crycc, a crutch, 

Crime. (F. — L.) F. crime. — L. cri- 
men, an accusation, fault (stem crTmin-) ; 
allied to cernere, to decide. + Gk. npTna, 
KpifM, a decision ; Kpivnv, to judge. Der. 
crimin-al, crimin-ate ; hence, recriminate 

Crimp, to wrinkle. (E.) In late use ; 
answering to an A. S. *crempan, E. Fries. 
krempen, causal deriv. of Cramp. The 
orig. str. vb. occurs as E. Fries, and Dn. 
kiimpen, O. H.G. krimfan; Teut. type 
*/irempan- {krimpan-), to draw oneself 
together, shrink up ; pt. t. *kramp, pp. 
*krumpano-. See Cramp and Crumple. 

Crimson. (F.-Arab.-Skt.) M.E. 
Cremosin. — O. F. cramoisin, cramoisyne 
(see cramoisi in Litire) ; Low L. crame- 
sinus, also carmesinus, crimson (Span. 
carmesi, Ital. cher?nisi). — A\ab. qirmizi, 
crimson ; from qirmis, the cochineal in- 
sect. —Skt. krmi^s), a worm. Brugm. i. 

§ 4"?- 

Cringe. (E.) M. E. crengen \ causal 
derivative of A. S. cringan, cnncan, to 
sink in battle, fall beneath the foe. 
Crincan is a strong verb ; see Crank, 

Cringle, an iron ring. (Low G.) 
Low G. kringel, a ling (Liibben'l; E. Fries. 
kringel; allied to Icel. kringla, a circle 
{ci.kringar, pi., the puHies of a drag-net). 
Dimin. of E. Fries, kring, a ring, Du. 
kring, a circle ; allied to Crinkle, Crank 
(i), and Cringe. 

Crinkle. (E.) 'M.'E. crinkled, crenckd, 
twisted. A frequent, form of the causal 
deriv. of crink, which occurs in the A. S. 
str. vb. crincan, to sink in a heap; see 

Crinoline, a lady's stiff skirt. (F.^ 
L.) Y. crinoline, (i) hair-cloth, (2) crino- 


line. - F. crin (L. ace. crineni), hair ; 
and lin, flax, hence thread, from L. limwi, 
flax, also, a thread. 

Cripple. (£■) M. E. crepel, crupel ; 
O. Northumb. crypel, Luke v. 24. Lit. 
'a creeper.' — A.-S. crup-, weak grade of 
creopan (pt. t. creap), to creep ; with suffix 
-el (for -ilo-) of the agent.+Du. kretipel, 
Icel. kryppill, G. kriippel. Cf. Dan. krSb- 
ling (from krybe, to creep). See Creep. 

Crisis ; see Critic. 

Crisp, wrinkled, curled. (L.) A. S. 
crisp. — 'L.crisptis, curled. Brugm. i. § 565. 

Critic. (L. — Gk.) L. criticiis. — Gk. 
KpiTiKos, able to discern ; cf. xpirris, a 
judge. — Gk. Kpi-vfiv, to judge. Der. crit- 
erion, Gk. Kpniipiov, a test ; dia-critic, 
from Gk. SiaiipiTiKos, fit for distinguishing 

crisis. (Gk.) Gk. Kpiais, a discerning, 
a crisis. — Gk. xpi-vfiv, to judge. 

Croak. (E.) Cf. A. S. crScettmg, a 
croaking. Of imitative origin. Allied to 
crake, creak. 

Crochet, (F.— LateL.) ¥. crochet, a. 
little hook; dimin. of croc, a crook. — Late 
L. crocciim, ace. of croccus, a hook. 

Crock, a pitcher. (C.) A.S. crocca^ 
Of Celtic oiigin. Cf. E. Irish crocan, Gael. 
crog, Irish crogan, W. crochan, a pitcher, 
pot.-4-Gk. itpwfiads (for xptuKyu^), a pitcher. 
So also Dn. kraik, Icel. irukka, Swed. 
kruka, Dan. krttkke, G. krug. 

Crocodile. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. croco- 
dile.— L. crocodilus.^ Gk. Kpo/coSeiXos, a 
lizard, a crocodile. 

Crocus. (L.-Gk.) L. crocus. — C,\i. 
KpuKos, crocus, saffron. Perhaps Semitic ; 
cf. Arab, karkam, Heb. karkom, saffron. 

Croft. (E.) A. S. croft, a ileld.+Du. 
krocht, kroft, a field on the downs. 

Cromlech. (W.) W. cromlech, a flag- 
stone laid across others. — W. crom, fern, 
of crium, crooked, bent ; llech, flat stone. 

Crone, an old woman. (F.-L.) Tusser 
has crone, an old ewe. Prob. from Picard 
carone, carrion; whence yi.T>v.. kaionie, 
kronie, an old sheep. See Carrion. 

Crony, an old chum. (Gk. ?) Pepys 
has chrony (N.E.D.). Perhaps for Gk. 
X/xiwos, a 'long-lasting' friend ; as it arose 
in college slang (Skinner). Butler rimes 
cronies with monies. 

Crook, a hook, bend. (Scand.) M. E. 
C7-ok (Ancren Riwle).-Icel. krdkr, Swed. 
krok, Dan. krog, hook, bend, angle. 

Crop. (E.) A. S. cropp, the top of a 


Want, the craw of a bird ; orig. a bunch. 
[Hence the verb to crop, to cut off the 
tops ; and hence crop, a harvest.]+Du. 
krop, G. kropf, bird's crop ; Icel. kroppr, 
z. hunch ; Swed, kropp, Dan. krop, trunk 
of the body. Cf. W, cropa, Gael, and Ir. 
sgrobcm, bird's crop. [To crop out is to 
bunch out.] 

croup (2), hinder part of a horse. (F. 
— Teut.) Y.croHpe, crupper; orig. pro- 
tuberance. — Icel. kroppr, a hunch (above). 
crupper. (F.— Teut.) F. croupiire 
(O. F. cropiere). — F. croupe (O. F. crope, 

Croq.uet, a game. (F.— Late L.) From 
N. French croquet, a little hook, bent 
stick ; the same as F. crochet. See 

Crosier. (F. —Late L.) M. E. ci-ocer, 
croser, &c. Formed, with snfiBx -er, fvom 
M. E. croce, in the same sense of ' bishop's 
staff.' — O. F. croce, 'a crosier,' Cot. ; mod. 
F. crosse ; Late L. crocia. — O. F. croc, a 
hook ; see Crochet. ^ Not from cross, 
though early confused with M. E. croisier, 
a. coinage from O. F. crois, a cross. 

Cross. (L.) M. E. cros; from Icel. 
ktvss, adopted from O. Irish cros.— L. 
cruc-eyn, ace. of ctvx, a cross. Her. 

cross, adj. (L.) Orig. transverse, 
from the shape of a cross; hence, peevish. 

Crotchet, in music. (F.— Late L.) 
F. crochet, ' ? small hook, a quaver in 
music ; ' Cot. (The hooked mark now 
called a quaver was called crochet in 
French.) See Crochet. 

Croton, plant. (Gk.) Gk. Kpurw, a 
tick, which the castor-berry resembles. 

Crouch. (F.— LateL.) M. E. cr««- 
chen, to stoop, bend. — O. F. crochir, 
to grow crooked (Godefiroy). — O. F. 
croche, a crook ; also croc. — Late L. crac- 
cum, ace. of croccus, a hook. 

Croup (l), a disease. (E.) From Low- 
land Sc. croupe, crope, to croak, make a 
harsh noise. Of imitative origin ; asso- 
ciated with crow, croak, and with North 
E. roup, rope, to call, shout hoarsely, from 
Icel. hropa, weak vb., to cry out. Cf. A. S. 
hropan (pt t. hreop), to cry out ; G. rufen. 
(pt. t. rief). 

Croup (2), of a horse; see Crop. 

CrOW(i),vb. (E.) A. S. «-aJoa» (pt. t. 
creow), to crow.+Dn. kraaijen, G. krdhen, 
weak verbs ; and cf. O. Slav, grajati, Lith. 
groti, to crow. Of imitative origin. 



crow (2), a bird. (E.) A. S. -crdive 
(see above). -i-O. S. krdia, Du. kraai, G. 
krdhe. Der. crow-bar, bar with a crow- 
like beak. 

Crowd (i), to push, throng. (E.) A. S. 
*criidan (pr. s. crydep, pt. t. cread), to 
push ; whence croda, gecrod, a crowd, 
throng. + M. Du. kruyden, kniyen, Du. 
iruien, to push along ; E. Fries, krodm, 
kriiden. Tent, type *krudan-, str. vb. 

Crowd (2), a fiddle. (W.) M. E. 
croude. — W. crwih, a trunk, belly, crowd, 
violin, fiddle ; Gael, emit, harp ; O. Irish 
crot, harp. 

Crown. (F.— L. — Gk.) M.'E. corene, 
corotine (whence croune').— G.'S. corone 
(F. couromie). — !^. corona, a wreath. — Gk. 
Kopwvrj, end, tip ; Kopavn, a, wreath, gar- 
land.— Gk. KopaivSs, bent, curved. Cf. 
Gk. miprSs, L. curuus, bent. 

Crucial. (F.— L.) F.f>-K«a/,' cross- 
like;' Cot. — L. cruet'-, decl. stem of crux, 
a cross ; with suffix -dh's. 

crucify. (F.— L.) 0.¥. crueller.— 
Late L. *crucificare, for L. critcifigere 
(pp. crucifixus), to fix on a cross. — L. 
cruci, dative of ci-ux ; figere, to fix ; see 
Fix. Der. crucifix, -ion. 

Crucible. (L.) From Late L. eruci- 
bolum, (i) a night-lamp, (2) a vessel for 
melting metals. The lamp may have 
been so named from having four nozzles 
with wicks, forming a cross (still a com- 
mon Ital. pattern) ; as if from cruci-, decl. 
stem of crux, m. cross ; with suffix -bolttvi 
=-bulum, as in iuribulum, a censer. 

Crude. (L.) L. crudus, raw. Allied 
to Raw. 

cruel. (F.-L.) O. F. cruel. -1.. 
crudelis^ cruel ; allied to crUdus, raw 

Cruet. (F.-Teut.) A. F. cruet, a 
small vessel (Godefroy) ; dimin. of O. F. 
cruie, crui, pot. — Low L. cnlga, a pitcher. 

— O. H. G. kruog, G. krug, a pitcher; 
allied to Crock. 

Cruise. (Du.— L.) Du. kruisen, to. 
cruise, cross the sea. — Du. kruis, a cross. 

— L. ace. criic-em, from crux, a cross ; 
with lengthening of ii. 

Crumb. (E.) Prov. E. croom. A. S. 
cruina. (The final b is excrescent.)+Du. 
kruim, Dan. krumnie, G. krume, a 
crumb. Cf. Ital. grumo, a clot. Der. 
crumb-le, verb ; ct Du. kruimelen, G. 
krilmeln, to crumble. 

Cruupet, a kind of cake. (E.) Wyclif 


has crompid cake to render Lat. laga- 

niini (Ex. xxix. 23) ; cf. prov. E. crumpy 

cake, ciisp cake. For crtimp-ed, pp. of 

M. E. cruinpen, to curl up (whence E. 

atwipie'). Cf. G. krilmpen, krumpetif to 

crumple, curl up ; krttmm, curved ; Du. 

krommen, to crook, curve. See below. 
Crumple, vb. (E.) Frequentative of 

obs. crump, to curl up. From crump-, 

weak grade of A. S. *crimpan, str. vb. ; 

see Cramp and Crimp. 
Crunch. (E.) An imitative word. 

Cf. prov. E. crinch, cranch, to crunch. 
Crupper ; see Crop. 
Crural. (I-.) L. crura lis, belonging 

to the leg. — L. crur-, stem of criis, the 

Crusade. (F. «KrfSpan.-L.) The 

form is due to confusion of F. croisade 

with Span, cruzada. — Late L. crncidta, 

sb. fem., a marking with the cross, pp. f. 

of crucidre, to cross. — L. cruci-, decl. 

stem of crux, a cross. 

Cruse, a small pot. (E.) M. E. cruse. 

W. Fries. krSss, E. Fries, kros. + Icel. 

krus, a pot ; Swed. krus, Dan. ki-iius, a 

mug ; Dn. kroes, cup, pot, crucible ; 

M. H. G. krftse, G. krause, mug. 

Crush. (F.-Teut.) O. F. crush; 

criiisir, croissir, to crack, break ; (Span. 

cruxir, Ital. crosciare). From a Teut. 
type *kraustjan- (see IJiez), causal form 
from Goth, kriusian, to gnash with the 

Crust. (F. - L.) O. F. crouste (F. 
croAte). — \j. crusta, crust of bread. Cf 
Gk. Kfios, frost ; see Crystal. Der. 
crust-y, hard like a crust, stubborn, 
harshly curt (of people). 

Crutch. (E.) M. E. crucche; from 
A. S. crycc, a crutch, staff. + Du. liruk, 
Swed. krycka, Dan. krykke, G. kriicke. 

Cry. (F.-L.) M. E. crien.-¥. crier. 
(Fuller forms occur in Ital. gridare. Span. 
griiar. Port. gritar.)-L. quiritare, to 
shriek, cry, lament (Brachet) ; lit. ' to 
implore the aid of the Quiriles' or Roman 
citizens (Varro). 

Crjrpt. (L. - Gk.) L. crypta. - Gk. 
KpvTtTT), a vault, hidden cave ; orig. fem. 
of «pvitt6s, hidden. — Gk. HpvuTuv, to hide. 

Crystal. (F".-L. -Gk.) Formerly 
cristal. — O. F. cristal. — L. ciyslallum, 
crystal. — Gk. KpvoTaWos, ice, crystal.— 
Gk. Kpvaraiveiv, to freeze. — Gk. icpios, 

Cub. (E.?) Etym. unknown. Cf. 


Shell, cooi, to bring forth young, applied 

only to a seal ; Icel. koiii, kypr, a young 

Cube. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cu6e.-h. 

ace. cubum. — Gk. KtPos, a cube, die. 
Cubeb, a spicy berry. (F. — Span. — 

Arab.) F. cuhehe, in Cotgrave. — Span. 

cubeba. — Arab.{f), ■^\. kababah, 

cubeb, an aromatic. 
Cubit. (L.) L. cubitus, an elbow, 

bend ; the length from the elbow to the 

middle finger's end. Allied to L. cuhdre, 

to lie down, recline ; see Covey. 
Cuckold. (F.; with G. stiffix.) M.E. 

kokewold, kokeweld, cokold. — O. F. cucu- 

ault, coucual (Godefioy), a cuckold. — 

0. F. cucu (F. coucou^, a cuckoo ; witli 

depreciatory sufiix -ault, -al, from G. 

-wald (Diez, Gram. ii. 346). Cf. O. F". 

cucu (F. c(mco-ii\, a cuckoo; secondly, a 

man whose wife is mifaithfnl. (There are 

endless allusions to the comparison be- 
tween a cuckoo and a cuckold; see Shak. 

L. L. L. v. i. 920, &c.) 
Cuckoo. (F.) F. coucou ; from the 

bird's cry. Cf. L. cuculus, a cuckoo ; Gk. 

KoKKv^, a cuckoo ; kohkv, its cry ; Skt. 

kokila-, a cuckoo; Irish cuach, W. cog. 

Cf. cock, cockatoo. And see Coo. 
Cucumber. (L.) The /5 is excrescent ; 

M.E. cucumer. — 'L. cucumerem, ace. of 

cucumis, a cucumber. 

Cud. (E.) 1.1 K. cude, code, quide. 

A. S. cwidu, cweodu, cudu. Teut. type 

^kwedwom, neut. Cf. ^Vi. jatu-, resin; 

also Icel. kwaSa, resin. Orig. sense, 

'glutinous substance.' 

Cuddle. (E ) Perhaps for *couthle, to 
be familiar, to fondle; from coutJi, adj. 
familiar, well known; A. S. cii6, known, 
pp. of f«««aK, to know. See Can (i). Cf. 
prov. E. couth, loving ; cootie, to fondle. 

Cudgel. (E.) M.E. kuggel. A.S. 
cycgel; in Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. 
Sweet, p. 297. Cf. Cog. 

Cudweed. (E.) "Sxara cud ^ni. weed; 
' the plant being administered to cattle 
that had lost their cild.' So also cud- 

Cue, for an actor. (L. ?) Sometimes 
written q or qu in the i6th cent., and 
supposed to be for L. quando, when. 

Cuff (i), to strike. (Scand.?) Cf. 
Swed. kuffa, to thrust, push, M. Swed. 
kuffa, to strike, to cuff (Ihre). 

Cuff (2), part of the sleeve. (L ?) 
M. K. cuffe, coffe. Cf. Late A. S. cuffie, a 


kind of cap (Leo) ; M. H. G. knpfe, 
kupfe, litiffe, a coif; see Coif. [Very 
Cnirass. (F.-Ital.-I,.) Formerly 
curace. — O.Y . cuirace (F. ««Vajj^). — Ital. 
coraaza, ^ cuirass. Formed from L. 
coriacetis, leathern.— L. corium, leather 
(whence F. ctiir, leather). 
Cuisses, pi. (F.-L.) O.Y.cuissaux, 
armour for the thighs. — F. cuisse, thigh. — 
L. coxa, hip. Bnigm. i. § 609. 

Culdee. (C.) Irish ceilede, a Culdee, a 
servant of God.-Ir. ceile (O. Irish cele), 
servant; and de, gen. of dfa, God. 

Cnlinary. (L.) L. cullnarius, be- 
longing to the kitchen. — L. culTna, 

Cull, to collect, select. (F.-L.) M. E. 
cnllen. — O. F. coillir, ciiillir, to collect. — 
L. colligere, to collect. See Coil (i) and 
Cullender ; see Colander. 
Culliou, a wretch. (F. — L.) A coarse 
word. F. cotillion (Ital. coglione). — !^. 

Cullis, a strong broth, boiled and 
strained. (F. — L.) FormeTly colys, coleys. 
— O. F. cole'is, conle'is, later cottlis, ' a 
cnllis,' Cot. ; substantival use of cole'is, 
later coulis, 'gliding,' Cot. — L. type *cdla- 
ticius ; from colore, to strain. Cf. Port- 

Culm, a stem. fL.) L. ciilmus, a 
stalk ; allied to calamus, a stalk. See 

Culminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
nilminare, to come to a top. — L. ctilmin-, 
stem of culmen {_ = cohwien), a top. See 
CulpaMe. (F.-L.) M. E. coupaUe. 
O. F. culpable, colpable, coupable (F. coup- 
able'). — L. culpdbilis, blameworthy. — L. 
culpare, to blame. — L. culpa, a fault. 

culprit. (F.-L.) In Dryden. Not 
orig. a single word, but due to a fusion of 
A. F. ctil- (for culpable, i.e. guilty) and 
prist or prest (i. e. ready to prove it) ; 
signifying that the clerk of the crown was 
ready to prove the indictment (N. E. D.). 
Culter ; see Coulter. 
Cultivate. (L.) Late L. cultwatus, 
pp. of cullivare, to till. — Late L. ciiltivus, 
fit for tilling. — L. ciiltus, pp. of colere, to 
till. Brugm. i. § 121. 

culture. (F. - L.) F. culture. — L. 
■cttltiira; allied to cult-tis, pp. of colere, 
■to till. 


Culver. (E.) A. S. culfre, a dove. 
Culverin. (F.-L.) Corrupt form, 
for '*culevrin. — F. coulevrine, a culverin ; 
a piece of ordnance named from its long 
shape, like a snake. — O.F. cciileuvrin, 
adder-like ; from coulenvre, an adder. — L. 
colubra, coluber, an adder. 

Culvert, an arclied drain. (F.-L.) 
Of doubtful origin ; perhaps formed, with 
added /, from O. F. coulouere, ' a channel, 
gutter,' Cot. — F. couler, to trickle. -L. 
colSre, to strain, drain. Compare Port- 
cullis and Cullis. 

Cumber. (F. — LateL.) M. E. ro/«- 
bren. — O.Y, combrer, to hinder (rare); 
uSnal form en- combrer. — Late L. ciimbrits, 
a heap, a barrier; of doubtful origin. 
[Cf. L. cumulus, a heap; but also G. 
kummer, grief, oppression, prov. G. kum- 
mer, rubbish. Thus cumber = ^0 put a 
heap in the way.] Der. en-cumber^ from 
O. F. encombrer, to encumber, load. 
Cumin, Cummin, a plant. (L.— 
Gk. — Heb.) M.IL. comin. h.H. cumin, 
cyvien. — 'L. cuminum. Matt, xxiii. 23.— 
Gk. Kv/iivoi', — Heb. kammon, cumin. 
Cumulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
cumidare, to heap up. — L. cumulus, a 
Cuneate, wedge-shaped. (L.) Formed, 
with suffix -ate, from L. cune-us, a wedge. 
Allied to Coin. Der. cuneiform ; i. e. 

Cunning, adj. (E.) Orig. pres. pt. of 

M. E. cunncn, to know ; hence, ' knowing.' 

From A. S. cunnan, to know ; see Can (i \ 

cunning, sb. (E.) M. E. cutminge. 

From A. S. cunnan, to know. Perhaps 

suggested by Icel. kunnandi, knowledge ; 
from Icel. kunna, to know. 
Cup, (L.) A. S. cufpe, a cup. - Late L. 

cuppa, variant of L. ciifa, a. tub, in Late 

L., a drinking-vessel ; whence also Du. 

Dan. kop, V. coupe, &c. .See Coop. 
cupboard. (L. and E.) M. E. cup- 

borde, orig. a side-board for holding cups ; 

Allit. Poems, B. 1440 ; Morte Arth. 

Cupid, god of love. (L.) L. cupido, 

desire. — L. cupere, to desire. + Skt. kup, 

to become excited. Der. cupid-i-ly, F. 

cupidite, from L. ace. cupiditStem. 
Cupola. (Ital. — L. ) Ilal. cupola, a 

dome; from its shape. — L. cupula, a small 

cask, a little vault ; dimin. of L. cfipa, a 

Cupreous, coppery. (L.) L. cupre-us. 


of copper ; with suffix -oils. — L. cuprum, 

Car. (E.) M. E. kur-dogge (ab. 1225'). 
+M. Du. korre, a house-dog; cf. Swed. 
dial, ktirre, a dog. Named from growling. 
Cf. prov. E. airr, to pnrr ; Low G. 
kurixn, to snarl (Lubben) ; Icel. kurra, 
to murmur, grumble; Swed. kurra, to 

Curate ; see cure. 

Curb. (F. — L.) M. E. cotirben, to 
bend. — F. courber, to bend, how. — L. 
curuHre, to bend ; from curuus, bent. 

Curd. (E.) M. E. curd, crud. Prob. 
from A. S. crud-, related to criidan, 
to crowd, press together. Cf. Ir. gruth, 
Gsie\. grnth, curds. (Fick, ii. 119.) 

Cure. (F. — L.') O.Y.cure. — 'L. ciira, 
attention (prim. Ital. *koiza). Brugm. i. 
§ 874. ^ Not allied to care. 

curate. (L.) Med. l,. cUrdtus, a 
priest, curate ; cf. curdtum beiteficium, 
a benefice with cure of souls. — L. ciira, 

curious. (F. — L.) O.Y. curios. — 'L. 
curiosus, attentive. — L. ciira, attention. 

Curfew. (F. — L.) A. F. coeverfu, 
covrefeu, curfeu; O. F. covrcfeu (F. couvre- 
feu), a fire-cover, covering of fires, time 
for putting out fires. — O. F. covrir, to 
cover ; feu, fire (< L. focum, ace. ai focus, 
hearth, fire) ; see Cover and Focus. 

Curious ; see 

Curl, sb. (£.■) M. E. crul (with shift- 
ing of >■) ; from M. E. crul, adj., curly 
(A.D. i.:ioo\ Not in A. S. E. Fries. 
krulla, krull, krul, a curl.+Du. krul, a 
curl, kruUeii, to curl ; Dan. krolle, a curl, 
Swed. krullig, curly ; G. 'krolle, a curl, 
M. H. G. kriille. C(. Norw. krull, a curl, 
something rolled together ; krulla, to curl, 
bend or bow together. Allied to E. Fries. 
kHllen, to bend, turn, wind ; Low G. 
krdlen, to turn; N. Fries, krall, close- 
twisted ; suggesting Teut. liase *krellan-, 
to wind, str. vb. (Franck, Koolman). 

Curlew, a bird. (F.) M. F. corlieu, 
'a curlue;* Cot. Cf. Ital. chiurlo, a cur- 
lew, chiurlare, to howl, Swed. hurla, to 
coo ; so that it is named from its cry. 

Carmudgeon. (E.?) Originimknown. 
In one instance spelt corn-mudgin (Phil. 
Holland), as if a hoarder of corn, hence, 
a stingy fellow ; where mudgin is for 
mndging, pres. pt. of mudge, to ho.<ird, 
also spelt mooch (M. E. muchen), to skulk ; 
from O. F. mucer, to hide. But this is a 


forced spelling, giving a wrong due. In 
1596, we find cormullion, with the same 
sense. The first syllable seems to be cur, 
a whelp ; and we find Lowl. Sc. murgeon, 
to mock, to grumble ; mudgeon, a grimace. 

Currant. (F.-L.-Gk.) Formerly 
raysyns ofcoraunt. — F. raisins de Corinthe, 
' currants ; ' Cot. Hence, currant is a cor- 
ruption of Corinth (L. Corinthus, Gk. 

Current, running, flowing. (F.— L.) 
M. E. currant, O. F. curant, pres. pt. of 
curre, corre (F". coifrir), to run. — L. cur- 
rere, to run. Prob. for *cursere. Brugm, 
i. §§ 499, iii6. Perhaps allied to Horse. 
curricle. (L.) L. curriculum, a 
running; also, a light car. — L. currere, 
to run. 

Curry (i)> t° dress leather. (F.— L. 
atid Teut.) O. F. correier (Godefroy), 
earlier forms conreder, conreer, later con- 
royer, courroier, to curry, dress leather, 
orig. to prepare. — O. F. conrei, older form 
cunreid, gear, preparation. A hybrid 
word ; made by prefixing con- ( = L. con, 
cuni) to O. F. rei, order (Ital. -redo in 
arredo, array), p. This O. F. rei is of 
Scand. origin ; from Dan. rede, order (also 
to set in order), Icel. reiSi, tackle. Pre- 
cisely the same O. F. rei helps to form E. 
ar-ray ; see Array. ^ To curiy favour 
is a corruption of M. E. to curiy favel, to 
iTib down a horse ; Favel was a common 
old name for a horse. 

Curry (2), a seasoned dish. (Tamil.) 
From 'I'amil kari, sauce, relish for rice 

Curse. (E.) h.?>. cursian,-^ech; curs, 
sb., an imprecation. Cf. O. Ir. cUrsaigim, 
' I reprehend ' (Wind isch) . Der, ac- cursed, 
from M. E. acorsien, to curse extremely, 
where the prefix a- = A.S. a-, very; see 
A- (4). 

Cursive. (L.) Med. L. cursXvus, flow- 
ing ; said of handwriting. — L. curs-us, pp. 
of currere, to run. See Current. 

cursory. (L.) Late L. cursdrius, 
hasty. — L. cursori-, decl. stem of cursor, 
a runner. — L. curs-us (above). 

Curt. (L.) L. curtus, short, cut short. 
curtail. (F.-L.) It has nothing to 
do with tail, but is an alteration of the 
older form curtal, verb, to dock ; from the 
adj. curtal, having a docked tail (All's 
Well, ii. 3. 65). -O.F. courtault, later 
courtaut, ' curtail, being curtailed ; ' Cot. 
The same as Ital. cortaldo, 'a curtail, a 


horse without a taile,' Florio. Formed, 
with suffix -auU ( = ltal. -aldo, Law L. 
-aldus, < G. luald, power), from O. F. 
court, short. — L. cui-tus, short. 

Curtain. (F L.) M. E. coiHn.- 

O. F. cortine. — 'LisXe L. corttna, a curtain 
(Exod. xxvi. I, Vulgate), a screen, plain 
wall of a fort, orig. a small yard. — L. 
cSrt-em, ace. of cars, a court. See Court. 

Curtleaxe. (F.— L.) A perversion 
of ciiilleax, which was a perversion of 
cuttelas, an old spelling of cutlass. See 

Curtsey. (F.—L.) The same word as 
courtesy, \. e. a courtly act. 

Curve, ii bent line. (L.) Late L. 
ciirvus, L. curuus, bent. + Gk. xiprm, 
bent. Der. curv-aiure, L. curuatitra, 
from pp. of curuare, to bend ; from 


curvet. (Ital.— L.) Ital. corvetla, a 
curvet, leap, bound ; dimin. from M. Ital. 
corv-o (Ital. curvo), bent. — L. curuus 

Cushat, the ring-dove. (E.) A. S. ci'i- 
sceate, a wild pigeon ; also cuscote. Here 
sceote probably means ' shooter, darter,' 
from sceolan, to shoot (cf. A. S. sceota, a 
kind of trout) ; and perhaps cu. refers to 
the ' coo' of the bird. Cf. Lowl. Sc. cow- 
shot, a cushat. 

Cushion. (F. — L.) M. E. quisshin, 
cusshin. — O. F. coissin, coussin, a cushion. 
[It is supposed that O. F. coissin was the 
true form, altered to coussin (perhaps) by 
the influence of O. F. coute, a quilt.] — L. 
type *coxJnum, a support for the hip, 
from coxa, hip, thigh (like L. cubital, 
elbow-cushion, from cubitus, elbow). Cf. 
Ital. cuscino, cushion, coscia, hip ; Span. 
cojin, cushion, ciija, liip. {Romania, 1892, 
p. 87.) 

Cusp. (L.) L. cuspis, a point. 

Custard. (F.-Ital.-L.) ForM.E. 
crustade, by shifting of r. Formerly cus- 
iade, crustade, and orig. used with the 
sense of ' pasty.' — F. croustade, a pasty. 
— Ital. crostata, ' a kinde of daintie pye ; ' 
Florio. — L. crustata, fern. pp. of crusidre, 
to encrust. — L. crusta, a crust. 

Custody. (L.) L. custddia, a keeping 
guard. — L. custdd\i)-, stem of custos, 
a guardian ; lit. ' hider.' Cf. Gk. Kfv9uv, 
to hide. See Hide. (VKEUDH.) Brugm. 
i. § 699. 

Custom. (F.—L.) M. E. custume.— 
O. F. custume^ costiwte (F. coutume). 



From a L. type *costu/nne, for *cos- 
iudiie, shortened form of consiiettidinem, 
ace. of consuitudo, custom. — L. constietits, 
pp. of consuescere, to accustom, inchoative 
form of *consuere, to be accustomed. — L. 
con- {cum), together, very; suescere (pp. 
suetus), to be acaistomed ; possibly from 
sutis, own ; so that suescere = to have it 
one's own way. 

Cut. (Scand.) M. E. cutten, a weak 
verb. Of Scand. origin, but the traces of 
it are not many. Cf. Mid. Swed. kotta, 
to cut (Ihre); Swed. dial, kuta, kata, 
to cut small with a knife, also spelt 
kvbta, kota, kdta ; kuta, or kytti, a knife 
(Rietz); \cA. kuti, a little knife; Norw. 
kyttel, kytel, Ijiitul, a knife for barking 

Cuticle. (L.) L. culicula, double 
dimin. of aitis, hide, skin. See Hide. 
Der. cut-an-e-ous, from cut-is. 

Cutlass. (F.—L.) Y.coutelas,' 3.CVX- 
telas, or courtelas, or short sword ; ' Cot. 
(Cf. Ital. coltellaccio, ' a curtleax,' Florio ; 
which is the same word:) — O. F. coiitel, 
cultel (F. couteau), a. knil'e ; cf. Ital. col- 
tello, knife; with ace. suffix -dceum. — l^. 
ace. cultellum, a knife; dimin. of culter, a 
coulter. ^ The F. -as, Ital. -accio^'L. 
-dceiim ; but F. coutelas was actually 
turned into E. curtleaxe. Yet a curtle- 
axe was a sort of sword ! 

cutler. (F.-L.) M. E. coteler.- 
O. F. cotelier. — Late L. cultelldrius, knife- 
maker. — L. cultelltts, a knife (above). 

Cutlet. (F.-L.) 'S.cdtelette,s.zvX\tt; 
formerly costelette, a little rib; dimin. of 
O. F. coste, rib. — L. costa, a rib ; see 

Cuttle, a fish. (E.) Formerly cudele, 
A. S. cudele, a cuttle-fish. Cf. G. kuttel- 
fisch (perhaps from E.). 

Cycle. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cycle.-'L. 
cyclum, ace. of cyclus. — Gk. kvxKos, a circle, 
cycle. + Skt. chakra-, a wheel, circle. 
Allied to "Wheel. Der. cyclone = Gk. 
kvkXSiv, whirling round, pres. pt. oiievKkow, 
I whirl round ; epi-cycle ; H-cycle. 
Cygnet, a young swan. (F.— L. — Gk.) 
Dimin. of O. F. eigne, a swan. Strangely 
enough, this O. F. word is not immedi- 
ately from L. cycnus, a swan ; but the 
oldest O. F. spelling was cisne (as in 
Spanish), from Late L. cicinus, a swan, 
variant of cycnus. — Ci)/i. kvkvos, a swan. 
Cf L. ciconia, a stork. See Diez ; 4th ed. 
p. 714. 

Cyliader. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. «/- 

indre, later cylindre. — L. cylindi-us. — Gk. 
iciiKivSpos, a roller, cylinder. — Gk.nvKii/ieiv, 
to roll; from K«\(f II', to roll. Cf. O. Slav. 
Mo, a wheel. (VQEL.) 

Cymbal. (F.— L. — Gk.) M.E.cimliale. 
— O. F. cimbale. — h. cymhalum. — Gk. 
Hvii^aKov, a cymbal ; named from its cup- 
like shape. — Gk. KiiJ.0ij, a cup. + Skt. 
kumbha-, ajar. Allied to Cup; and see 
Comb (2). (VKliUBH.) 

Cynic, lit. dog-like. (L. — Gk.) 'L.cyni- 
cus. — Gk. kwikSs, dog-like, a Cynic. — Gk. 
avy-, as in kvv-6s, gen. of Ki'iuy, a dog (E. 

cynosure. (L. — Gk.) L. cynosura, 
the stars in the tail of the constellation of 
the Lesser Bear ; one of these is the Pole- 
star (hence, a centre of attraction). — Gk. 
Kvv6aovpa, the Cynosure, tail of the Lesser 
Bear ; lit. ' dog's tail.' — Gk. kwos, gen. of 
KvtuVf a dog ; ovpa, a tail. 

Cypress (i1, a tree. (F.— L. — Gk.) 
M. E. cipres. — O. F. cypres, later cypris. — 
L. cupressus, cyparissus, — Gk. icvtrdpiffffos, 
cypress.-tree. Cf. Heb. gopher. 

Cypress (2), a cloth of gold, a kind 
of satin, a kind of crape. (F, — L.) Pals- 
grave explains F. crespe by ' a cypres for 
a vifomans neck ' ; Cotgrave has ' crespe, 
cipres, cobweb lawn ' ; which suggests 
some confusion of cypress with crape. 
The origin of cypress is doubtful ; but 
it occurs as cipres, cypirs in Piers Plow- 
man, and as Cyprus in Sir Degrevant. It 
seems to have been imported from the isle 
of Cyprus. 

Cyst, a pouch (in animals) containing 
morbid matter. (L. — Gk.) Formerly 
written cystis. — Late L. cysHs. — Gk. kuo-tis, 
a bag, pouch. 

CzSir, the emperor of Russia. (Russ. — 
Teut. — L.) Rus5. tsare (with e mute), a 
king. O. Slav, ccsarl'. — Goth, kaisar.— 
L. CiBsar. ^ This has been disputed ; 
but see Matt. xiii. 24 in Schleicher, 
Indogermanische . Chrestomathie, p. 275, 
where O.Slav, cesarstvo occurs for Russ. 
tsarstvo, kingdom; &c. Der. czarowitz, 
from Russ. tsarevich', czar's son ; czaritsa, 
from Russ. tsaritsa, empress; czar-ina, 
with Ital. suffix -ina, from G. fem. suffix 

Dab (i), to strike gently. (E.) M. E. 
dabbeit ; also dabbe, a blow. Not in A. S. 


Cf. M.Du. dabben, to pinch, fumble, 
dabble; G. tappen, to grope, prov. G. 
tappe, fist, blow. See Dub, Tap. 

dabble. (E.) To keep on dabbing; 
frequent, of dab. + M. Du. dabbelen, to 
fumble, dabble ; frequent, of M. Du. dabben 

Dab (2), expert. (E.?) Prob. from 
dab (i) ; perhaps influenced by dapper or 
by adefit. 

Dab (3), a fish. (E.) M. E. dabbe. 
Prob. allied to dab, a light blow, a soft 
mass dabbed down. See Dab (i), dabble. 

Dabble ; see Dab (i). 

Dab-chick. (E.) YoxmexX'j dap-chick, 
dop-chick. Cf. A. S. (%>-e«zrf, amoorhen, 
lit. ' dipping duck ; ' doppettan, to dip often, 
immerse ; Du. dobber, a float. See Dip. 

Dace. (F. — O. Low G.) Formerly 
darce. — O. F. dars, nom. case of the word 
also spelt dart, meaning (i) a dart, (2) a 
dace.' The fish is also called a dart or 
3.dare, from its swift motion. See Dare (2), 

Dacoit, a robber. (Hind.) Hind. 
dSkait, a robber belonging to an armed 
gang ; from dakd, robbery by a gang 
(Wilson). Der. dacoit-y, robbery. 

Dactyl. (L. — Gk.) L. dactylus, the 
metrical foot marked -uu. — Gk. haxrvKos, 
a finger, a dactyl. 

Dad. (E.) A child's word for ' father.' 
So also W. tad, Irish daid, Bret, tat, tad, 
father ; Gk. rdra, Skt. tata, dad. 

Dado. (Ital. — L.) Formerly used of 
the die, or square part in the middle of the 
pedestal of a column ; afterwards applied 
to the part of an apartment between the 
plinth and the impost moulding. — Ital. 
dado, a die, cube, pedestal. (Cf. Prov. 
dat-z, a die.) — Folk-L. datum, assumed to 
mean ' a die ' ; lit. ' a thing given, a lot.' — 
L. datum, neut. of pp. of dare, to give. 
See Die (2^ 

Daffodil. (F.-L.-Gk.) The rf is a 
later addition ; perhaps from M. F, Jleur 
d'affrodille, translated ' daffodil-flower.' 

M. E. affodille ; Prompt. Parv.-M. F. as- 
phodile, also affrodille, ' th'affodill, or 

asphodill flower;' Cot.-L. asphodelas.— 

Gk. (i<Ti^(58e\os, a kind of lily. See As- 
Daft, foolish ; the same as Deft. 
Dagger. (F.) U..'\£.. daggers ; allied to 

daggen, to pierce. -F. dngue, a dagger; 

of unknown origin (not Celtic). Of. Ital. 

Span, daga, Port, adaga, dagger. The 


Port, form suggests an Eastern origin ; 
cf. Heb. ddkhah, to strike. 

Daggle, to moisten, wet witli dew or 
spray. (Scand.) Frequentative verb from 
Swed. dagg, Icel. dogg (gen. daggar), dew. 
Cf. Icel. dbggva, to bedew. See Dew. 

Daguerreotype. (F. and Glc.) 

Formed by adding -o-type to F. Daguerre, 
a personal name, tlie inventor (A. D. 1838). 

Dahlia. (Swed.) Named after Dahl, 
a Swedish botanist (A.D. 1791). 

Dainty, a delicacy. (F. — L.) M. E. 
deintee, orig. a sb., a pleasant thing ; cf. 
A. F. deyntee^ greediness (Bozon). — 
O.F. dainiie (i.e. daintiS), agreeableness. 

— L. ace. dignitatem ; see Dignity. 
% The O. F. daintie is the true popular 
O. F. form ; digniteit is a pedantic form ; 
cf. O. F. dain, old spelling of digiu, 

Dairy. (Scand.) M. E. deyerye, a 
room for a deye, i. e. a milk-woman, farm- 
servant. —O. Norw. deigja, Swed. deja, a. 
maid, dairy-maid, who was also the bread- 
maker; Iheorig. sense is 'kneader of dough.' 

— Teut. type *daig-jdn-, sb. f., as if from 
(Goth.) deigan (pt. t. daig), to mould ; 
whence also Goth, daigs, Icel. deig, Swed. 
deg, dough ; see Dough. % The cognate 
or borrowed A. S. dSge occurs once only ; 
see Thorpe, Dipl, p. 641. 

Dais, a raised floor in a hall. (F. — L. 

— Gk.) Now used of the raised platform 

on which the high table in a hall stands. 

Properly, it was the table itself; but was 

also used of a canopy over a seat of state, 

or of the seat of state. M. E. deis, deys. — 

A. F. deis, O. F. dois, a high table (Supp. 

to Godefroy).— L. discuiii, ace. of disctts, 

a quoit, platter; in Late L. a table. — Gk. 

UoKos, a quoit, disc. See Disc. 

Daisy. (E.) M. E. dayesye (4 sylla- 

• Ules). A. S. dceges eage, eye of day, i.e. 

* the sun, which it resembles. 

Dale, a valley. (E.) M. E. dale. — 
A. S. dal (pi. dal-u). + Icel. dalr, Dan. 
Swed. dal, a dale; Du. dal; Goth, dal; 
G. t/ial ; also O. Slav. dalU (Russ. dol') ; 
cf. Gk. 96K0S, a vault. Der. dell. 

Dally, to trifle. (F.- Teut.) M. E. 
dalien, to play, trifle. — A. F. and O.F. 
dalier, to converse, chat, pass the time in 
light converse (liozon). Of Teut. origin ; 
cf. Bavarian dalen, to speak and act as 
children (Schmeller) ; mod. G. (vulgar) 
dahlen, to trifle. 
Dalmatic, a vestment. (F. — Dal- 



matia.) F. dalmatique. - L. dalniatica 
(fiestis) ; fem. ai Dalmaticus, belonging to 

Dam (1), a mound, bank against water. 
(E.) A. S. damm, only in the derived 
veih for-deminan, to dam up; 0. Fries. 
dam ; North. Fries, dam. + Du. dam, 
Icel. dammr, Dan. dam, Swed. damm, 
M. H. G. tarn, G. damm, a dam, dike. 
Cf. QtO'Ca.. faurdammjan, to dam up. 

Dam (2), a mother, applied to animals. 
(F— L.) The same word as Dame. 

Damage. (F.-L.) W.'iS.. damage.— 
A. F. damage (F. dommage) ; cf. Prov. 
damnatje, answering to Late L. *damndti- 
cum, harm ; we find Late L. damndtictis , 
condemned to the mines. — L. damnatus, 
pp. of damnm-e ; see Damn. 

Damask. (Ital. - Syria.) M.E. da- 
maske, cloth of Damascus. — Ital. damasco. 
— Heb. dineseq, damask, Damnuseq, Da- 
mascus (Gen. xiv. 15). Der. damask- 
rose ; damask-ine, to inlay with gold (F. 
damasquiner, from damasqu-in, adj.). 

Dame. (F.-L.) 'ill.%.dame. — O.Y. 
dame, a lady. — L. domina ; fem. of domi- 
nils, a lord. See Don (2). 

Damn, to condemn. (F. — L.) M.E. 
davmen, dampnen. — F. damner. — L. dam- 
ndre, to condemn, fine. — L. damnum, loss, 
fine, penalty. Brug. i. § 762. 

Damp. (E.) Cf. M. E. dampen, to 
suffocate; E. Fries, damp, vapour.+Du. 
damp, vapour, steam; Dan. damp, G. 
(fe/«^, vapour ; Swed. (femi, dust. From 
the and grade of Teut. *dempan-, pt. t. 
*damp, i:)p. *dumpano-, as in M. H. G. 
dimpfen, timpfen, str. vb., to reek ; c/. 
Swed. dial, dimba, str. vb., to reek. See 

Damsel. (F. — L.) M.E. damosel.— 
O. F. dameisele, a girl, fem. of dameisel, a 
young man, squire, page. — Late L. rfowj- 
ccllus, a page, short for *dominiccllus, 
double dimin. oi dominus, u. lord. (Pages 
were often of high birth.) 

Dam,SOn. (L.— Syria.) yi..Yu. dama- 
scene. — L,. Damascemtm {prtinnm) , i:)luia 
of Damascus. See Damask. 

Dance. (F.-O. H. G.) U.'E. daun- 
cen. — O.F. danser. — O.ii. G. danson, to 
drag along (as in a round dance).— 
O. H. G. dans, 2nd grade of dinsen, to 
pull, draw ; allied to E. Thin. Cf. Goth. 
ai-ihinsan, to draw towards one. 

Dandelion, a flower. (F.-L.) F. 
dent de lion, tooth of a lion ; named from 


the jagged leaves. — L. dent-em, ace. of 
dens, tooth ; de, prep. ; leonem, ace. of 
ho, lion. 

Dandle. (E.) Prob. of imitative origin ; 
of. M. r. dodiner, dodeliner, ' to rock, 
dandle, lull,' Cot. ; M. Ital. dandolare, 
dondolare, ' to dandle or play the baby,' 
Florio; daitdola, dondola, a toy. Gode- 
froy gives M. F. dandiner, to balance or 
sway the body. Cf. E. Fries, dindannen, 
to walk unsteadily, sway from side to side. 

Daudriff, scurf on the head. (E.) 
Formerly also dandriiffe. Of unknown 
origin ; but cf. prov. E. dan, scurf, dander, 
a slight scurf on the skin ; and prov. E. 
hurf, tuf, scurf, from Icel. hrufa, a scab. 
% The W. mUrw-don, dandriff, is from 
marw, dead, and ton, skin. 

Sandy, a beau (E. ?). Origin unknovra. 
Prov. E. dandy, gay, fine. Note M. Dan. 
dande, brave, excellent. Dandy is also a 
form of Andrew. [F. dandin, ' a mea- 
cock, noddy, ninny,' Cot., is unsuitable.] 

Sanger. (F. — L.) M. E. daungere, 
power, esp. power to harm. — O. F. dan- 
gler (F. danger), also dongier (XIII cent.), 
absolute power, irresponsible authoiity. 
This answers to a Late L. type *domiiia- 
riutn, *dominidrinm, not found, but regu- 
larly formed from Late L. doin(i)nmm, 
power, authority. — Late L. domnus, L. 
dominus, a lord. 

Dangle, to swing about. (Scand.) 
Dan. dangle, Swed. dial, dangla, to swing 
about ; cf. Swed. and Icel. dingla, Dan. 
dingle, to swing about ; frequentative 
forms from ding (pt. t. dang), to throw 
about. See Sing. 

Sauk, moist. (Scand.) M.E. dank, 
wet (esp. with ref. to dew). — Swed. dial. 
dank, marshy ground ; Icel. dokk (stem 
*dankwo-),a. pool. Cf. Swed. dial, diinlta, 
to moisten, Dan. dial, donke, dynke, Norw. 
dynka, to wet ; also Dan . dial, dunkel, 
moist, Swed. dial, dunkelhet, moisture ; 
North. E. danker, a dark cloud; Swed. 
dial, and M. Dan. dunken, musty; G. 
dunkel, dark. 

Dapper. (Du.) Orig. good, valiant ; 
hence brave, fine, spruce. XV cent. — Du. 
dapper, brave.+O. H. G. taphar, weighty, 
valiant, G. tapfer, brave ; Russ. dobrui, 
good. Brugm. i. % 56.^. 

Sapple, a spot on an animal. (Scand.) 
Icel. depill, a spot, dot ; a dog with spots 
over the eyes is also called "depill. The 
oiig. sense is ' a little pool,' from Norweg. 


dape, a pool, a wet splotch ; whence the 
idea of ' splash ' or ' blot.' 

Sare (i), to venture. (E.) M. E. dar, 
I dare ; pt. t. dorsie, durste. A. S. ic dearr, 
I dare ; he dearr, he dare ; pt. t. dorste ; 
infin. *durran. + Goth, ga-dars, I dare, 
-daursta, I durst, infin. -daursan ; O. H. G. 
tar, I dare, infin. turran. Also Gk. @af- 
atlv, to be bold, Spaavs, bold ; Skt. drsA, 
to dare. (^DHERS.) Brugm. i. § 502. 

Sare (2), a dace. (F.— O. Low G.) 
A new form, made by taking darce (old 
form of dace) as a pi. form { = dars), and 
thence making a singular dar, now dare. 
See Dace. 

Sark. (E.) M.E. derk. A.S.deore, 
with a broken vowel ; for older *derc. 
The O. H. G. tarchanjan, to hide (answer- 
ing to W. Germ. *dark-n-jan) is from the 
2nd grade *dark of the same base. C£ 
also O. Sax. der-ni, A. S. derne, O. H. G. 
tar-ni, secret, dark ; see Tarnish. 

darkling, in the dark. (E.) Formed 
with adv. suffix -ling, as \rv flat-ling, M. E, 
liedling (headlong), A. S. bac-ling, back- 

Darling. (E.) M. E. derling. A. S. 
deorling, a favourite. — A. S. deor-e (in 
comp. deor-), dear ; with double dimin. 
suffix -l-ing. See Dear. 

Sam. (E.) XVII cent. Prob. from 
M. E. dernen, to conceal, from derne, adj., 
secret, hidden; cf. prov. E. dern, darn, 
to hide, to stop up a hole. — A. S. derne, 
dyrne, secret, hidden. + O. Sax. derni, 
O. H. G. tami, secret. See Dark. 

Darnel. (F.) M. E. darnel, dernel. 
From an O. F. word, now only preserved 
in Walloon (Rouchi), darnelle, darnel 
(H^cart). Hitherto unexplained; but cf. 
Swed. d&r-, as in d&r-repe, or repe, darnel 
(Lowl. Sc. domel) ; and O. F. nielle, nelle 
(Late L. nigella), darnel (Godefroy). The 
.Swed. dara means to stupefy (as with 
lolium tenmlentuin) ; cf. Dan. daare, a 
fool ; Walloon damise, daurnise, drunken 

Dart. (F. - O. Low G.) M.E. dart. - 
O. F. dart (F. dard). Of Teut. origin ; cf. 
A. S. daroS, a dart, Swed. dai-/, a dagger, 
Icel. darraSr, a dart, O. H. G. tart, a 

Dash. (E.) M. E. daschen. Cf. Low G. 
daschen, to thrash (Berghaus) ; Dan. 
daske, to slap, Swed. daska, to beat; we 
speak of water dashing against rocks. 

Dastard. (Scand.; with F. suffix>j 


'iA.'E. dastard X where -ard is a F. suffix, 
as in dull-ard, slugg-ard. Dost appears 
to be for dazed; cf. Icel. dcestr, exhausted, 
pp. of dasa, to be out of breath ; dasaSr, 
exhausted, weary, pp. of dasask, to be 
weary ; see Daze. Cf. Icel. dasi, a lazy 
fellow, M. Du. dasaert, a fool (whence 
M.E. das-art (i.e. daz{e)ard), a dullard, 
in N. E. D.) ; Low G. ddskopp, a block- 
head (Berghans). The orig. sense is ' slug- 

Date (i), a given point of time. (F.— 
L.) M. E. date. - F. date, date. - Late L. 
data, a date ; L. data, neut. pi. of dattts, 
given, dated. -L. dare, to give.+Gk. Si- 
iaiyii, I give ; Sords, given ; Skt. dadami, 
I give; Russ. date, to give. (y'DO.) 
Biugm. i. §§ 167, 168. 

Date (2), fruit of the palm. (F.-L.- 
Gk.) M. E. dale.-O. F. date {F.-da/te), 
also datele, a date. — L. dadylum, ace. of 
dactylus. — Gk. Sd/cruXos, a finger ; also a 
date (somewhat like a finger). But it is 
probable that 8d«T«Xos, a date, was a word 
of Semitic origin, assimilated to the word 
for ' finger.' Cf. Aramaic diqla, a palm- 
tree (see Gen. x. 27) ; Arab, daqal. 

Danb. (F. - L.) Mi E. dauben. - O. F. 
dauber, to plaster ; answering to an older 
form *dalber. — L. dealbSre, to whiten, 
plaster.— L. de, down, very ; albare, to 
whiten, from albus, white; see Alb. Cf. 
S^axi. Jalbegar {^ = *dealbicare) , to plaster. 
Der. be-daub. 

Daughter. (E.) M. E. doghter, doh- 
ter. A. S. dohtor.-\-T)\i. dochter, Dan. dat- 
ter, dotter, Swed. dotter, Icel. dottir, Goth. 
dauhtar, G. tochter ; Russ. doche, Lith. 
dukte, Gk. flirydnjp, Pers. dukhtar, Skt. 
duhitr. Orig. sense doubtful. 

DatUlt. (F.— L.) M.E. daunten.— 
O. F. danter; also donter. — 'L. domitdre, 
to tame, subdue; frequent, of doindre, to 
tame ; see Tame. 

DaTipMu. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. dauphin, 
a dolphin ; see Dolphin. A title of the 
eldest son of the king of France, who took 
it from the province of Dauphiny (a. D. 
1349) ; and the province had formerly had 
several lords named Dauphin. 

Dairit, a support for ship's boats. 
(Heb. ?) Formerly spelt David, as if from 
a proper name (A. D. 1626). Also called 
daviot in A. F., a dimin. of O. F. Davi, 

Daw. (E.) From the noise made by 
the bird ; cf. fazf .+0. H. G. tdha, a daw ; 


dimin. tdhele (now G. dohle'), a daw ; 
whence Ital. taccola, a daw (Florio), Der. 

Dawk, transport by relays of men and 
horses. (Hindi.) Hindi dak, post, trans- , 
port, &c. (Yule). 

Dawn ; see Day. 

Day. (E.) M.E. day, dai, dai. . A.S. 
dag, pi. rfa^aj.+Du. Dan. Swed. dag, Icel. 
dagr, G. tag, Goth, dags. Allied to Lith. 
dagas, hot time, autumn ; digti, to burn. . 
Teut. type *dagoz ; Idg. type *dhoghos ; 
from yOHEGH, to bum; Skt. dah, to 
burn, ni-dagha-, hot season. Day is the 
hot, bright time ; as opposed to night. . 
^ In no way allied to L. dies. 

dawn, vb. (Scand.) M. E. dawnen ; 
from the older sb. dawning. — Swed. Dan. 
dagning, a dawning, dawn ; as if from a 
verb *dag-na, to become day, from Swed. 
Dan. dag, day. 2. We also find M. E. 
dawen, to dawn ; from A. S. dagian, to 
become day, dawn. — A.S. dag-, base of 
dag, day. {Ci.fawn, vb.) 

Daywoman, dairy-woman. (Scand. 
and £.) In Shak. L. L. L. i. 2. 137. 
The addition of woman is needless. Day 

= M. E. deye. = O. Norw. deigja, a maid ; 
esp. a dairymaid ; see Dairy. 

Daze. (Scand.) M. E. dasen, to stupefy.- 

— Swed. dasa, to lie Idle ; Icel. dasask, to 
be wearied, lit. to daze oneself, where -sk, 
is the reflexive suffix ; dasi, a lazy man ; - 
dasinn, lazy; Dan;. dial, dose, to be idle ; 
Low G. dasen, dosen, to be listless ; in 'n , 
das', sein, to be in a ' daze' (Berghaus). 

dazzle, to confuse. (Scand.) From 
daze; with frequent, suffix -le. Der. be- 

He- {i), prefix. {L.; or F.-h.),. 
down, away, from, very; hence sometimes 
F. *-, de-, O. F. de-. 

■De- {2), prefix. {F.-U) F. d4-, O.F. 
des- ; from L. dis- ; see Dis-. 

Deacon. (L. — Gk.) M. E. deken. 
A.S. diacon. — L. didconus. — Gk. tilucovos, 
a servant, a deacon. Cf. iy-Kovia, I am 
quick, iy-Kovls, a maid-servant. 

Dead. (E.) M. E. deed. A. S. dead, 
dead. + Du. daod, Dan. dod, Swed. dod, 
Icel. dauSr, Goth, dauths. Teut. type 
*dau-1Soz, orig. a pp. with Idg. suffix -to- 
(Teut. -tSo-) from the vb. *dait-jan- (Icel. 
deyja), to die. See Die (i). 

Deaf. (E.) M.E. dee/. A.S. dea/.+ 
Du. ohoj, Dan. difv, Swed. dof, Icel. daufr, 
Goth>. daubs, G. tattb. Orig. ' obfuscated ; ' 



allied to Gk. rvcpos, smoke, darkness, 
stupor, Tii<^-\os, blind. (^DHEUBH.) 

Deal (I), a share. {E.) M. E. eleel. 
A.S. rfS/, a share. + Du. deel, Dan. deel, 
Swed. del, Goth. dm7s, G. (Aeil. Cf. 
O. Slav. dM, a part. Bmgm.i. § 279 (2). 

deal (2), to divide, distribute. (E.) 
M.E. delen. A. S. da/an.- A.S. dSl, a 
share (above). + Du. deelen, Dan. dele, 
Swed. (/e/a, Icel. *«7a, Goth, dailjan, G. 
theilen ; cf. the respective sbs. (above). 

Deal (3), a thin board. (Du.) Ba.deel, 
a plank. +G. diele; see Thill. 

Dean. (F.-L.) M. E. ^««e.-0. F. 
deiett (F. doyen). — L,. decdnum, ace. of 
decanus, one set over ten soldiers, or over 
ten monks, a dean. — L. decern, ten. 

Dear. (E.) M. E. dere. A. S. (i&re, 
(^re, dear, precious. +Dan. and Swfed. dyr, 
dear, costly, Icel. dyrr, dear, precious; 
O. Sax. diuri; G. thetier. 

dearth,, scarcity. (E.) M. E. derthe, 
dearness ; hence, dearth. Not in A. S. ; 
but formed as heal-th, warm-th, &c.+ 
Icel. dyrS, value, from dy7-r (above) ; O. 
Sax. diuritha, value, from diuri, dear, 
precious; O. H.G. tiurida, from tiuri 
\G. thetter). 

Death. (E.) M..'E. deeth: A.S.deaS. 
+Du. dood, Dan. Sv/ei.ddd, Goth. dauthus, 
G. tod; cf. Icel. dauSi. Teut. type *dau- 
duz, formed vrith. Idg. suffix -tit-, Teut. 
-ff«-, from the base *dati- ; see Dead. 

Debar (F.) F. dibm-rer; O.F. des- 
barrer. From De- (2) and Bar. 

Debase. (L., atid F.-L.) Formed 
irom base by prefixing L. de, down. 

Debate. (F.-L.) M.E. debaten.- 
O.F. debatre, to debate, argue. — L. de, 
down ; battere, to beat. See Batter (i ). 

Debanch. (F.-L. ««</ Teut.) O.F. 
desbcmcher, (F. dibaucher), ' to debosh, 
mar, seduce, mislead ; ' Cot. Diez sup- 
poses that the orig. sense was ' to entice 
away from >i workshop' ; it is certainly 
derived from the O. F. prefix des- (L. dis^, 
away, and O. F. batuhe, explained by 
Roquefort as ' a little house,' and by Cot- 
grave as ' a course of stones or bricks 
in building.' Cf. M. F. embaucher, to use 
in business, employ, esbaucher, to rough- 
hew, frame. Godeiroy gives desbaucher 
only in the sense of ' rough-hew,' but his 
Supp. adds — ' detach from one's service, 
turn aside, distract.' The orig. sense of 
batuhe was prob. ' balk,' i. e. beam, hence 
frame of a building, course in building, 


small bnilding, &c.; of Teut. origin; see 
Balk. , 

Debentnre, acknowledgment of a 
debt. (L.) Formerly debentur (Bacon). 
-L. debentur, lit. ' they are due,' because 
such receipts began with the words deben^ 
tur mihi (Webster); pr. pi. pass, of 
debeo, X owe ; see Debt. 

DebiUtate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

debilitdre, to weaken. — L. debihs, weak.— 
L. de, away, not ; -bilis, prob. allied to 
Skt. bala-, strength; cf. dur-bala- (for 
dus-bala-), feeble. Brugm. i. § 553. 

Debonair. (F.) M. E. debonere, de- 
bonaire ; A. F. debonaire, for de bon 
aire, lit. of a good stock. — \,.de, of; bon-us, 
good; and O. F. aire, place, stock, race, 
a word of uncertain origin. Diez 
suggests that it represents Lat. ace 
agrum, -field. 

Debonch. (F.-L.) F. diboucher, to 
uncork, to emerge from ; hence, to march 
out of a narrow pass. - F. <// ( =0. F. des- 
<L. dis-"), away; and bouche, mouth, 
openings from L. bucca, mouth. 

Debris, broken pieces. (F. — L. and 
Teut.) F. debris, fragments. - O. F. de- 
hrisier, to break to pieces. — O. F. de-, 
from L. de, dovra ; and brisier (F. briser), 
to break ; see Bruise. 

Debt. (F. — L.) A bad spelling of 
dett, M. E. dette.-O. F. dette (but in M. F. 
misspelt debte). — L,. debita, a sum due; 
fem. of debiius, owed, pp. of debere, to 
owe. Debere =de-hibere (Plautns), i.e. to 
have away, have on loan.— L. de-, down, 
away ; habere, to have. Der. debt-or, 
M. E. det-tur, from O. F. deteur, L. ace. 

Debut. (F.-L. and O. H. G.) A first 
appearance in a play. — F. dibut, a first 
stroke, first cast or throw at dice, first play 
in the game of bowls ; verbal sb. oidebuier, 
M. F. desbuter, ' to put from the mark he 
aimed at ' (at bowls). Cot. ; hence, to come 
in first, be entitled to lead. From L. 
dis-, from, and F. but,ra3.xk. See Butt (i). 

Decade. (F.-L.-Gk.) 'F.decade,'a. 
decade,' Cot. ; i. e. an aggregate of ten. — 
L. decadem, ace. of decas. — Gk. StuiSa, 
ace. of iiit6.s, a company of ten. — Gk. 
Sf«o, ten ; see Ten. 

decagon. (Gk.) Named from its ten 
angles. — Gk. Siica, ten ; •ywi'-ia, a corner, 
angle, allied to y6vv, knee ; see Knee. 

Der. hendeea-gon (ei/Ss/to, eleven) ; dodeca- 
gon {SiiSfiea, twelve). 



decahedron. (Gk.) Named from its 
ten sides or bases. — Gk. SeKo, ten : id-pa, 
a base, lit. 'seat,' from ^o/mi (for iSyo/iat), 
I sit ; see Sit. Der. do-deca-hedron (Gk. 
SiuScKo, twelve), 

decalogue. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y. dia- 
logue. — L. aecalogum, ace. of decalogus. — 
Gk. tixiXoyot, the ten commandments.— 
Gk. Sewa, ten; \6'^os, a speech, saying; 
see Iiogic. 

decasyllabic, naving ten syllables. 
(Gk.) Gk. i(Ka, ten ; <rw\Xa/3iJ, a syllable. 
Der. hendecasyllabic (Gk. tv^fxa, eleven). 

Decadence, decay. (F.— L.) "e. deca- 
dence. — Med. L. decadentia, — L. de, down; 
cadentia, a falling ; see Cadence. 

Decamp, to depart. (F— L.) L. dl- 
camper ; O. F. descamper, orig. to remove 
a camp. — L. dis-, away; and campus, a 
field, later, a camp. See De- (2) and 

Decanal. (L.) Belonging to a dean. 

— L. decdn-us, a dean ; with suffix -al (L. 
-«/«>) ; see Dean. 

Decant. (F.—L. a«rf Gk.) Y.- decan- 
ter (Span. flfecrt»/ar). — Med. L. decanthare 
(a word of the alchemists), to ponr out.— 
L. de, from ; canthus, the ' lip ' of a cup, 
a peculiar use of Gk. Ka.v6a%, comer of the 
eye (Hatzfeld). Der. decant-er, a wine- 

Decapitate. (L.) From pp. of Late 
L. decapitdre, to behead. —L. de, off; and 
capit-, stem of caput, head. 

Decay, to fall into ruin. (F. — L.) 
O. North F. decair (Span, decaer) ; vari- 
ant of O. F. dechair, decheoir. — O. F. de-; 
and cheoir (F. choir), to fall. - L. de, down ; 
and Folk-L. cadire, cadere, to fall, variants 
of L. cadere, to fall. 

Decease. (F.— L.) M. E. deces. — 
O. F. deces (F. decis'), death. - L. ace. 
decessum, departure, death. — L. decessus, 
pp. of decedere, to depart. — L. 1^/, from ; 
cedere, to go away. 

Deceive. (F. — L.) A. F. deceivre ; 
O. F. deceveir, decevoir, pres. subj. deceive. 

— L. dlcipere, to take away, deceive. — L. 
ii!f, away ; and capere, to take. Der. de- 
ceit, from O. F. deceit, pp. of deceveir. 

December. (L.;tfrr.-L.) O.F. 
Decembre. — L. December. — L. decern, ten ; 
as it was the tenth month of the Roman 

Decemvir, one of ten magistrates. 
(L.) L. decemuir, one of the decemuiri, 
or ten men joined in a commission. — L. 


decern, ten (see Ten); and tiir, a man 
(see Virile). 

Decennial, belonging to ten years. 
(L.) For L. decenn-Slis, of ten years; 
cf. bi-ennial. — L, dec-em, ten ; annus, a 

Decent. (F.-L.) O.Y. decent. -l.. 
decentem, ace. of pres. pt. of decere, to 
become, befit ; cf. decus, honour. 

Deception. (F. — L.) O."? . deception. 

— L. ace. deceptionem. — Tu. deceptus, pp. 
of decipere, to deceive ; see Deceive. 

Decide. (F.— L.) 'S . ddcider. — 'L. dl- 
cidere, pp. decisus, to cut off, decide. — L. 
de, down; and ccedere, to cut. Der. de- 
cis-ion (from pp. dectsus). 

Deciduous, falling oft. (L.) L. de- 
cidu-us, that falls down ; with suffix -ous. 

— L. decidere, to fall down. — L. de, down; 
and cadere, to fall. See Decay. 

Decimal. (F'.— L.) O.F. decimal.— 
Late L. decimalis, belonging to tithes. — 
L. decima, a tithe; fem. oi decimus, tenth. 
Cf. L. decern, ten. 

decimate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
cimare, to select every tenth man, for 
punishment. — L. decern, ten. 

Decipher. (F. and Arab.) Formed 
after F. dichiffrer, to decipher. — F. d4-, 
O. F. des-, L. dis-y apait; Cipher, q. v. 

Deck, to cover. (Du.) Du. dekken, to 
cover ; dek, a cover, a ship's deck. Cog- 
nate with E. Thatch., q.v. 

Declaim. (L.) Formerly declame.— 
L. declamdre, to cry aloud. — L. de, down, 
fully ; clamdre, to cry ; see Claim. 

Declare. (F.-L.) O.'Y. declarer. - 
L. decldrdre, to make clear, declare. — L. 
de, fully ; cldrus, clear. 

Declension. (F.— L.) O.F. decUnai- 
son, used for the ' declension ' of a noun. 

— L. declinationem, ace. of decllndtio, de- 
clination, declension. — L. declindtiis, pp. 
of decllndre (below). 

decline. (F.-L.) O.F. decliner.— 
L. declmare, to lean or bend aside from. — 
L. de-, from ; -clindre (only in comp.), to 
lean ; see Incline, Lean (1). 

DecUvity. (F.-L.) F. dicHvite.- 
L. dicliuitatem, ace. of declmitds, a 
downward slope. - L. decliuis, sloping 
downward. — L. de, down; clmus, a slope, 
hill. See Dean (i). 

Decoct. (L.) L. decoctus, pp. of de- 
coquere, to boil down. — L. de, down, 
away ; coquere, to cook. 

Decollation, a beheading. (F.-L.) 



O.F. decollation. — "LsXe L. ace. decolla- 
tidnem. From pp. of decollare, to behead. 

— L. de, off ; collum, the neck. 

Decompose. (F — L. and Gk.) F. 
decomposer (XVI c.) ; from de-, prefix, and 
composer, to compose. See Compose. 

Decorate. (L-) From pp. oidecorare, 
to adorn. — L. decSr- (for *decos-), stem of 
decus, honour, ornament ; cf. L. decere, to 

decorum. (L.) L. decorum, seemli- 
ness; nent. of decorus, seemly. — L. decor-, 
stem of decor, seemliness, allied to decus 
(above). Der. in-decorum. 

Decoy, a contrivance for catching wild- 
dncks. {Y.andD-a.) Coined from prov. E. 
coy, a decoy, by prefixing the E. de- (F. 
di-, L. de). E. coy is from Du. kooi, a 
cage, decoy, M. Dn. koye, older form 
kouwe (Hexham) ; from L. cauea, whence 
also F. and E. cag-e ; see Cage. % The 
prefixing of de- was probably due to con- 
fusion with M. E. coyen, to quiet ; so that 
de-coy seemed to mean a 'quieting down.' 

Decrease. (F.-L.) A. F. descrees, 
descreis, O. F. descrois, sb., a decrease ; 
from descroistre, vb., to decrease. — Late L. 
discrescere, used for L. decrescere, to 
diminish (pp. decretus). — L. de, down, 
away ; crescere, to grow. 

decrement. (L.) L. decrlmentum, 
a decrease. — L. dlcre-ius, pp. of decres- 

Decree. (F.-L.) M. E. decree. - 
O.F. decret.—'L. decretum. — 'L. decretus, 
pp. of decernere, to decree, lit. to separate. 

— L. de, away ; cemere, to distinguish. 
decretal. (F.-L.) O. F. decretal. 

— Late L. decretale, a decree. —L. decretus. 
Decrepit. (L.) L. dlcrepitus, noise- 
less, creeping about like an old man, aged. 

— L. de, away ; crepitus, noise, allied to 
crepitus, pp. of crepai-e, to crackle, make 
a noise. 

Decry, to condemn. (F. — L.) O.F. 
descrier, to cry down, disparage. — O.F. 
des- (L. dis-), implying the reversal of an 
act, and here opposed to ' cry up ' ; crier, 
to cry. See Cry. 

Decussate, to cross at an acute angle. 
(L.) From pp. of L. decussare, to cross, 
to put into the form of an X. — L. decussis, 
a coin worth ten asses (as-es), and there- 
fore marked with X, i.e. ten. — L. decern, 
ten ; assi-, stem of as, an ace ; see Aoe. 

Dedicate, to devote. (L.) L. dedica- 
tus, pp. of dedicare, to devote. — L. de. 


down ; dicare, to proclaim ; from die-, 

weak grade of die-, as in dicere, to say. 
Deduce. (L.) L. dldncere, to biing 

down (hence, to infer). — L. de, down; 

dUcere, to bring. See Duke. 

deduct. (L.) Orig. to derive from. 

— L. deduct-us, pp. of dediicere, to bring 

down (above). 
Deed. (E.) M. E. deed. O. Mere, ded, 

A.S. d&d. + Tla.. daad, Icel. daS, Swed. 

dSd, Dan. daad, Goth, deds, G. that, 

O. H. G. tat. Teut. type *d&diz ; Idg. 

type *dhetis ; from y'DHE, to place, put, 

do. See Do. 
Deem. (E.) M. E. demen. A. S. de- 
man, to judge, give a doom. — A.S. dom, . 

a doom ; see Doom. Cf. Du. doemen, 

Icel. dcema (for dcema), Swed. doma, Dan. 

domme, Goth, domjan, O. H. G. tuomian. 

Teut. type *domjan-, from *domoz, doom. 
Deep, profound. (E.) M. E. deep. 

A.S. deop.-^-Ttw. diep, t)an. dyb, Swed. 
djup, Icel. djUpr, G. tief, Goth, diups, 
Teut. type *deupoz; see Dip. 

depth, deepness. (E.) From deep ; 
cf. Icel. dypS, depth, from djupr, deep.+ 
Du. diepte ; Goth, diupitha. 

Deer. (E.) M. E. deer, an animal. 
A. S. deor, a wild animal. +I)u. dier, Dan. 
dyr, Swed. djur, Icel. t(p;-, Goth. tfzW, 
G. tkier. Teut. type *deuzom ; Idg'. type 
*(/.4e«jaffz, prob. 'animal'; from *dheus-, 
to breathe (Kluge). Brngm. i. § 539 (2). 
Der. ivilder-ness, q. v. 

Deface. (F.-L.) M. E. defacen.- 
O. F. desfcuier, to deface, disfigure. — 
O. F. des- (<L. dis-), apart ; face, face ; 
see Pace. 

Defalcate, to abate, deduct. (L.) 
From pp. of Late L. diffalcare or dgfal- 
cdre, to abate, deduct, take away. — L. dif- 
( = dis-), apart, or else de, away; Late L. 
falcare, to cut with a sickle, from L. falx 
{sttmfalc-), a sickle. 

Defame. (F.-L.) M.E. defamen, 
diffamen. — O.Y . diffamer, to take away a 
man's character. — L. diffamare, to spread 
a bad report.— L. dif- (for dis-), apart; 
fama, a report. See Fame. 

Default. (F.-L.) M. E. de/aute.-. 
O. F. defcmte, a default, from de/aillir, to 
fail ; imitating faute from faillir. See. 
De-(l) and Fault. 

Defeasance, a rendering null. (F. — 

L.) A.F. law-term defesance, a rendering 

void. — O. F. defesattt, defeisant, pres. part. 

oldefaire, desfaire, to render void.-O. F. 



des- (L. du-), apart ; /aire (L. /acere), to 

defeat. (F.-L.) M.E. defaiten, to 
defeat. — A. F. ai?/4/«r, formed from O. F. 
defait, desfail, pp. of defaire, desfaire, to 
render void (above). 
Defecate. (L.) From pp. of dlfae- 
cdre, to free from dregs. — L. de, out; 
faec-, stem oifaex, ^\. faeces, dregs. 

Defect. (L.) \^. defectus,SL\iaja.\.. — 'L. 
defectus, pp. of deficere, to fail, oiig. to 
undo. — L. de, away ; f acere, to make. 
Der. defect-ion, -ive. 

Defend. (F.-L.) M.E. defenden. - 
O. F. defendre. — Tu. defendere, to defend, 
lit strike down or away. — L. de, down ; 
*fendere, to strike, only in comp. defendere, 
offendere. Cf. G. Qtivuv, to strike ; Skt. 
han. (y'GHwEN.) Brugm. i. § 654. 

defence. (F. — L.) M.E. defence.— 
O. F. defense. — L. defensa, a defending 
(Tertullian) . — L. defens-us, pp. of rf«- 
fendere (above). Also M. E. defens, O. F. 
defens, from L. defenstim, neut. 

Defer (i), to delay. (F.-L.) M.E. 
differren. — O. F. differer, to delay. — L. 
differre, to bear different ways, delay. — L. 
dif- (for i^iV-), apart ; ferre, to bear. 

defer (2), to lay before, submit one- 
self. (F.— L.) O. F. deferer, to admit or 
give way to an appeal. — L. deferre, to 
bring down, bring before one. — L. de, 
down ; ferre, to bear, carry. 

Deficient. (L.) Erom stem of pres. 
pt. of deficere, to fail ; see Defect. 

deficit, lack. (L.) L. deficit, it fails; 
3 p. s. pres. ol deficere (above). 

Defile (i), to pollute. (F.— L.; con- 
fused with L. and E.) M. E. defoulen, to 
trample under foot ; later spelling defoyle; 
see Foil (i). This word is obsolete, but 
it suggested a hybrid compound made by 
prefixing L. de, down, to the old word 
file, to defile (Macb. iii. I. 65) = A. S. 
fylan (for *fiiljan), to defile, make foul, 
formed (by vowel-change of u to /) from 
A. S.fil), foul ; see Poul. 
Defile (2), to march in a file. (F. — L.) 
F. d^filer, to defile. - F. d^. = O. F; des- (L. 
dis-), apart ; ^ier, to spin threads, from L. 
/iluM, thread. Der. de//e, sb., F. d^fiie, 
a narrow passage ; orig. pp. of difiler. 

Define. (F.-L.) O. F. definer, to 

define, conclude. — L. definire, to limit. 

— L. de down ; fJmre, to end, from finis, 


Deflect. (L.) L. defiectere, to bend 



down or a.sKAe. — 'L. de,Aavm;fleclere, to 
bend. Der. deflex-ion, from deflex-us, 
Deflour, Deflower. (F.-L.) M.E. 

deflouren. — O.Y . defleurer, Cotg. — Late 
L. dlflorare, to gather flowers. — L. de, 
away ; flor-, fovfos, a flower. 

Deflnzion. (L.) From ace. of L. de- 
fluxio, a flowing down. — L. de, down ; 
flitx-us, pp. oifluere, to flow. 

Deforce, to dispossess. (F. — L.) 
Legal. — A. F. deforcer, to dispossess (Med. 
L. difforcidre). — O. F. de-=des- (L. dis-), 
away; ani V . force. See Force. 

Deform. (F.— L.) M.E. deformen, 
chiefly in pp. defoi-med. — O. F. difformer, 
to deform ; Godefro)'. — O. F. difforme, 
adj., deformed, ugly; Cot. — L. deformis, 
ugly. — L. de, 3.via.y, forma, shape, beauty. 

Defraud. (F.-L.) O.F. defrauder. 
— L. defraudare, to deprive by fraud. — L. 
de, away ; fraud-, stem oifraus, fraud. 

Defray. (F.-L. and O. H. G.) O. F. 
desfrayer, to pay expenses ; Littre. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis-~); fraier, to spend. Fraier 
is from O. F. *frai, *fre. Inter frait, mostly 
used in the pi. frais, fres (F. frais), ex- 
penses ; cf. Low L. fredum, a fine, com- 
position. — O. H. G. fridu (G. friede), 
peace ; also, a fine for a, breach of the 
peace. See Affray. 

Deft, neat, dexterous. (E.) M. E. deft, 
daft. A. S. dafte, as seen in ge-dcefte, mild, 
gentle, meek ; ge-dceftlice, fitly, season- 
ably ; dceftan, to prepare. Cf. A. S. ge- 
daf-en, fit, pp. of a lost strong vb. *dafan; 
Goth, gadaian, to hefit, g-adois, fitting. 

Defunct, dead. (L.) L. defunctus, 
i. e. having fully performed the course of 
life, pp. of defungi, to perform fully. — L. 
de, fully ; and fungi, to perform ; see 

Defiy. (F.-L.) M.K defyen.-0.¥. 
defer, deffier, desfier, orig. to renounce 
one's faith. — Late L. diffldare,to renounce 
faith. -L. dif- (for dis-), apart; -fiddre 
(from fidus, faithful), to trust; cf. L. 
fidere, to trust. See Faith. 

Degenerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

degenerare, to become base. — L. degener, 
adj., base. - L. de, down; gener- (for 
*genes-), stem ai genus, race. See Genus. 

Deglutition, swallowing. (F.-L.) 
F. deglutition. -h. de, down; glt'ititus, 
pp. oiglutlre, to swallow. 

Degrade. (F.-L.) O.F. degrader, 
to deprive of rank or ofiice. — Late L. aS?- 


gradare, the same. — L. de, from ; gfadus, 
rank. See Grade. 

degree. (F.-L.) O.Y.degre,degret, 
a step, rank ; orig. a step dnon (used of 
stairs).— L. de, down ; gradus, a step. 

Dehiscent, gaping. (L.) L. dehi- 
scent-, stem of pres. pt. of dehiscere, to 
gape open. — L. de, down ; hiscere, to 
gape, inceptive of Mare, to yawn; see 

Deify, Deist ; see Deity. 

Deign. (F. — L.) M. E. deigtten.— 
A. F. deign-, a stem of O. F. dign{i)er, to 
deign.— L. digndre, by-form oidigndri, to 
deem worthy. — L. dignus, worthy. Brugm. 
ii. § 66. 

Deity. (F.-L.) M.E. deite.-O.V. 
deite. — L. deitdtem, ace. of deitds, deity, 
Godhead. — L. dei-, for deus, God ; cf. 
dtuus, godlike. Cf. W. duw, Gael, and 
Ir. dia, Skt. deva-, a god ; Gk. Sios, Skt. 
daiija-, divine. See Tuesday. 

deii^. (F. - L.) M. E. deifyen. - 
O. F. dei^r, 'to deifie;' Cot. - Late L. 
deificdre. — L. deificus, accounting as gods. 

— L. dei-, for dens, a god ; and -fie-, for 
facere, to make. Der. deificat-ion, due to 

pp. of deificdre. 

deist. (F.-L.) F. deist e. From L. 
de-US ; with suffix -?V. 

Deject, to cast down. (L.) From L. 
deiectus, pp. of deicere {deiicere), to cast 
down.— L. de, down ; iacere, to throw. 

Delay, vb. (F.-L.) O. F. delayer, 
dilaier; also <&/««r (Godefroy). It answers 
in sense to L. dildtdre, to defer, delay, 
put off; which would properly give O. F. 
dileer. Dildtdre is from dlldtus, deferred, 
put oft ; from L. di- {dis-) , apart ; Idtus, 
borne, pp. of tollere, to lift, sustain, bear. 
^ The O. F. spelling with ai causes a 
difficulty. Der. delay, sb. ; O. F. delai. 

Delectable. (F.-L.) Late M.E. 

delectable. ~Y. diledable. — 'L. delectdbilis , 
delightful. — L. delectdre, to delight; fre- 
quent, of deiicere, to allure. See De- 

Delegate, a chosen deputy. (L.) L. 
delegatus, pp. of delegare, to depute, ap- 
point. — L. de, away ; legdre, to depute. 
See Xjogate. 

Delete, to erase. (L.) L. deletus, pp. 
of dllere, to destroy. See below. 

Deleterious. (Gk.) Late L. dele- 
ieri-us, with suffix •otis. For Gk. 8i)A)/- 
rfipios, noxious. — Gk. 87X7/777/1, a destroyer. 

— Gk. SriKeoiiai, I harm, injure. 


Delf. (Dn-) Earthenware first made at 
Delft, formerly Del/, a town in S. Holland, 
about A. D. 1310 (Haydn). The town was 
named from its a&^or canal ; cf. Delve. 

Deliberate, carefully weighed and 
considered. (L.) h. deliberdtus, pp. of de- 
liberdre, to consult. -L. de, thoroughly; 
librdre, to weigh, from libra, a balance. 

Delicate, dainty, refined. (L.) L. 
delicdtus, luxurious; probably allied to 
delicia (or delicia:, pi.), pleasure, delight, 
and to L. deiicere, to amuse (below). 

delicious. (F.-L.) IH.'E. delicious. 
— O. F. delicious. — Late L. deliciosus, 
pleasant. — L. delicia, pleasure. —L. de- 
iicere, to amuse, allure. — L. de, away; 
Iacere, to entice. 

delight. (F.-L.) Misspelt for rfe/«V«. 
M. E. deliten, verb. - O. F. deliter, delei- 
ter. — L. delectdre ; see Delectable. 

Delineate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

delinedre, to sketch in outline. — L. de, 
down ; linedre, to mark out, from linea, 
a line. See Iiine. 

Delinquent, failing in duty. (L.) L. 
delinquent; stem of pres. pt. oidelinquere, 
to fail, to omit one's duty. — L. de, away, 
from ; linquere, to leave. 

Deliq.uesce, to become liquid. (L.) 
L. deliquescere,\.o become liquid. — L. rfi?, 
away; liquescere, inceptive form oiliquere, 
to be wet. See Liquid. 

Delirious. (L.) A coined word (with 
suffix -ous"), from L. dellri-um, madness, 
which is also adopted into English. — L. 
delirus, mad ; lit. ' going out of • the 
furrow.' — L. de, from ; and lira, a furrow. 
Cf. O. H. G. leisa, G. g-leise, a track. 

Deliver. (F. — L.) O. F. delivrer, to 
set free. — Late L. d'ellberdre, to set free. — 
L. de, from ; llberdre, to free, from liber, 

DeU, a dale. (E.) M. E. delle. A. S. 
dell, neut. ; Cart. Sax. i. 547; ii. 71. 
Teut. type *daljom ; see Dale. 

Delta. (Gk.) Gk. 8€'\Ta, the letter A ; 
answering to Heb. daleth, the name of the 
4th letter of the alphabet ; orig. ' a door of 
a tent.' (Orig. Phoenician.) Tien, deltoid. 

Delude. (L.) L.deladere (.pp.delasus), 
to mock at, cajole. —L. de, down; lUdere, 
to play. Der. delus-ion, from the pp. 

Deluge. (F.-L.) O.F. deluge.-!., 
dlluuium, a washing away. — L. diluere, 
to wash away. — L. di-, {dis-), apart ; 
lucre, to wash, allied to Xiave. 

Delve, to dig. (E.) M. E. deluen. 



A. S. delfan, pt. t. dealf, pp. dolfen.+'Dn. 
delven ; M. H. G. telben. Cf. Russ. dol- 
bite, to hollow out. Brngm. i. § 521 (2). 
Deuagogne. (F.— Gk.) F. rf^fwa- 

^^we. — Gk. BijfiaYoryds, a popular leader. 
— Gk. 85/i-os, people; a^uf6s, leading, 
from ay-eiv, to lead. 

Demand. (F.— L.) F. demander, to 
demand, require. — L. demandare, to en- 
trust ; in late L., to demand. — L. di, 
away ; manddre, to commission, order. 

Demarcation. (Span. — L. and 
M. H. G.) From Span, demarcation (see 
N. E. D.) ; whence also F. demarcation. 
— L. aif, down ; and Span, marcar, to 
mark, a word of German origin; see 

Demean (i), to conduct ; reflex., to 
behave. (F. — L.) M. E. demenen. - O. F. 
demener, to conduct, guide, manage. — 
O. { = L. de) , down, fully ; mener, to 
conduct, from Late L. minare, to drive 
cattle, conduct, from 'L.ntinari,\.Q threaten. 
See Menace. 
demeanonr. (F.— L.) lH.'K.demen- 

iire (XV cent.) ; a coined word, from 
M. E. demenen, to demean, behave ; see 
Demean (i). 

Dem,ean (3), to debase, lower. (Hy- 
brid ; L. and E.) Made, like debase, 
from the prefix De- (i), and the adj. 
mean. See Mean (2). 

Demented, mad. (L.) Pp. of the old 
verb to dement.— 1^. dementare, to drive 
out of one's mind. - L. de, from ; ment-, 
stem of mens, mind. 

Demerit, ill desert. (F.-L.) Also 
merit, in a good sense; Cor. i. I. 276.— 
O. F. demerite, desert; also a fault, de- 
merit.— Late L. demeritum, a fault ; from 
pp. of L. demerere, demereri, to deserve 
(in & good sense). -L. de, fully; merere, 
frreren, to deserve. See Merit. 

Demesne. (F.-L.) A.F. demeine, 
demene, also demesne (with silent s) ; other 
spellings of Domain, q. v. 

Demi-, half. (F. - L.) O. F. demi, 
half. - L. ace. dimidium, half. - L. di- = 
dis-, apart ; medius, middle ; see Medium. 

DemijollU, a kind of large bottle. 
(F.) From F. dame-Jeanne; cf. Span. 
damajuana. Much disputed, but not of 
Eastern origin. The F. form is right as 
it stands, though often much perverted. 
From F. dame (Sp. damct), lady; and 
Jeanne (Sp. Juand), Jane, Joan. See 


Demise, transference, decease. (F.— L.) 
O. F. demise, desmise, fem. of pp. of 
desmettre, to displace, dismiss. — L. dimit- 
tere ; see Dismiss. 

Democracy. (F. - Gk.) Formerly de- 
mocraty (Milton). — M.F. democratic; Cot. 

— Gk. SiiixoKparia, popular government, 
rule by the people. — Gk. Sij/io-, for Stj/ios, 
a country-district, also the people ; and 
xparetv, to rule. Cf. O. Ir. dam, a retinue. 

Demolish.. (F.-L.) O.F. demoliss-, 
inchoative stem of demolir, to demolish.— 
L. demolirl, demSlire, to pull down. — L. 
de, from ; moles, heap, mass. 

Demon. (L. — Gk.) Formerly damon, 

— L. damon. — Gk. Zai\iav, a god, genius, 
spirit. Cf. Saio/iai, I impart. 

Demonstrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

demonstrdre, to show fully.- L. de, down, 
fully ; monstrdre, to show, from monstrum, 
a portent. See Monster. 

Demoralise, to corrupt in morals. 
(F.-L.) Mod. F. dimoraliser.-Y . di-, 
O. F. des (L. dis-"), apart ; moral, moral ; 
with suffix -ise ( = F. -iser, for Gk. -i^av). 
See Moral. 

Demur, vb. (F.-L.) Q.'F.demmver, 
demeurer, to tavry ; hence, to hesitate. — 
L. demordri, to delay fully. — L. de, fully ; 
mordrl, to delay, from mora, delay. 

Demure. (F.— L.) XIV cent. Coined 
by prefixing de- (see De- (i)), to M. E. 
mure, mature, calm, demure. — O.F. meur 
(F. m^r), mature. — L. mdtHrus; see 

Demy ; a spelling of demi: 

Den. (E.) M. E. den ; A. S. denn, a 
cave, allied to denu, a valley. + M. Du. 
denne, a cave (Kilian). 

Denary, relating to tens. (L.) L. 
dendrius, containing ten. — L. dent ( = *dec- 
ni), pi. ten by ten. — L. dec-em, ten. Hence 
denier, L. dendrius, piece of ten (as-es). 

Dendroid. (Gk.) Gk. hivlfo-v, a tree ; 
-ctSijs, like, from fTSos, form, shape. 

Denizen, a naturalised citizen, inha- 
bitant. (F.-L.) Formerly rf«y«.f«».— 
A. F. and O. F. deinzein (also deneein), 
used in the Liber Albus to denote a trader 
■within the privilege of the city franchise, 
as opposed Xoforein. Formed by adding 
the suffix -ein (=L. -dneus) to O. F. deinz, 
now spelt dans, within. - L. de intus, from 
within. - L. de, from ; intus, within, allied 
to Interior. 

Denominate. (L-) From pp. of L. 
denomindre, to name. -L.rf^, down, fully ;,. 



nominare, to name, from nomitt; stem of 
Homen, a name ; see Ifoun. 

Denote. (F.—L.) Y . cUnoter.—'L. de- 
noidre, to mark out. — L. de, down ; 
notdre, to mark, from nota, a mark. See 

Denoneueilt, the undoing of a 

knot. (F.—L.) .'£. denouement, ih.fiiora 

dinouer, to undo a knot. — L. dis-, apart ; 

.noddre, to knot, from nodus, a knot. See 


Denounce. (F.—L.) O.Y . denoncer. 
— L. denuntiare, to declare. — L. de, down, 
fully ; nuntidre, to tell, from nuntius, a 
messenger. See Nuncio. "Dei; denunciat- 
ion, from L. pp. denunciatus. 

Dense. (L.) L. densus, thick. +Gk. 
,iaam, thick. Brugm. i. § 851. Der. con- 

Dent ; see Dint. 

Dental. (L.) Formed with suffix -al 
(F. -al, L. -dlis) from L. dent-, stem of 
dens, a tooth, cognate with E. Tooth. 

dentated, furnished with teeth. (L.) 
L. dentdtus, toothed. — L. dent-, stem of 
dens, a tooth. 

denticlef a little tooth. (L.) L. den- 
ticulus, double dimin. of dens, a tooth. 

dentifrice, tooth-powder. (F.—L.) 
F. dentifrice. '•l^. dentifriciuvi (Pliny).— 
. L. denti-, deal, stem of dens, a tooth ; 
fric-dre, to rub. 

dentist. (F.—L.) Y.dentiste. Coined 
from L. dent-, stem of dens, a tooth. 

dentition. (L.) L. denationem, ace. 
of dentitio, cutting of teeth. — L. dentltus, 
pp. of dentlre, to cut teeth. —L. denti-, 
decl. stem of dens, a tooth. 

Denude, to lay bare. (L.) L. dena- 
.ddre, to make fully bare. — L. de, fully; 
nUddre, to lay bare, from nOdus, bare. 
See Ifude. 

Denunciation ; see Denounce. 

Deny. (F.-L.) M. E. *«««».- M. F. 
denier^ earlier form deneier. — L. denegdre, 
to deny fully.— L. de, fully; negdre, to 
'deny. See Negation. 

Deodand, lit. a thing to be given to 
■-God. (L.) From L. deo, dat. oideus, God ; 
.dandum, neut. of dandus, to be given, 
from dare, to give. 

Depart. (F.—L.) O. F. departir, des- 
partir, to divide, to part from. — L. dis-, 
away from ; partire, to part ; see Part. 
Cf. L. disperttre. 

Depend. (F.—L.) O.F. dependre, to 
depend, hang on ; Cot. — L. dependere, to 



hang down or from. — L. de, down, from ; 
pendlre, to hang. See Pendant. 

Depict. (L.) Formerly used as a pp. - 
L. cKpictus, pp. of depingere, to depict, 
lit. paint fully. -L. c^, fully; pingere, to 
paint. Cf. Picture. 

Depilatory, removing hair. (L.) 
Formed, in imitation of M. F. depilatoire 
(Cot.), from a L. adj. *depildtdrius, not 
found. — L. depild-re, to pluck out hair. — 
L.a!?, away; pildre, to pluck away hair, 
[lom pi/us, hair. 

Depletion. (L.) 'Zlep/etion, an em-pty- 
ing ; ' Blount. Formed, in imitation of 
repletion, from L. dlplettis, pp. of deplere, 
to empty. — L. de, away ; plere, to fill. 
See Plenary. 

Deplore. (F.-L.; or L.) O.F. de- 
plorer. — 'L. deplordre, to lament over. — 
L. de, fully ; plSrdre, to cry out, wail, 
weep. Brugm. i. § 154. 

Deploy, to open out, extend. (F.—L.) 
F. diployer, to unroll, unfold ; O. F. des- 
ploier, to unfold. — L. dis-, apart ; plicdre, 
to fold. A doublet of Display. 

Deponent, one who testifies. (L.) L. 
deponent-, stem of the pres. pt. oi depSnere, 
to lay down, also (in late L.) to testify. — 
L. de, down ; ponere, to lay. See Position. 

Depopulate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
populdre, to lay waste ; in Late L. to de- 
prive of people or inhabitants. Orig. to 
ravage by means of multitudes. — L. de, 
fully ; populdre, to populate, fill with 
people, hoTapopuliis, people ; see People. 

Deport. (F.-L.) M.¥.deporter,to 
bear, endure ; se deporter, to forbear, quiet 
oneself. — L. deportdre, to carry down, re- 
move ; with extended senses in Late Latin. 
Der. deportment, O. F. depoiiement, be- 
haviour. ^For the varying senses, see 
F. deporter. 

Depose. (F.-L. a«<?Gk.) O.F. ai- 
poser, to displace. — O. F. de- (L. de), from ; 
and F. poser, to place, of Gk. origin, as 
shown under Pose. ^ Much confused 
with derivatives from L. potiere, to place. 
See below. 

Deposit, vb. (F.-L.) Obs. F. de- 
positer, to entrust. — Med. L. depositdre, to 
lay down.-L. dipositum, a thing laid 
down, neut. of pp. of deponere ; see De- 

deposition. (F. - L.) O. F. deposi- 
tion. — L. ace. depositionem, a depositing. 
— L. depositus, pp. of deponere, to lay 
down (above). 


depot, a store. (F.-L.) F. dip6l\ 
O. F. depost. - L. dlpositum, a thing laid 
down (hence, stored) ; neut. of depositus, 
pp. of deponere ; see Deponent. 

Deprave. (F. — L.) yi.'K.deprauen.— 
O. F. depraver. — L. deprauare, to make 
crooked, distort, vitiate.— L. de, fully; 
prauus, crooked, depraved. 

Deprecate. (L.) From pp. of I,. 

deprecarl, to pray against, pray to remove. 

— L. de, away; precari, to pray. See 

Depreciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
dlpretiare, to lower the price of. — L. de, 
down ; pretium, price. See Precious. 

Depredate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

depradarl, to plunder, — L. de, fully ; pra- 
dari, to rob, irova prada, prey ; see Prey. 

Depress. (F.—L.) O. F. depresser 
(Godefroy).— L. type *depressare ; from 
L. depressus, pp. of deprimere, to press 
down. — L. de, down ; prtmere, to press. 

Deprive. (F.—L.) O. F. depriver 
(Godefroy). — Late L. deprivdre, to de- 
prive of office, degrade. — L. de, fully ; 
prTudre, to deprive. See Private. 

Depth ; see Seep. 

Depute. (F.-L.) TA.Y.deptiter;Co'!.. 

— L. depuldre, to cut off, also to impute, 
destine. — L. de, down ; putare, to cut off, 
orig. to cleanse. Der. deput-y, M. F. 
depute, one deputed, pp. of deputer. 

Derange. (F.-L. and O. H. G.) F. 
diranger, to disarrange ; formerly des- 
rangier.—^, dis-, apart; O. F. rangier, 
rengier, to range ; see Bange. 

Dereliction, complete abandonment. 
(L.) L. ace. dereliciiSnem, complete neg- 
lect. — L. derelicttis, pp. of derelinquere, to 
forsake. — L, de, from ; relinquere, to leave 
behind, from re-, back, and linqitere, to 
leave. See Belluquish. 

Deride. (L.) L. dendere, to laugh 
down, laugh at; from de, down, and. 
rtdere, to laugh. Der. derisive, from 
pp. derTsus. 

Derive. (F.—L.) O. F. deriver, to 
derive, also to drain. — L. deriuare, to 
drain off water. — L. de, from; rluus, a 
stream. See Bivulet. 

Derm, skin. (Gk.) Gk. Se'p/ja, skin. - 
Gk. Sf'peii', to flay; cognate with E. Tear, 
vb., to rend. 

Derogate. (L.) From pp. of L. dero- 
gdre, to repeal a law, detract from.-L. 
de, away ; rogare, to ask, propose a law. 
See Bogation. 



Derrick, a kind of crane. (Du.) Orig. 
the gallows; and named from a Dutch 
hangman ; see T. Dekker, Seven Deadly 
Sins of London, ed. Arber, p. 17. — Du. 
Vierryh, Dirk, Diederik; answering to G. 
Dietrich, A. S. peodric, ' ruler of the 

Dervis, Dervish,' a Persian monk, 
ascetic. (Pers.) Pers. darvish, poor; a 
dervish, who professed poverty. Cf. Zend 
driyu-, poor (Horn). 

Descant. (F.-L.) Orig. a variation 
in a song. — O. North F. descant (O. F. des- 
chant), a kind of song. -LateL. discantus, 
a refrain, kind of singing. — L. dis-, apart ; 
and cantus, a song. See Cant (i). 

Descend. (F.-L.) U.V.descendre; 
Cot. — L. descendere, lit. to climb down. — 
L. de, down ; standere, to climb ; see 

Describe. (L.) L,rf'«j-c;-r&«, to write 

down, describe fully ; pp. descriptus 
(whence description). — L. de, down; 
scrlbere, to write. See Scribe. 

descry. (F.—L.) yi..'E,.descryen,ta 
discern. — O. F. descrire, short form of 
O. F. descrivre, to describe. — L, descrfbere. 
% Sense affected by O. F. descrier, to pro- 
claim, publish ; from O. F. des- (L. dis-\ 
and crier, to cry. 

Desecrate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 

secrdre or desacrdre, to consecrate ; (with 
change of sense due to O. F. dessacrer, to 
profane, from L. dis-, apart). — L. de, fully ; 
sacrSre, to accoimt as sacred; see Sacred. 

Desert (i), a waste. (F. - L.) O. F. 
desert, a wilderness. — L. desertum, neut. 
of desertus, waste ; pp. of deserere, to 
desert, abandon. — L. de, away (negative); 
serere, to join. 

Desert (2), merit. (F.-L.) O. F. 
desert, fem. deserte, lit. a thing deserved, 
pp. of deservir, to deserve ; see below. 

deserve. (F.—L.) 0.7. deservir.— 
L. desenitre, to serve fully ; in Late L., to 
deserve. — L. de, fully; seruire, to serve. 
See Serve. 

Deshabille, careless dress. (F. — L.) 
Y. dishabille, undress. — F. d^shabiller, to 
undress. — F.dis (L. dis-), apart, away, un- ; 
habiller, to dress ; see Habiliment. 

Desiccate, to dry up. (L.) From pp. 
of L. desiccare, to drain dry. — L. de, away ; 
siccare, to dry, from siccus, dry. 

Desiderate ; see -Desire, 

Design, vb, (F. — L.) 0.¥. designer, 
to denote, to design. — L. designSre, to 


denote, mark down. — L. de, down; sig- 
ndre, to mark, from signum, sign. Der. 

Desire, to long for. (F.— L.) 
sirer, desirrer.—\^. deslderare, to long for, 
regret, miss. Perhaps (like consTderdre) 
allied to stdus, a star, as if to turn the eyes 
from the stars, to 'regret, miss. 
desiderate. (L.) L.dfstderdius, -pp. 

of deslderare (above). 

Desist. (F.-L.) O. F. desister, to 
cease. — L. desistere, to put away, also to 
-desist. — L. de, away ; sistere, to put, also 
to stand still, from stare, to stand. 

Desk, a sloping table. (L. — Gk.) 
M. E. deske, desk ; in Chaucer, C. T., F. 
;II2S. — Med. E. desca, a desk; cf. Ital. 
desco, 'a desk;' Florio. — L. discum, 
ace. of discus, a disc, table. See Disc, 

Desolate, solitary. (L.) L. desoldtus, 
forsaken ; pp. of desoldre, to forsake. — L. 
^l, fully ; sdldre, to make lonely, from 
solus, alone. 

Despair : see Desperate. 

Despatch ; see Dispatch. 
, Desperate, hopeless. (L.) L. despe- 
3-dtus, pp. of desperdre, to lose all hope. — 
,jL. de, from ; sperdre, to hope ; from sper-, 
as in sper-es, O. Lat. pi. oi spes, hope. 

despair, vb. (F.-L.) M.E. des- 
peiren, desperen. — O. F. despeir-, tonic 
stem of desperer, to despair. — L. desperdre 

desperado, a desperate man. (Span. 
— L.) M. Span, desperado. — L. desperatus, 
pp. of desperdre (above). 

Despise, to contemn. (F.— L.) M.E. 
despisen. — O. F. despis-, stem of the pres. 
part., &c., of despire, to despise. — L. de- 
.spicere, to look down, look down on 
.(below). Der. despic-able, from L. de- 
Spicdrt, to look down on, allied to de- 

despite, spite, hatred. (F.-L.) M.E. 
despit.-O.Y. despit, 'despight, spight ;' 
Cot. — L. despectum, ace. of despectus, 
contempt. — L. despectus, pp. of despicere, 
to despise. — L. de, down ; specere, to look ; 
see Species. 

Despoil. (F.-L.) 0.¥.despoiUer{Y. 
dipoutller), to despoil. — L. despoliare, to 
plunder. — L. de, fully ; spolidre, to strip 
of clothing, from spolium, spoil ; see 

Despond. (L.) L. dlspondere, (i) to 
promise fully, (2) to give up, yield (hence. 



to despair). — L. de, (i) fully, (2) away; 
spondere, to promise. 

Despot, a tyrant. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
despot. — Med. L. despotus. — Gk. hfaii6rt\%, 
a master ; lit. ' master of the house.' The 
syllable ita- = Idg. *dems, ' of a house ; ' 
cf. Skt. dam-pati-, master of the house. 
The syllable hot- is allied to Gk. irims, 
husband, Skt. pati-, lord, and to Potent. 
Brugm. i. § 408. 

Desquamation, a scaling oiT. (L.) 

From pp. of L. desqudmdre, to remove 
scales. — L. de, off; squama, a scale. 

Dessert. (F.-L.) O.F. dessert, 'Cae 
last course at dinner. — O. F. desservir, to 
do ill service to ; also, to take away the 
courses at dinner. — O.F. des-, from L. dis-, 
away ; servir, from seruire, to serve. 

Destine. (F.-L.) O.F. destiner,\o 
ordain. — L. destindre, to destine, ordain; 
allied to L. destina, a prop, support. — L. 
c^, down ; and *stanare, to cause to stand, 
derivative of sldre, to stand. Cf. Cretic 
aTavva, I set. Brugm. ii. § 603. 

Destitute. (L.) L. destitatus, left 
alone ; pp. oi destituere, to place alone.— 
L. de, away ; statuere, to place, causal of 
stare, to stand. 

Destroy. (F.-L.) 'iA.'E. deslroien, 
destruien. — O.V. destruire {V . djtruire ; 
Ital. distruggere). — !^. type *destrugere, 
for L. destruere, to pull down, unbuild, 
overthrow (pp. destructzis). — !.,. de, down; 
struere, to pile up. 
destruction. (F.-L.) O.F. de- 

struction. — 'L. ace. deslructionem; from 
destruct-us, pp. of destruere (above). 

Desuetude, disuse. (L.) 'L.desuStndo, 
disuse. — L. destietus, pp. of desuescere, to 
grow out of use, opposed to con-suescere ; 
see Custom. 

Desultory, jumping from one thing 
to another. (L.) L. desultorius, orig. be- 
longing to a desultor ; hence, inconstant. — 
L. desultor, one who leaps down, or from 
horse to horse. — L. desuttiis, pp. oidesilTre, 
to leap down. — L. de, down; salire, to 

Detach. (F.-L.a»i(/G.) Y. detacher, 
to unfasten. -F. </«'- = O.F. des- (L. dis-), . 
apart; F.tacAe, a nail, tack; see Tack. 
Der. detachment. Cf. Attach. 

Detail, a small part. (F.-L.) O.F. 
detail, ' a peece-mealing, also relaile, or a 
selling by parcels ; ' Cot. - O. F. detailler, 
to cut into pieces. — O. F. de- (L. de-), 
down fully; tailler, to cut; see Tailor. 


Der. detail, verb (which is from the sb. 
in E., though in F. it is the other way). 

Detain. (F. — L.) From a tonic stem 
til O. F. delenir. - L. detinlre, to hold 
back ; pp. ditentus. — L. de, down ; tenere, 
to told. Der. detention (from the pp.). 

Detect. (L.) From L. delectus, pp. 
of detegere, to imcover, expose. -L. de, 
away ; tegere, to cover. See Tegument. 

Detention ; see Detain. 

Deter. (L.) L. deterfere, to frighten 
from. — L. de, from; ierrere, to frighten. 
See Terror. 

Deterge, to wipe off. (L.) L. deter- 
gere, to wipe off.-L. rf^, off; tergere, to 
wipe. Der. deterg-ent, from the pres. pt. 

Deteriorate. (L.) L. deieridratus, 

pp. of deteriordre, to make worse. — L. 
dlterior, worse. Formed from de, away, 
from; with comp. suflSxes -ter-ior. (So 
also in-ter-ior from 2'«.) 

Determine. (F.-L.) O. F. deter- 

jniner.^'Li. determindre, to bound, end.— 
L. de, down, fully ; teitninare, to bound, 
from terminus, a boundary ; see Term. 
Der. pre- determine. 

Detest. (F.-L.) M.F. detester, to 
loathe.— L. detestari, to execrate, impre- 
cate evil by calling down the gods to wit- 
ness. — L. de, down ; testarl, to witness, 
from testis, a witness. 

Dethrone. (F.-L. aKa?Gk.) M.F. 
desthroner, ' to unthrone ; ' Cot. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis-), apart; L. ihronus, from 
Gk. 6p6vos, a throne. See Throne. 

Detonate, to explode. (L.) L. deto- 
natus, pp. of detondre, to explode. — L. de, 
fully ; tondre, to thunder. 

Detour, a winding way. (F. — L.) F. 
ditour, a circuit ; verbal sb. from F. 
d^tourner, to turn aside. — F. di- (L. dis-') , 
aside, apart ; totirner, to turn. See Turn. 

Detraction. (F.-L.) O.F. detrac- 
tion.— \^. detractionem, ace. of detractio, 
a withdrawal ; hence a taking away of 
one's credit. — L. detractus, pp. of detra- 
here, to take away, also to disparage.— 
L. de, away ; trahere, to draw. See 
Trace (i). 

Detriment. (F.-L.) 0.¥. detriment. 
— L. detrtmenttim, loss; lit. 'a rubbing 
away.' — L. detri-tus, pp. of deterere, to 
rub down; with suilix -mentum. — 'L. de, 
down ; terere, to rub. See Trite. 

Detrude. (L.) L. dltrHdere, to thrust 
down. — L. de, down; trOdere, to thrust. 

Deuce (i)) a two, at cards. (F.— L.) 


O.F. detis (F. deux), also dous, two.-L. 
duos, ace. of dtto, two. 

deuce (2), the devil. (LowG.-F.- 
L.) Low G. de dims', the deuce ! (Bre- 
men Worterbnch) ; G. der daus ! Orig. 
an exclamation on throwing the deuce or 
two at dice, as it was a losing throw, — 
O. F. dous, two (above). 
Deuteronomy. (L.-Gk.) LateL. 

deulerono7nium. — Gk. ieuxf/joi'd^ioi', a 
second giving of the law. - Gk. Sivripo-s, 
second ; vufx-os, law. 

Devastate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
itastdre, to lay waste. — L. de, down ; 
uastdre, to lay waste, from adj. tiastus, 

Develop, to unfold, open out. (F.— 
L. and Tcut.) F. divelopper, O. F. des- 
veloper, desvoluper. — O. F. des- (L. dis-), 
apart ; and the base velop- or vohtp-, which 
appears also in envelope. This base repre- 
sents Teut. mlap-, as in M. E. wlappen, to 
wrap up ; see Lap (3), Wrap. 

Devest, to imclothe. (F.-L.) From 
M. F. desvestir, to devest. — L. dis-, off ; 
and uestlre, to clothe. Doublet, divest. 

Deviate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
uidre, to go out of the way. — L. de, from ; 
tiia, way. 

devious. (L.) L. deui-us, going out 
of the way ; with suffix -cus. — L. de, 
from ; tiia, way. 

Device, a plan. (F. - L.) M. E. 
deuys, deuise {devys, devise). — O. F. devis, 
devise, a device, also a division. — Late L. 
dtuisum, diuisa, a division ; also a judg- 
ment, device ; orig. neut. and fern, of 
pp of diuidere, to divide ; see Divide. 

devise, to plan. (F.-L.) M. E. rfis- 
uisen {deviseti) . — O. F. deviser. — O.F. 
devis or devise, sb. (above). 

Devil. (L.-Gk.) A.&. deoful, deofol. 
— L. diabolus — Gk. Sid0o\os, the slan- 
derer, the devil. — Gk. SiaPaXKeiv, to throw 
across, traduce, slander. — Gk. Sia, through, 
across; 0a\\fiv, to throw; see Belemnite. 

Devious ; see Deviate. 

Devise ; see Device. 

Devoid, quite void. (F. — L.) M. E. 
deuoid: due to deuoided, pp. of deiioiden 
{devoiden), to empty. — O.F. desvuidier, 
desvoidier, to empty out. — O. F. des- 
(L. dis-) ; voidier, to empty, from voide, 
vuide, adj. empty ; see Void. 

Devoir, duty. (F.-L.) M.^. deuoir. 
— M. F. devoir, O. F. deveir, to owe ; 
used as a sb. — L. debere, to owe ; see Debt. 




Devolve. (L-) L- deuoluere, to roll 

down, bring or transfer to. — L. de, down ; 

uoluere, to roll. ^T A frequent old sense 

of devolve was ' to transfer.' Ser. devolut- 
ion, from the pp. devolutus. 
Devote, vb. (L.) L. dSuotus, pp. of 

dcuouere, to devote, vow fully. — L. de, 

fully ; tiouere, to vow. See Vote. 
Devour. (F.— L.) O. F. devorer (i p. 

s. pr. devowe). — !^. deuorare, to consume, 

eat up. — L. de, fully ; uorare, to gulp 

down. See Voracity. 
Devout. (F.—L.) m.-'E. detiot{devot), 

also spelt devoule. — O.F. devot, devoted. — 

L. deuotus, pp. of deuouere ; see Devote. 
Dew. (E.) M. E. deu, dew. A. S. 

deaw, dew.+Dn. dauw, Icel. aJj^ (gen. 

ddggvar), Dan. «&!j-, Swed. (^«^^, G. thau. 

Teut. type *dauwo-. Perhaps allied to Skt. 

dhav, to run, ilow; Gk. Bkuv, to run. 
Dexter. (L.) L. dexter, on the right 

hand side, right. +Gk. affi(jr, right, Skt. 

dakshhta-, on the right or south, Goth. 

taihswa, right hand, W. dekeu, right, 

southern, Gael, and Irish deas (the same). 

The Skt. dakshina- is orig. ' clever ' ; cf. 

Skt. daksha-, able, daksh, to be strong. 
Dey, a governor of Algiers. (F. — Turk.) 

F. dey. — Turk, ddi, a maternal uncle j 

afterwards, in Algiers, an officer, chieftain. 
Dhow, a slave ship (?). Mod. Arab. 

dao, but not an Arab, word (Yule). Orig. 

language unknown. 
Di- (i), prefix ; apart. (L.) L. di-, 
shorter form of dis- ; see Dis-. 

Di- (2), prefix; twice, double. (Gk.) 
Gk. 81- (for 8is), twice. + L. bis, bi- ; Skt. 
dvis, dvi-. Allied to Two. 

Dia-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. ShJ, through, 
between, apart ; allied to Di- (2), and to 
Two. ^ In nearly all words beginning 
with dia-, except dial, diamond, diary. 

Diabetes, a disease accompanied with 
excessive discharge of urine. (Gk.) Gk. 
Sia^^T?;s, a pair of compasses, a siphon, 
diabetes. — Gk. Siafiaivuv, to stand with 
the legs apart (like compasses or a siphon). 
— Gk. Sid, apart ; Paivav, to go ; see 

Diabolical. (L.-Gk.) 'L.diabolic-us, 
devilish. - Gk. 5ia0oAi«iJs, devilish. -Gk. 
5io/3o\os, the devil ; see Devil. 

Diaconal, belonging to a deacon. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) F. diaconal. — Late L. 
didcondlis, from L, diaconus, a. deacon j 
see Deacon. 

Diacritic. (Gk.) Gk, 5iaK/>iTi«(5s, dis- 

tinctive.— Gk. Sicucpivtiv, to separate.— 
Gk. 8ict, apart; Kplvfiv, to judge. 

Diadem, a fillet, crown. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E. and O. F. diademe. — L. diadema. — 
Gk. Siadr)/ia, a fillet. — Gk. 8i(i, apart, 
across ; 5i-a, I bind, allied to Skt. dd,Jo 
bind (whence (/amare, a garland). (y'DE.) 
Brugm. ii. § 707. 

Diaeresis, a mark (' ) of separation. 
(L. — Gk.) L. diceresis. — Gk. Suxipeais, a. 
dividing. — Gk. St-a, apart ; a'peais, ataking, 
from alpcTv, to take. 

Diagnosis, scientific determination of 
a disease. (Gk.) Gk. 8ia7J'aKris, a dis- 
tinguishing. — Gk. 81a, between; yvams, 
enquiry, from '^vwvai, to know. 

Diagonal. (F.— L. — Gk.) 'P. diagonal. 
— L. aiagonalis, running from comer to 
comer. — Gk. hiafiivioi (the same). — Gk. 
5i(i, through, between ; yoivta, an angle, 
bend, allied to y6vv, knee ; see Knee. 

Diagram. (L.— Gk.) L. diagramma, 
a scale, gamut (hence, sketch, plan). — Gk. 
Sia-zpa/ifia, a figure, plan, gamut. — Gk. 
Siaypoupfiv, to mark out by lines, describe. 

— Gk. Sio, through ; ypa^etv, to write. 
Dial. (L.) M. E. dial. - Med. L. didlis, 

relating to a day ; hence a plate for shew- 
ing the time of day. — L. dies, day. Brugm. 
i- § .223. 

Dialect, a variety of a language. (F.— 
L. — Gk.) F. dialecte. — 'L. dialectus, f. — 
Gk. 8idA.fKTos, f., discourse, language, 
dialect. — Gk. Sm\iyoiitti, I discourse. — 
Gk. Si&, between ; \iyuv, to speak. 

dialogue, a discourse. (F.— L.— Gk.) 

F. dialogue. — Ij. dialogum, ace. oidialogus, 

— Gk. 8id\o7os, a conversation. — Gk. 81a- 
Xiyojiai, I discourse (above). 

Diameter, the line measuring the 
breadth across or thickness through. (F. 
— L. — Gk.) Mid. F. diametre, 'a dia- 
meter ; ' Cot. — L. diametros. — Gk. Sid- 
liiTpos, f. — Gk. 5id, through; /iirpov, a 
measure ; cf. jxiTpiiv, to measure. 

Diamond. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.'E.dia- 
mant. — Q.Y. diainant, altered form of 
adamant; so also Ital. Span, diamante, 

G. diamant, demant. See Adamant. 
Diapason, a whole octave, harmony. 

(L- — Gk.) L. diapason, an octave, con- 
cord of a note with its octave. — Gk. 81a. 
TtaaSiv, concord of first and last notes of an 
octave, lit. 'through all' the notes. - Gk. 
Sid, through ; maav, gen. pi. fem. of iras, 
Jill (xopSSi/ being understood) ; see Pan-, 



Diaper, figured linen cloth.- (F.— L.— 
Gk.) Cf. O. F. diapri, diapered ; from 
tlie verb diaprer, to diaper, or ' diversi6e 
witii flourishings ; ' . Cot. Tlie verb is 
formed from O. F. diaspre, later diapre, a 
fine clotli, often described as blanc (white). 
— l^te L. diasprus, adj., also used as a sb. 
(tunica de diaspra a/5a). — Late Byzantine 
Gk. Siaaitpos, adj., pure white ; from Si-a, 
wholly, aairpos, white ^ee N. E. C). 
% Not the same as Ital. maspra, a jasper ; 
but cf. Prov. diaspes, diaspres, diaper, 
costly cloth (Bartsch) ; also Late L. aspen, 
white money (Ducange). 

Diaphanous, ti-ansparent. (Gk.) Gk. 
Sia^mv-i)s, transparent ; with suffix -ous. — 
Gk. 8m, through ; ipav-, allied to (paivHv, 
to shew. Brugm.. i. § 195. 

Diaphoretic, causing perspiration. 
(X.. — Gk.) L. diaphoreticus, sudorific — 
Gk. Sia(t>oprinK6s (the same)."-Gk. Sux- 
tp6pr]ais, perspiration. — Gk. fiia^op«c, to 
carry off (by perspiration). — Gk. did, 
through ; (jtopuv^ to carry, allied to tpipeiv, 
to bear ; see Bear. 

Diaphragm, a dividing membrane. 
(F.— C. — Gk.) F. diaphragme. — 'L. dia- 
pkragma. — G)ii. Sia^paypa, partition, mid- 
riff. — Gk. did, between ; 4>pda<rai (fut. 
<pp&^a), I fence in, enclose. 

Diarrhoea. (L. — Gk.) L. diarrJicea.— 
Gk. Sid^poia, lit. 'a flowing through.' — 
Gk. SiappUiv, to flow through. — Gk. 81a, 
through ; pieiv, to flow. 

Diary. (L.) L. didrium, a daily 
allowance, also a diary. — L. dies, a day. 
See Dial. 

Diastole, dilatation of the heart. (Gk.) 
Gk. diaaTo\7i, a drawing asunder, dilata- 
tion.— Gk. StaarlWdV, to put aside or 
apart. — Gk. Shi, apart ; areWeiir, to put. 

Diatonic, proceeding by tones. _(Gk.) 
Gk. 8iaTociK(5r, from Siarovos (lit. stretched 
out), diatonic. — Gk. StaTitviiv, to stretch 
out. — Gk. 8«£, fully; reiveiv, to stretch. 

Diatribe. (F.-L.-Gk.) ¥. diatribe. 
— L. diatriba, a learned disputation. - 
Gk. SiaTpi0-!!, a wearing away of time, 
waste of time, discussion. — Gk. Smrpi- 
0(tr, to waste time, to discuss. — Gk. 8id, 
thoroughly; rpl^av, to rub, waste away 
(with long i). 
Dib, to dab lightly. (E.) A lighter 
form of <&i5. Hence rfj'Wey, a dibble ; see 

dibble, an instrument for setting plants, 
by making holes, (Es) M,E. debit,, de- 



bylle ; apparently formed from Dab ; see 

Dice, pi. of Die (2), q. V. 
i Dicker, half a score. (L.) 'M.E.diker 
(cf. Icel. de/er). — L,. decuria, a set often.— 
L. dec-em, ten. 

Dicotyledon, n plant with two seed- 
lobes. (Gk.) From Gk. 81-, double; 
«OTV\riSiiv, a cup-sliaped hollow, from 
KOTiKr], a cup. 

Dictate. (L.) L. diddius, pp. of dic- 
idre, to dictate, frequentative of dicere, to 
say (below). Der. dictat-or^^ 

'diction, talk. (F.— L.) 'F. diction.— 
L. dictionem, ace. of dictio, a saying. — L. 
dictus, pp. oldicere, to say, appoint ; allied 
to dicdre, to tell, publish.+Gk, St'ucvviu, I 
[shew; Skt. (fii'f , to shew ; Goth.. gateihan, 
to announce, G. aeigen, to accuse, point 
out. Bnigm. i. § 207. (VDEIK.) 

dictionary. (L.) Late L. dicHond- 
rium, formed bam. diction-, stem oidictio, 
a saying, word (above). 

Didactic, instructive. (Gk.) Gk. Si- 
SaKTiKSs, instructive. — Gk. SiSaaneiv, to 
teach ( = *Si5oK-crK£i>') ; allied to Soxetv, to 
think, Siicofiai, Ionic for Sexopai, I accept ; 
cf. L. discere, to learn, docere, to teach. 
Brugm. i. § 707. (VDEK.) 

Didapper, Divedapper, a bird; 

see Dive. 

Die (i), to lose life. (Scand.) M.E. 
dyen, deyen ; Late A. S. dljan. — Icel. 
\deyja; Swed. do, Dan. doe, to die.+ 
M. H.G. touwen; cf. Russ. davit(e), to 
strangle. The Teut. base is *dau, whence 
*dau-jan (Icel. dey-jd). Cf. Dead, Death. 

Die (2), a small cube for gaming. (F.— 
L.) Used as sing, of M. E. dys, more 
usually dees, dice. — O. F. dez, dice, pi. of 
det, a die (F. dt). Cf. Prov. dat, Ital. 
Span, dado, a die.— Late L. ato«««, lit. a 
thing given or decreed ; hence applied to 
a die for cashing lots. — L. datus, pp. of 
dare, to give. See Date (i). 

Diet (I), regimen. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
diete. — O.i. diete, daily fare. -Late L. 
data, diceta, a ration of food. — Gk, Biaira, 
mode of life, diet. Brugm. i. § 650. 

Diet (2), an assembly. (F.-L.— Gk.) 
M. F. diete, ' a diete, parliament ; ' Cot. — 
Med. L. diceta, a public assembly ; also a 
ration of food, diet. — Gk. 8iaiTa,amode of 
life, diet; see Diet (i). f The peculiar 
use of the word was due to a popular 
etymology which connected dicsta (often 
spelt dietct) with dies, a day; we even 


find ditsta used to mean ' a day's journey ' ; 
and dieta for ' a day's work ' and ' a daily 
office or duty ' ; Ducange. 

Differ. (F.-L.) M. F. differer.-\.. 
differre, to carry apart, to differ — L. dif- 
(for (&-), apart; ^rre, to bear. Cf. Defer. 

Difficulty. (F.-L.) yi.E.diffiailtee. 

— O. F. diffiatlte. — 'L. difficultatem, ace. 
of difficultas (for *difficilitas, \ike/acultas 
foryija/zVaj), difficulty. — L. difficilis, liard. 

— L. dif- (for dis-'), apart; facilis, easy; 
see Facile. 

Diffident. (L.) L. diffident-, stem of 
difftdens, pres. pt. of diffidere, to distrust. 

— L. dif-{ = rf/j-), apart ; ftdere, to trust, 
allied to fides, faith. See Faith. 

Diffuse. (L.) L. difftlsus, pp. of (ft/- 
fundere, to shed abroad. — L. rf^ ( = rfw-), 
apart ; fundere, to pour ; see Fuse (l). 

Dig. (F.— Du.) F. diguer, to make a 
dike. — F. digue, a dike. — Flem. a»</Du. 
1^27%, a dike ; see Dike. 

Digest, to assimilate food. (L.) M. E. 
digest, used as a pp. = digested. — L. diges- 
tifs, pp. of digerere, to carry apart, sepa- 
rate, dissolve, digest. — L. dl- (for rf«V-), 
apart ; gerere, to carry. 

Dight, adorned. (L.) /Jz^.^/ as a pp. is 
short for dighted, from the obs. verb dight, 
to arrange, prepare, M. E. dihten, to pre- 
pare. A.S. dihtan, to set in order, arrange ; 
borrowed from L. dictdre, to dictate, pie- 
scribe ; see Dictate. 

Digit, a finger, figure. (L.) L. digitus, 
a finger ; hence a figure, from counting on 
the fingers. 

Dignity. (F.— L.) M.'K. dignitee.— 
O. F, dipieti. — L. dignitatem, ace. of 
dignitas, worthiness. — L. dignus, worthy. 
Bru^m. i. § 762 (3). 

£gnify. (F.-L.) 0.¥.dignifier.~ 
Med.L. dignificdre, to make worthy. — L. 
digiii; for dignus, worthy ; ficare, for 
facere, to make. 

Digress, lit. to step aside. (L.) L. 
digressus, pp. of digredl, to go aside. — L. 
di- (for £f«>-), apart; gradi, to go. See 

Dike, a trench, trench and embankment, 
bank. (E.) M. E. dik. A. S. die, masc. 
+Du. dijk, Icel. (&*«, Dan. <ft^e, Swed. 
dike, G. /«VA, pond, tank. Der. dig, q. v. 
See Ditoh. 

Dilacerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

dilacerdre, to tear apart. — L. di- (for dis-), 
apart ; lacerdre, to tear. See Iiacerate. 
Dilapidate, to pull down stone build- 


ings, to ruin. (L.) From pp. of L. di!a- 
puiSre, to scatter like stones. — L. di- (for 
dis-"), apart ; lapid-, stem oilapis, a stone. 

Dilate. (F.-L.) O. F. dilcUer, to 
widen. — L. dilStdre, to widen. — L. di- 
(for dis-\ apart ; Idtus, broad. See Iiati- 
tude. Der. dilat-ory, A. F. dilatorie. 

Dilenuna, a perplexity. (L.— Gk.) L. 
dilemma. — Gk. St\riitfia, a double proposi- 
tion, or argument in which one is caught 
between two difficulties. — Gk. Si-, twice, 
double; A^/t/ia, an assumption, premiss. 
See Iiemma. 

Dilettante, a lover of the fine arts. 
(Ilal.-L.) Ital. dilettante, lit. 'delight- 
ing in.' — Ital. dilettare, to delight. — L. 
delectdre, to delight ; see Delectable. 

Diligent, industrious. (F.-L.) O.F. 
diligent. — \^. diligent-, stem of diligens, 
careful, diligent, lit. loving (fond); pres. 
pt. of diligere, to love, select, lit. choose 
between. — L. of- ( = dis-^, apart ; legere, to 
choose. See Legend. 

Dill, a plant. (E.) M.E. (////«. A.S. 
(/iVe.+ Du. dille, IDan. dild, Swed. dill, G. 
dill, dille, O. H. G. tilli. 

Dilute. (L.) l^.dilittus.pp.ofdiluere, 
to wash away, also to mix with water. — I^. 
dl- (for dis-), apart ; luere, to wash. 

Dim. (E.) M.E.dim. A.S. dim, da.rU. 
+ Icel. dimmr, dim ; M. Dan. dim. Cf. 
M. H. G. timmer, dim ; Swed. dimma, a 
fog, haze ; O. Irish deim, dark. 

Dime, the tenth part of a dollar. (F. — 
L.) F. dtme, O. F. disme, tenth. - L. 
decima, a tithe ; fem. of L. decimus, tenth, 
allied to decem, ten. See Ten. 

Dimension. (F.-L.) O.Y. dimen- 
sion.— \.. ace. dimensionem, a measuring. 

— L. diviensus, pp. of dlmetirl, to measure 
off. — L. di- (for dis^, apart; metTri, to 
measure. See Measure. 

Dirfinish, to lessen. (F.-L.) Coined 
from L. di- ( = dis-), apart, and E. minish ; 
in imitation of L. diminuere, to diminish 
(below). See Minish. 

diminution. (F.-L.) F. diminw 
tion. — L. ace. diminiitionem, diminution. 

— I« diminUtus, pp. of diminuere, to 
lessen. — L. </f- ( = rf?V-), apart; miniiere, 
to lessen. See Minute. 

Dimissory, giving leave to depart. 
(L.) L. dimissorius, giving leave to go 
before another judge. — L. dimissus, pp. of 
dimittere, to send away.-L. di- (for dis-), 
away ; mittere, to send. 

Dunity, a white stuff. (Ital.-L.-Gk.) 



Ital. dimito (^LcKmiti), • a kind of course 
cotton or flanell ; ' Florio. — Late L. dimi- 
tum (pi. diniHd), silk woven with two 
threads, — Gk. Si/uros, made with a double 
thread. — Gk. &-, double ; /uros, a thread 
of the woof. 

Dimple, a small hollow. (E. ?) M. E. 
dympuJl. Perhaps from a base *dump-, 
allied to dip. Cf. Dan. dial, dump, a 
hollow in a field ; dybbel, a pool, a hollow 
in the upper lip (Molbech) ; Du. dompelen, 
to dive ; G. dUmpfel, M. H. G. tiimpfel, 
O. H. G. tumphilo, a deep pool. Also 
Lith. dtibus, hollow ; ditbtt, to be hollow 
(pres. t. dumb-u). 

Din, clamour. (E.) M. E. dine, dune. 
A. S. dyne, dyn ; dynnan, to resound. + 
Icel. dynr, Swed. d&n, Dan. don, noise; 
Skt. dhuni; ToaTiDg,d/tvani- , a din, dhvan, 
to resound. 

Dine. (F.-L.) M. E. dinen.-O. F. 
disner, F. diner, to dine. — Late L. *dis- 
iUndre, short for *disieiitndre, to break 
one's fast. — L. dis- \ ieiiindre, to fast, from 
ieifinus, fasting. (Romania, viii. 95.) 

dinner. (F.— L.) M.E. diner; from 
O. F. disner, to dine ; the infinitive mood 
being used as a sb. 

Ding, to throw violently, beat. (E.?) 
M. E. dingen, pt. t. dang, pp. dttngen ; as 
a strong verb ; though not found in A. S. 
Cf. Icel. dengia, Dan. dcenge,^^eA.ddnga, 
to bang; all weak verbs. Cf. M. Dan. 
dinge, to blunt an edge by beating on it ; 
O. H. G. tangol, a hammer. From a Teut. 
type *dengan-. 

Dingle, a deep dell. (E. or Scand.) 
M. E. dingle. Cf. dimble, in a similar 
sense. Of uncertain origin. Cf. Dimple. 

Dingo, the native dog of Australia. 
(New S. Wales.) New §. Wales dingo, 
written teingo in 1 798 (Morris). 

Dingy, dirty. (E.) Orig. soiled with 
dung. Cf. A. S. dingiung (for *dyng{i'ung, 
with g as/), a dunging ; from dung, dung ; 
so also Swed. dyngig, dungy, from dyng, 
dung ; see Dung. For the pronunciation, 
cf. stingy (allied to sting'). 

Dingy (with hard^). Dingey, a small 
boat. (Bengali.) Beng. dingy, a small 
boat ; ' it has become legitimately incor- 
porated in the vocabulary of the British 
Navy, as the name of the smallest ship's 
boat ■ (Yule). 

Dinner; see Dine. 

Dint, a blow, force. (E.) M. E. dint, 
dunt; also dent. A.S. dynt, n blow.+ 



Icel. dynir, a dint, dynta, to dint ; Swed, 
dial, dunt, a stroke, dunta, to strike. 
Diocese. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. dio- 

cise. — O.F. diocise (F. diocise).—\., dim- 
cesis. — Gk. SiotKr/ais, administration, a 
province, diocese. — Gk. dtomia, I keep 
house, govern. — Gk. 81- (for SiA), through- 
out ; otiiiai, I dwell, occupy, from ot«os, u, 
house ; see "Wiok, a town. 
Dioptrics, the science of the refraction 
of light. (Gk.) Gk. tA SioirrpiKi, dioptrics. 

— Gk. SioirTpiK(ir, relating to the Sioirrpa, 
an optical instniment for taking heights, 
&c. — Gk. Si-i, through ; base *oir- (futj 
oipoimi), to see; -rpa, fem. instrumental 
suffix. See Optics. 

Diorama, a scene seen through a small 
opening. (Gk.) Gk. Si- (for Std), through ; 
opaiM, a sight, from ipaai, I see. 

Dip, to plunge, immerge. (E.) M. E. 
dippen. A. S. dyppan, later dippan ; for 
*dup-Jan, causal form from the base dup-, 
weak grade of deup-, as seen in A. S. deep, 
deep ; see Deep. Cf. Dan. dyppe, to dip. 

Diphtheria. (Gk.) From Gk. Si<p- 
9fpa, leather ; from the leathery nature of 
the false membrane formed in the disease. 
Cf. Gk. ii<jiii», to make supple. 

Diphthong, a union of two vowel- 
sounds in one syllable, (F, — L. — Gk.) 
Formerly dipthong (Ben Jonson). — M. F. 
dipthongue. — L. ace. diphthongum, i. — G. 
Si^pSoyyus, with two sounds. — Gk. Si- (for 
Si's), double; <j>6iyyos, sound, from ipBeyyo- 
liai, I cry out. 

Diploma, (L. — Gk.) L. diploma, a 
document conferring a privilege. — Gk. 
5iTT\ajfjja, a thing folded double ; also, a 
licence, diploma (prob. orig. folded 
double). — Gk. Siir\6os, double. — Gk. Si- 
(Sis), double; -irXcios, folded. Der. di- 
plomat-it:, from 3tTr\vfJUiT-, stem of Siir^w/ia, 

Diptera, two-winged insects. (Gk.) 
From Gk. Si- (Sis) , double ; irrepSv, a wing, 
from the weak grade of Trero/iai, I fly. 

Diptych, a double-folding tablet. (L. 

— Gk.) l.ate L. pi. diptycha. — Gk. li- 
iTTVxa, a pair of tablets ; neut. pi. of Si- 
wrvxos, folded in two, — Gk. Si- (Si's), 
double ; irrvxri, a fold, irrvaaetv, to fold. 

Dire. (L.) L. dims, fearful. 

Direct, adj. (L.) L. directus, pp. of 
dirigere, to direct. — L. dt- (for dis-) , apart ; 
regere, to rule. 

dirge. (L.) Formerly dzrige ; from 
the first word of the anthem ' dirige. Do- 
minus meus,' in the office for the dead. — L. 



dirige, direct thou (cf. Ps. v. 8) ; 3 p. imper. 
sing, oidirigere (above). 

Dirk, a dagger. (Du. ?) Spelt dork 

(a.d. 1602) ; also durk. Perhaps from Du. 
dolk, a dagger ; a word of Slavonic origin. 
Cf. Polish tulich, a dagger. % Irish duirc, 
a poniard, is borrowed from E. 

Dirt. (Scand.) From M. E. drit (with 
shifted r),"-Icel. drit, dirt, excrement of 
birds. Cf. Icel. i/ni?«, to void excrement.+ 
M. Du. drete, Du. dreet, sb., drijten, vb. 

TiAs-^ prefix. (L.) L. dis-, apart; cf. 
Gk. Si-, apart ; see Di-. Hence O. F. 
des; which sometimes becomes dis- in E., 
and sometimes de-, as in de-feat. The 
prefix dis- commonly expresses the re- 
versal of an act, somewhat like the E. 
verbal prefix ««-. For most words be- 
ginning with this prefix, see the simpler 
forms. For example, for dis-abuse, see 
abuse ; and so on. 

Disaster. (F.-L.) M. F. desastre, 
' a disaster, misfortune ; ' Cot. Lit. ' ill- 
fortune.' — O. F. des-, for L. dis-, with a 
sinister or bad sense ; and M. F. astre, 
a star, planet, also destiny, fortune, from 
L. astrum, a star. 

Disburse. (F.-L. and Gk.) O. F. 

» desbourser, to take out of a purse. — O. F. 

des- (L. dis-'), away; F. bourse., a purse, 

from Late L. bursa, Gk. ^vfaa, a skin 

(hence, a bag). See Bursar. 

Disc, Disk, a round plate. (L.-Gk.) 
"L. discus, a quoit, a plate. — Gk. S'ktkos, a 
quoit. — Gk. Sixfiv, to cast, throw. Brugm. 
i. § 744. See Dish, Desk, Dais. 
' Discern. (F — L.) F. discemer.-'L. 
; discernere, to separate, determine. — L. dis-, 
apart; cernere, to separate. Cf. Con- 

Disciple. (F.-L.) F. disciple.-'L. 
discipulum, ace. of discipulus, a learner. 

— L. discere, to learn ; allied to docere, to 
teach; see Docile. Der. discipl-ine, 
O. F. discipline, L. disciplina, learning. 

Disclose. (F.-L.) M.E. disclosen. 

— O. F. desclos-, pres. stem of desclorre, to 
unclose, open. — L. discla&dere, to unclose. 

— L. dis-, apart ; claudere, to close. See 

Discomfit. (F.-L.) M.'E. discomfit 
(Bruce). -O.F. disconfit, discomfited, pp. 
of desconfire, ' to discomfit, vanquish,' Cot. 

— O. F. des- ; and confire, to preserve, make 
ready. — L. dis-, apart; and conficere, to 
preserve, complete, from L. con- {cum), 
together, facere, to put, make. See Pact. 


Discousoblte. (L-) Late L. discon- 
je/(f/«j, comfortless. — L. dis-, apart; con- 
solatus, pp. of consoldrl, to console ; from 
con- {cum), with, soldrT, to comfort. See 

Discord, sb. (F.-L.) 0.7 . descerd, 
discord, variance ; formed from O. F. des- 
corder, vb., to be at variance. — h.discordare 
(the safeie). — L. discord-, stem of discors, 
adj. discordant. — L. dis-, apart ; cord-, 
stem of cor, heart. 

Discount, verb. (F. — L.) Formerly 
discompt. — O. F. descompter, to reckon 
back or off. — O. F. des- (L. dis-), away; 
compter, to count; see Count (2). 

Discourse. (F.-L.) O. F. discours, 
sb. — L. discursum, ace. of discursus, a 
running about ; also, conversation,- L. 
discursus, pp. of discurrere, to run about. 

— L. dis-, apart ; currere, to rim. 
Discover. (F. — L.) M. E. discoueren 

{discoveren). — O. F. descouvrir, to un- 
cover, disclose. — O. F, des- (L, dis-), 
apart ; couvrir, to cover. See Cover. 

Discreet, prudent. (F. - L.) O. F. 
discrel. — \j. discretus, pp. of dis-cemere, 
to discern ; see Discern. Der. discret- 

Discrepant, differing. (F.-L.) M.F. 
discrepant. — X,. discrepant-, stem of pres. 
part, of discrepSre, to differ (in sound).— 
L. dis-, apart ; crepdre, to crackle, sound. 

Discriminate. (L.) L. discrimind- 
tus, pp. of discrimindre, to separate. — L, 
discrimin-, stem of discrimen, a separa- 
tion. —L. discernere (pt. t. discre-ui), to 
distinguish, — L. dis-, apart ; cernere, to 

Discursive. (L.) From L. discurs- 
us, pp. of discurrere, to run about ; with 
suffix -ive. See Discourse. 

Discuss. (L.) M. E. discussed, pp. 
driven away. — L. discussus, pp. of dis- 
cutere, to shake asunder; in Late L., to 
discuss. — L. dis-, apart ; quatere, to shake. 

Disdain, sb. (F.-L.) M.^. disdeyn. 

— O. F, desdein, sb, - O. F. desdegnier, to 
disdain. - O. F. des- (L. dis-), apart ; degn- 
ier (L. digndn), to think worthy, from 
dignus, worthy, ^ O, F. desdegnier seems 
to have been substituted for L. dedignari, 
to disdain (with prefix de-, down). 

Disease. (F.) O. F. desaise, want of 
ease. - O. F. des- (L. dis-) ; aise, ease. 

Disembark. (F.) M.F. desembar- 
guer.-O. F. des- (L. dis-), away ; embar- 
quer, to embark ; see Smbark. 



Disembogue, to flow into the sea, as 
a river. (Span. — L.) Span, desembocar, 
to disembogue. — Span, des- (L. dis-), 
apart ; embocar, to enter the mouth, from 
tm- (L. j»), into, and boca (L. bucca), 

Disgorge. (F. — L.) O.F. desgorger. 
— O. F . des- (L. rfj>-), away ; gorge, the 
throat ; see G-orge. 

Disgrace. (F Ital.-L.) M.F. rf»V 

^y-acd. — Ital. disgrazia. — 'L,. dis~, apart; 
gratia, grace.' See Grace. 

Disguise, vb. (F.— L. aerfO. H. G.) 
O. F. desguiser, to disguise^ — O. F. des- 
(L. (fei-), apart ; and guise, gnise ; see 
Guise. Lit. ' to change the gnise of.' 

Disgust, vb. (F.-L.) M. F. des- 
gottster, 'to distaste, loath;' Cot. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis-) , apart ; gouster, to taste, from 
'L. gustare, to taste; see Gust (2). 

Dish, a platter. (L. - Gk.) M. E. 
disch. A. S. disc, a dish. — L. discus, a 
quoit, platter ; see Disc. 

Disliabille ; see Deshabille. 

Dishevil. (F. — L.) M. F. discheoeler 
(Cot.), ' to dischevell, i. e. to disorder the 
hair. — O.F. des- (L. dis-), apart; chevel 
(F. cheveti), a hair, from L. capillum, ace. 
of capillus, hair. 

Disinterested. (F. - L.) From 
Dis- (2) and interested; see Interest (2). 

Disk ; see Disc. 

Dislocate, to put out of joint. (L.) 
From pp. of Late L. dislocdre, to put out 
of place. — L. dis-, apart ; locdre, to place, 
from locus, place. 

Dismal. (F.-L.) Oiig. A. F. dis 
mal, unlucky days (a. D. 1256). [The 
phrase was misunderstood, and dismal was 
treated as an adj., with the addition of 
days; and later, of other sbs.] — L. dies 
malt, evil days. Cf. F. Lun-di = Mon-day . 

Dismantle. (F.— L.) M.'F. desman- 
teller, ' to take a mans cloake off his backe ; 
also, to raze walls; ' Cot.-O. F. des- (L. 
dis-), apart ; manteler, to cloak, from 
mantel, sb. ; see Mantle. 

Dismay, to discourage. (F. — L. and 
O. H. G.) O. F. *desmayer, not found 
(except dismayi, pp., in Palsgrave, p. 519). 
but exactly the same as Span, desmayar 
(Port, desmaier, Ital. smagare), to dismay, 
terrify. The O. F. *desmayer was early 
supplanted by esmayer in the same sense, 
which only differed in substituting the 
prefix es- (L. ex-) for des- (L.dis-). The 
latter part {-mayer) of these words is from 


O. H, G. magatt (G. mogen), to have 
power, be able. Hence *desmayer and 
esmayer, at first used in the intrans. sense, 
to lack power, faint, be discouraged, but 
afterwards, actively, to discourage. Cf. 
Ital. smagare (for *dis-magare) , orig. to 
lose courage, also to dismay (Florio). 
See May (i). 

Dismiss, to send away. (F.-^L.) A 
coined word ; suggested by F. desmettre, 
pp. desmis, ' to displace, dismiss ; ' Cot. 
The true L. form is dimittere, to send 
away.-L. di- (for dis-), apart, away; 
mittere, to send. 

Disparage, to offer indignity, to lower 
in rank or esteem. (F.— L.) M. E. des- 
paragen. — O. F. desparager. — O. F. des-, 
apart ; parage, rank. — L. dis-, apart ; 
Late L. pardticum, society, rank, equality 
of rank, from L. par, equal (Diez). See 

disparity. (F. - L.) F. dispariti 
(Montaigne). From L. dis-, apart ; and 
F./a/Vc«, equality; see Parity. Suggested 
by L. dispar, unequal. 

Dispatch, Despatch. (Span.-L.) 

Formerly spelt dis-, not des-. — Span, des- 
pachar, to dispatch, expedite. — L. dis-, 
away; and L. type *pactdre, to fasten, fix, 
from pacttts, pp. of pangere, to fasten. 
(See N. E. D.) Cf. Ital. spacciare, to dis- 
patch (Florio), answering to a L. type 

Dispel. (L.) L. dispellere, to drive 
asunder, - L. dis-, apart ; pellere, to drive. 

Dispense. (F.-L.) O.^ . dispenser, 
to dispense with. — L. dispensdre, to weigh 
out, frequent, form of dispendere, to weigh 
out.-L. dis-, apart ; pendere, to weigh. 

Disperse, to scatter abroad. (F.— L.) 
M. F. disperser. From L. pp. dispersus, 
pp. of dispergere, to scatter abroad. — L. 
dl- (for dis-), apart ; spargere, to scatter. 

Display. (F.-L.) A.F. display er, 
O. F. desploier, to imfold, shew.-L. dis-, 
apart ; plicdre, to fold. Doublet, deploy. 

Disport. (F.-L.) U..%. disporten, 
to amuse. -O.F. se despotler, to amuse 
oneself, orig. to cease from labour ; later 
deporter, and confused with Deport. — L. 
dis-, away, portdre, to carry (hence, to 
remove oneself from or cease from labour). 
Hence sport, q. v. 

Dispose. (F.-L. a«rfGk.) O.Y. dis- 
poser, to arrange. — O.F. dis- (L. dis^, 
apart ; F. poser, to place ; see Pose. 

Disposition. (F.-L.) F. disposi- 



iion. — L,. ace. disposUiSnem, a setting in 
order. — L. dispositus, pp. of disponere, to 
set in various places, to arrange. — L. dis-, 
apart ; ponere, to place, put. 

Dispute. (F.-L.) F. disputer.-'L. 
disputdre, to argue. — L. dis-, apart; 
put are, to think. See Putative. 

Disquisition, an investigation. (L.) 
From L. disquisTtiS, a search into. — L. 
disquTsUus, pp. of disquirere, to examine. 
L. dis-, apart ; qtuerere, to seek. 

Disruption. (L.) Y^om.'L.disniptio, 
diruptio, a breaking asunder. — L. disrup- 
tus, dirupttts, pp. of disrumpere, dirum- 
pere, to break apart. — L. dis-, di-, apart; 
ruinpere, to burst. 

Dissect. (L.) From L. dissect-us, pp. 
of dissecdre, to cut apart. •- L. dis-, apart ; 
secdre, to cut. 

Dissemble. (F. - L.) O. F. dis- 

(L. dis-), apart; sembler, to seem, appear; 
cf. O. F. dissimuler, to dissemble. — L. dis-, 
apart, away; simulare, to pretend; cf L. 
dissimuldre, to pretend that a thing is not. 
See Simulate. 

Disseminate. (L ) From pp. of L. 

dissemindre, to scatter seed. — L. dis-, 
apart ; seminare, to sow, from semin-, for 
semen, seed. 

Dissent, vb. (L.) L. dissentXre (pp. 
dissensus), to differ in opinion. —L. rfw-, 
apart ; sentire, to feel, think. Der. dis- 
sens-ion, from the pp. dissensus. 

Dissertation, a treatise. (L.) From 
L. dissertdtio, a debate. — L. dissertdtus, 
pp. of dissertdre, to debate ; frequent, of 
disserere, to disjoin, discuss. — L. dis-, 
apart ; serere, to join. 

Dissever. (F.-L.) O.Y.dessevrer. 
— Late L. dissepardre. — L. rfw-, apart ; 
separdre, to separate. 

Dissident. (L ) L. dissident-, stem 
of pres. pt. of dissidere, to sit apart, to 
disagree. — L. (//>-, apart; sedere, to sit. 

Dissimilar, unlike. (F.-L.) M. F. 
dissimilaire. — O.Y . dis- (L. dis-), apart; 
and similaire, like ; see Similar. 

dissimilitude, dissimulation ; 

from L. rfw-, apart, and similitude, simu- 

Dissipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
dissipare, to disperse. — L. dis-, apart; 
and O. L. supdre, to throw ; we find also 
insipdre, to throw into. Cf. Skt. kskip, to 
throw. Brngm. i. § 761. 

Dissociate. (L.) From the pp. of L. 
dissocidre, to separate from. — L. dis-. 



apart ; socidre, to associate, from socitis, a 

companion. See Sociable. 

Dissolute. (L.) L. dissoliUus, licen- 
tious ; pp. of L. dissoluere (below). 

dissolve. (L.) L. dissoluere, to dis- 
solve, loosen, relax. — L. dis-, apart; sol- 

uere, to loosen. See Solve. Der. dis- 
solut-ion (from pp. dissoliUus), 

Dissonant. (F. — L.) M. F, disso- 
nant; Cot. — L. dissonant-, stem of pres. 
pt. of dissondre, to be unlike in sound. — 
L. dis-, apart; sondre, to 'sound, from 
sonus, sound. 

Dissuade. (F.-L.) F. dissuader; 
Cot. — L. dissuddere, to persuade from.— 
L. dis-, apart ; suddere, to persuade ; see 

Distaff. (E.) A distaff is a s/aff 
iedizened -with flax, ready to be spun off. 
' I dysyn a dystaffe, I put the flaxe upon 
it to spynne ; ' Palsgrave. M. E. distaf, 
dysestaf. A. S. distaf. The A. S. distaf 
stands for *dise-staf, where stcef^ E. staff, 
nnd *dise=\javi G. diesse, the bunch of 
flax on a distaff (Bremen) ; also spelt dise, 
disene (Liibben) ; E. Fries, dissen. See 

Distain. (F.— L.) tA.'E,. disteinen.— 
O. F. desteign-, a stem of desteindre, to 
distain, take away colour. — O. F. des- 
(L. dis-), away; and teindre, from L. 
tingere, to dye. 

Distant. (F.-L.) O.V . distant.-^, 
distantem, ace. of distans, pres. pt. of 
distdre, to stand apart. — L. di-, apart; 
stare, to stand. 

Distemper (1), to derange the tem- 
perament of body or mind. (F. — L.) M.E. 
distemperen. — 0.¥. destemprer, to mix; 
whence pp. destemprl, immoderate, exces- 
sive. — O. F. i/^j- (L.dis-), apart; temprer 
(mod. F. tremper), from L. temperdre, to 
regulate. See Temper. 

distemper (2), a kind of painting. 
(F. — L.) O. F. destemprer, later destrem- 
per, ' to soake, steepe, moisten, make fluid, 
liquid, or thin,' Cot.; the same verb as 

Distend. (L.) 1.. distendere, to stretch 
apart. — L. dis-, apart ; tendere, to stretch ; 
see Tend. Der. distent-ion (from the 
pp. distent-US). 

Distich, a couplet. (L.-Gk.) L. 
distichtts, distichon. — Gk. iianxov, a coup- 
let (in verse) ; neut. of Sfo-rixos, having two 
rows. — Gk. Si- (8if) , double ; arixof, a row, 
allied to ariixav, to go. (ySTEIGH.) 


Distil. (F. - L.) O. F. distiller. - L. 
distilldre, dlstilldre, to drop or trickle 
down. — L. de, down ; siilldre, to drop, 
from stilla, a drop. See Still (2). 

Distingnisll, to mark off. (F.-L.) 
O. F. disiinguer, to distingnish ; the suffix 
-ish has been added by analogy, and cannot 
be accounted for in the usual way. — L. 
disiinguere, to mark with a prick, dis- 
tinguish (pp. distinctus). — L. di- (for dis-), 
apart ; *stinguere (nof in use) , to prick, 
allied to Gk. ari^uv, to prick, and E. 
stick, vb. See Instigate. Brugm. i. § 666. 
distinct. (F.-L.) O.F. distinct.— 
L. distituttts, distinguished ; pp. of dis- 

XilStort. (L.) L. distortus, pp. of 
distorquere, to twist aside. — L. dis-, apart ; 
torquere, to twisl ; see Torture. 

IHstract.vb. (L.) From L.distracf us, 
pp. of distrahere, to draw apart. — L. dis-, 
apart ; trahere, to draw ; see Trace (i). 

Distrain. (F. — L.) O. F. destieign-, 
a stem of destraindre, to strain, press, vex 
extremely, constrain (hence to seize goods 
for debt).— L. distringere, to pull asunder 
(see below). — L.ffi'- (rf&-), apart; stringers, 
to draw tight ; see Stringent. 

distress, calamity. (F. — L.) O.F. 
destresse, oldest form destrece ; from a 
Folk-L. *districtia (not used), regularly 
formed from L. districtus, pp. oidistri7i- 
gere, to pull asunder (in Late L. to punish, 
afflict) ; see Distrain. 

Disteangllt. (L.) A modification of 
(fjrf?-arf( = distracted); from l^.distract-us; 
see Distract. 

Distribute, to allot, deal out. (L.) 

From distribut-us , pp. of L. disiribuere, 
to deal out, allot separately. —L. dis-, 
apart ; trihuere, to assign ; see Tribute. 

District, a region. (F.-L.) M. F. 
district. — Late L. districtus, territory 
wherein a lord has power to enforce justice. 
— L. districtus, pp. of distringere; see 

Disturb. (F.-L.) M.F.. destorben, 
distourben. — O. F. destorber, to vex. — L. 
disturbdre, to disturb. — L. dis-, apart ; 
turbdre, to disorder, from turba, a tumult, 
crowd. See Turbid. 

Ditch. (E.) M.E. diche; cf. A. S. 
dice, dat. of die, fem. [also masc], a dike ; 
see Dike. 

Dithyramb, a kind ofhymn. (L. — Gk.) 
L. dithyrambus.-'Gk. Steipa/tPos, a hymn 
in honour of Bacchus. 


Dittany, a plant. (F. - L.- Gk.) M.E. 
dytane. — O. F. ditan, dictam. — L. dic- 
tamnum, ace. of dictamnns. — Gk. Si'k- 
To^for, SiKTa^i'oi', dittany ; named from 
Mount Dicti in Crete, where it grew. 

Ditto. (Ital.-L.) Ital. ditto, detto, 
that which has been said. — L. dictum, 
neut. of pp. of dicere, to say. 

Ditty. (F.-L.) U.'E. ditee.-O.F. 
diti, a kind of poem. — L. dictdtum, a thing 
dictated ; neut. of dictdtus, pp. of dictdre, 
frequent, of dicere ; see Dictate. 

Diuretic, provoking discharge of urine. 
(F.-L.-Gk.) M.Y.diuretique; Cot.-L. 
diHreticus. — Gk. Swv/njTinds. — Gk. Siov- 
pieiv, to pass urine.— Gk. Si-d, through; 
oSpov, urine ; see Urine. 

Diurnal. (L.) L. diumdlis, daily. — 
L. diurmts, daily. — L. dies, a. day. 

Divan, a council-chamber, sofa. (Pers.) 
Pers. divan, a tribunal ; Arab, daywan, a 
royal court, tribunal, council of state. 

Divaricate, to fork, diverge. (L.) 
From pp. of L. diucricdre, to spread apart. 

— L. di- (for dis-), apart ; udricus, stradd- 
ling, from udrus, crooked. 

Dive. (E.) M.'E. diuen, duuen{u = v). 
A. S. dyfan, to immerse, weak verb ; con- 
fused with dufan, strorg verb (pt. t. deaf, 
pp. dofen), to dive. -}- Icel. dp/a, to dip. 
Allied to Dove, Deep, Dip. 

didapper, a bird. (E.) Short for (/iz^i?- 
dapper. Cf. A. S. dufedoppa, a pelican. 
Here dapper (=A. S. doppd) means a 
dipper or diver ; and dive-dapper = dive- 
dipper, a reduplicated word. 

Diverge. (L.) Coined from L. di- (for 
dis-), apart; and verge, vb. See Verge 

Divers, Diverse, various. (F.-L.) 

O. F. divers, masc, diverse, fem., 'divers, 
differing ; ' Cot. — L. diuersus, various ; 
orig. pp. of diuertere, to turn asunder, 
separate, divert (below). 

divert. (F.-L.) yi.^ . diverlir, • ^o 
divert, alter ; ' Cot. - L. diuertere, to 
turn aside.— L. di- {dis-), apart; iiertere, 
to turn. Der. divers-ion, from pp. 
Divest. (L.) Late L. diuesth-e, in 
place of L. deuestire, to strip off clothes. 

— L. dl- (for dis-), apart, substituted for 
L. de-, down, away ; uestire, to clothe, 
from uestis, clothing. See Vest. 

Divide. (L.) L. dtuidere, to divide, 
separate (pp. diuTsus). — t,. di- {dis-^,. 
apart ; and *uidere, a lost verb, prob. 



meaning ' to separate ' ; see Widow. 
(VWIDH.) Brugm. i. § 589, ii. 528. 
Der. divis-ian (from the pp.)- 

Divine. (F.-L.) M.E. (fojzV.-O.F. 

devin. — L. diuinus, divine, god-like ; 
allied to diuus, godlilce, deus, god; see 

Divorce, sb. (F. — L.) OS. divorce. — 
L. diuortium, a separation. — L. dltcortere, 
the same as dluertere, to turn aside, sepa- 
rate ; see Divert. 

Divulge. (F. — L.) 'S. divulgtier,' to 
divulge, reveal ; ' Cot. — L. diuulgdre, to 
publish abroad. — L. dl-, for dis~, apart ; 
uulgdre, to publish, from uulgus, the 
people, a crowd ; see Vulgax. 

Dizen., to deck out. (E.) To dhen was 
orig. to furnish a distaff with flax, hence 
to deck out. See Distaff. 

Dizzy. (E.) M. E. dysy, dust. A. S. 
dysig, foolish, stupid. + E. Fries, dusig, 
dizzy, foolish ; O. H. G. tustc. From 
Teut. *dus; as in Low G. dusen, to loiter 
(Liibben) ; allied to Teut. *di2s-, as in Du. 
duhelen, to be dizzy. Perhaps further 
allied to A. S. dwSs, Du. divaas, foolish 
(Franck), from Teut. stem *dw!is-. 

Do, to perform. (E.) M.E. rfoo«. A. S. 
don, pt. t. dyde, pp. gedon ; the orig. sense 
is ' put' or ' place.' -|-Du. doen, O. H. G. 
iitOK, G. /Aun. Teut. stem *do-. Allied 
to Gk. Ti-$ri-iu, I put, Skt. dAa, to place. 
(VDHE.) Brugm. i. § 129. 

Docile. (F.— L.) 'F.doeile.—'L.docilis, 
teachable. — L. docere, to teach. Allied to 
Disciple and Didactic. 

doctor. (F.— L.) M. E. doclour.— 
O. F. doctour. — 'L. dodorem, ace. ol doc/or, 
a teacher. — L. docere, to teach. 

doctrine. (F.— L.) Y. doctrine. — "L, 
doctrina, lore, learning. — L. doctor, a 
teacher. — L. docere, to teach. 

docaiuent. (F.— L.) F. document. 

— X,. documentuin, a proof. —L. docere, to 
teach, shew. 

Dock (0, to curtail. (E.?) From 
dock, sb.,, the stump of a tail, stump, cut 
end. Cf. E. Fries, doltke, dok, a bundle, 
bunch (as of straw) ; Du. dok, a little 
bunch (of straw) ; Dan. dukke, a skein, 
short column, baluster ; G. docke, a skein, 
riiil, plug, peg; Low G. dokke, a bunch, 
stump, peg (Berghaus). 

Dock (2), a plant. (E.) A. S. docce.-\- 
M. Du. docke (as in docken bladeren, dock- 
leaves, Hexham) ; M. Dan. a-dokka, water- 
dock (Kalkar). So also Gael, dogha, a 


burdock ; Irish meacan-dogha, a great bur- 
dock, where meacan means a tap-rooted 
plant, as a carrot. Der. bur-dock. 

Dock (3), ^ basin for ships. (Du.?) 
M. Du. docke, a harbour (whence Dan. 
dokke, Swed. docka, G. docke); Du. dok. 
9\ History obscure. 

Docket, a label, ticket. (E. ?) Orig. an 
abstract ; apparently allied to Dock (l). 
% History obscure. 

Doctor, Doctrine, Document; 

see Docile. 

Dodecagon. (Gk.) Named from its 
12 angles. Formed like decagon, with 
Gk. SaiSma, twelve, instead of Hiea, ten. 
See Decagon. 

Dodecahedron. (Gk.) Forinedwith 
Gk. SaiSeica, twelve, in place of Sixa, ten ; 
see Decahedron. 

Dodge, to go hither and thither, to 
quibble. (E.) XVI cent. Orig. to walk 
unsteadily, hence to go from side to side 
as if to escape ; perhaps allied to prov. E. 
dade, to walk unsteadily, Scotch doddle, 
doddle, to waddle, dod, to jog, dodge, to 
jog along, dodgel, to hobble, North E. 
dodder, to shake, totter, dadge, dodge, to 
walk clumsily. (Very doubtful.) 

Dodo, an extinct bird. (Port.) Port. 
doiido, silly, foolish ; the bird being of » 
clumsy malce. Said to be borrowed from 
Devonsh. dold, stupid, the same as E. dott 
(Diez). See Dolt. 

Doe. (E.) M.E. doo. A.S. (/rt.+Dan. 
daa. Swed. dof-, in dofhjort, a buck, may 
be allied to G. damhirsch, a buck, wherein 
the syllable dam- is thought to be borrowed 
from L. ddma, a deer ; or Celtic ; cf. Corn. 
da, a deer, Gael, damh, ox, stag. 

DofF, to put off clothes. (E.) Short for 
do off, i. e. put off. C£ don, dup. 

Dog. (E.) M. E. dogge. A. S. docga. 
(Du. dog, Swed. dogg, a mastiff ; Dan. 
dogge, a bull- dog; "Losn Or. dogge, F. dogiie; 
, all borrowed from E.) Der. dog, verb, to 
track, follow as a dog ; dogg-ed, sullen ; 
dog-cheap, very cheap (see N. E. D.) ; 

Doge, fi duke of Venice. (Hal. — L.) 
Ilal. doge, prov. form of *doce, a duke. — L. 
diic-em, ace. of dux, a leader. See Duke. 

Doggerel, wretched poetry. (E.?) 
M.E. dogerel, Ch. C. T. 13853. Origin 
uncertain ; but prob. formed from dog. 
Cf. dog-rime, poor verses (N. E. D.). 

Dogma, a definite tenet. (Gk.) Gk. 
807/^0, an opinion (stem 8o7/jaT-). — Gk. 



So«e<u, I am of opinion. Allied to Do- 
cile. Der. do^mat-ic, dogmat-ise. 

Doily, a small napkin. (Personal name.) 
Formerly we read of 'doily stuff,' and 
' doily petticoats.' Said to be named after 
' the famous Doily ' ; Spectator, no. 283, 
Jan. 24, 1713. Mentioned in Dryden's 
Kind Keeper, iv. i (1679). 

Doit, a small coin. (Du.— Scand.) Du. 
duit, a doit. — Icel.^w^iV, apiece, bit, small 
coin, doit. — Icel. *JivT/a (pt. t. *]>veit), to 
cut, a lost verb, but the same as A.S. 
JiwTtan ; see Thwite. 

Dole, a portion. (E.) M. E. dol, dale. 
A. S. ddl, a division (Exod. viii. 23). A 
variant of Deal (l), q.v. 

Doleful, sad. (Hybrid ; F. - L. attd E.) 
The suffix -ful is E. M. E. doel, duel, dol 
(Scotch doot), sorrow, grief. —O.F. doel, 
dol (F. deteil), grief; verbal sb. of O. F. 
doloir, to grieve. — \,.dolium,\xi cor-dolium, 
grief of heart. — L. dolere, to grieve. 

dolour. (F. - L.)_ M. E. dolour. - 
O.F. dolour.— \j. dolorem, ace. oi dolor, 
grief. — L. dolere, to grieve. 

Doll. (Gk.) From Doll, for Dorothy ; 
a familiar name, of Gk. origin (see 
N. E. D.). Cf. Lovfl. Sc. doroty, a doll. 

Dollar. (Low G. — G.) Low G. daler; 
Du. daalder, a dollar. Adapted and 
borrowed from G. thaler, a dollar. The 
G. thaler is short for Joachimsthaler, a 
coin made from silver found in/oachims- 
thal Qoachim's dale) in Bohemia, ab. 
A.D. 1519. 

Dolman, a kind of loose jacket. (F. — 
G. - Hung. - Turk.) F. dolman. - G. dol- 
man, dollmnn. — Hung, dolmany. — Turk. 
doldmdn, dolamah, a kind of long robe. 

Dolmen, a monument of two upright 
stones, with a third across them. (F. — C.) 
F. dolmen. — Bret, dolmen, lit. ' stone- 
table ; ' Legonidec. — Bret, tol, tool, a 
table (from L. tabula') ; and 7nen, a stone ; 
according to Legonidec. But (see N. E. D.) 
this is due to some mistike ; the F. 
dolmen seems to represent the Cornish 
tolmen, stone with a hole beneath; from 
Com. toll, a hole (W, twll), and men 
(W. maen), a stone. 
Dolomite, a kind of rock. (F.) 
Named in 1794 from M. Dolomieu, a 
French geologist (1750-1801). 
Dolour ; see Doleful. 
Dolphin, a fish. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
dolphine. — O. F. daulphin (now dauphin). 
" Folk-L. dalfinum, for L. delphinum, \ 


ace. of delphtnus, a dolphinj — Gk. !«X^:i>-, 
stem of Sc\<pis, a dolphin. 

Dolt. (E.) Cf. Devonsh. dold, a dolt. 
M.E. dull { = dulled); from M.E. dul, 
dull ; see Dull. 

Domain. (F.-L.) F. domaine, sb. ; 
from O. F. demaine, adj., belonging to as 
one's own. — L. dominicus, adj., belonging 
to a lord (the neut. dominiciwi was used 
for L. dominium, lordship). — L. dominus, 
a lord ; allied to L. domare, to tame, 
subdue ; see Ta,me. Doublet, demesne. 

Dome. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. d$me.- 
Ital. duomo, domo, a cathedral church 
(house of God). — L. domuvi, ace. of 
domus, a house, a building. (^DEM.) 
See Timber. Brngm. i. § 138. 

domestic. (F.-L.) F. domestique. 

— L. domesticus, belonging to a household. 

— L. dom-us, a house (above). 
domicile. (F.-L.) O.F. domicile, 

a mansion. — L. domicilium, a habitation. 

— L. domi-, for damns, a house; and 
-cilium, possibly allied to Cell. 

Domesday ; see Doom. 

Dominate. (L.) From pp. of domi- 
nSri, to be lord over. — L. dominus, a 
domineer. (Du.— F.— L.) M. Du. 

domineren, to feast luxuriously (Oude- 
mans) ; borrowed from O. F. dominer, to 
govern, rule. — L. dominari, to be lord 
over (above). 

dominical. (F. — L.) O.F. domini- 
cal. — Late L. dominicdlis, belonging to the 
Lord's day, or to the Lord. — L. dominic- 
us, belonging to a lord. — L. dominus, a 

dominion. (F. — Late L.) O. F. 

dominion. — l-aie L. dominionem, ace. of 
dominio, loidship; allied to L. domin- 
ium, lordship. — L. dominus (above). 

domino. (F. — L.) F. domino, a 
masquerade-dress ; orig. a master's hood. 

— L. dominus, a master (above). Der. 
dominoes, sb. pi., a game. 

Don (i)> to put on clothes. (E.) Short 
for do on, i. e. put on. Cf. doff, dout, 

Don (2), a Spanish title. (Span. — L.) 
Span, don, sir. — L. dominum, ace. of 
dominus, a lord. 

Donation. (F. — L.) F. donation.— 
L. ace. dondtionem, a gift, from the stem 
of the pp. of dondre, to give. — L. donum, 
a gift. Cf. Gk. ISipov, a gift. 

Donjon ; see Dungeon. 



Donkey, (C. attd E.) Double dimin. 
with suffix -k-ey ( = Lowl. So. -ick-ie, as 
in hors-ickie, a little-little horse, Banffah.), 
from dun, familiar name for a horse, from 
its colour (Romeo, i. 4. 41) ; see Dun (i). 
^ So also M.E. don-ek, p:ov. E. dunnock, 
a hedge-sparrow, from its colour. Donkey 
(first found in 1785) was a pro v. E. word, 
which seems to have rimed with monkey 
(whence the spelling). Cf. Somersets. 
duung'kee, pron. of donkey. 

Donna. (Ital.-L.) Ital. donna. — 'L. 
doiiiina, mistress, fem. of dominus, a 
master. Doublet, duenna. 

Doom, a judgment, decision. (E.) 
M. E. dSm. A. S. dotn, lit. a thing set or 
decided on; from don, to set, do; see Do.. 
+ Swed. Dan. dom, Icel. domr, Goth. 
doms, O. H. G. tuom. Teut. type *ddmoz, 
a statute. Cf. Gk. Bifui, law (from ridriiM, 
I set). Der. deem. 

doomsday, domesday. (E) A.S. 

domes dceg, day of doom or judgment. 

Door, a. gate. (E ) M. E. dore, dure. 
A. S. dor, n. ; duru, {. + O. Sax. dor, Goth. 
■daur, G. thor, n. ; and Icel. dyrr, i. pi. ; 
Dan. dor, Swed. dm-r, Du. dear, G. thiir, 
f. sing. Teut. types *durom, 11. ; *dures, f. 
pi. Cf. L. fores, Lith. diirys, i. pi. ; O. 
Irish (?fl;7«, n., "W.drws, m.; Russ. dver{e), 
Gk. fliipo, Skt. dvdr, f. Brugm. i. § 462. 
, Dormant, sleeping. (F.-L.) F. dor- 
mant, pres. pt. of dormir, to sleep. — L. 
fMormire, to sleep. + Skt. drd, to sleep ; 
Gk. Sap9dv€iv. 

^ dormer-window. (F. a/ui Scand.) 
A dormer was a sleeping-room. — O. F. 
dormeor. — 'L. dormltorium (below). 
\ dormitory. (L.) L. dormttorium, a 
sleeping-chamber ; neut. of dormitorius, 
'•adj., belonging to i\et^mg. — l^. dormJtor, 
a sleeper. — L. dormire, to sleep. 

Dormouse. (F. and E.) M. E. dor- 
mous. The prefix is perhaps short for 
North E. dorm, to doze (whence dorm- 
mouse). Cf. Icel., Norw., and Swed. dial. 
dorma, to doze ; all apparently from F. 
dormir, to sleep ; see Dormant. We find 
also prov. E. dorrer, a sleeper, as if from 
dor, to sleep. 

Domick, a kind of cloth; obsolete. 
(Flemish.) Named from Flem. Domick, 
better known by the F. name of Tournay 
(Lat. Tomacus). 

Dorsal. (F. — L.) F. (fwra/, belonging 
to the back. — Late L. dorsdlis. — L. dor- 
sum, the back. 


Dory, a fish; see John Dory. 

Dose. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. dose, a 
quantity of medicine given at once. — 
Med. L. dosis. — GV. S6(Tis, a giving. — Gk. 
SiSu/u (stems 5ai-, So-), I give. Brugm. i. 

Dot. (E.) A. S. do/i, only in the sense 
' head of a boil.' Cf. Du. dot, a little bundle 
ofspoilt wool,&c., goodfornothing (Sewel) ; 
Swed. dial, dott, a little heap, small lump; 
M. Dan. dot, a bunch ; E. Fries, dot, dotte, 
a heap, bunch, lump. Cf. Norw. dotten, 
pp. of detta, to fall, to fall to pieces. 
Dote. (E.) M. E. doHen, doten, to be 
foolish (Layamon).+ M. Du. doten, to 
dote, mope ; Du. dutten, to doze ; Icel. 
dolta, to nod with sleep, M. H. G. getotzen, 
to doze, tiizen, to mope. 

dotage. (E.-; with F. suffix.) M. E. 
dotage ; from M. E. doten ; with F. suffix 
-age (L. -aticuni). Cf. F. radotage, from 
radoter, to dote. 

dotard. (E. with F. suffix^ From 
dote, with F. suffix -ard (O. H. G. hart). 

dotterel, a kind of plover. (E.) A 
bird easily caught; from dote, vb., with 
suffix as in co<;herel. 

Double. (F.-L.) .0. F. doble, later 
double. -L. duplus, lit. two-fold. — L. du-o, 
two ; -plus, i. e. ' folded.' 

doublet. (F.-L.) M.E. dobbelet.- 
O. F. dojiblet, an inner (double) garment. 
— F. double, double; with suffix -et. 

doubloon. (F.-Span.-L.) Y. dou- 
^/o«. — Span, doblon, a coin, the double of 
a pistole. — Span, doblo, double. — L. du- 
plus (above). 

doubt. (F. - L.) M. E. doulen. - 
O. F. douter. — L. dubitdre, to be of two 
minds ; allied to dubius, doubtful ; see 
Douceur. (F.-L.) F. douceur, lit. 
sweetness (hence, pleasant gift). — L. dul- 
corem, ace. oidulcor, sweetness. — L. dulcis, 
sweet. See Dulcet. 
Douche, a shower-bath. (F.-Ital.— 
L.) F. douche, a shower-bath. — Ital. 
doccia,i>. conduit, water-pipe. — Ital. docci- 
are, to pour; equivalent to Late Lat. 
*ductidre, derivative of L. ductus, a duct ; 
see Duot. 

Dougb. (E.) M. E. dah, dogh. A. S. 
dah (stem rfa^-). -|- Du. deeg, Dan. deig, 
Swed.deg, Icel. deig, Goth.daigs, a kneaded 
lump, G. teig. The Goth, daigs is from 
daig, 2nd stem of deigan, to knead; see 
Dike. (VDHEIGH.) Brugm. i. § 604. 


Doughty. (E.) M.E. dohti, duhti, 
valiant. A. S. dohtig, earlier form dyhtig, 
valiant, — A. S. dugan, to be worth, be 
strong.+Dan. dygtig, Swed. dugtig, Icel. 
dy^ugr,(j. tiichtig; variously form^ from 
the Tent, verb *dugan-. 

Douse, to immerse. (E.?) Allied to 
M. Du. doesen, 'to smite with violence' 
(Hexham). See Dowse (i). 

Dout, to extinguish. (E.) Short for do 
out, i. e. put out. 

Dove, a bird. (E.) A. S. diife, only 
in comp. dufe-doppa, lit. a diver. — A. S. 
dafan, to plunge into. + O. Sax. dfwa, 
Goth, dubo, G. taube, a dove, lit. diver. 
[So also L. columba, a dove, is allied to 
Gk. Ko\vitpis, a diver, sea-bird. First 
applied to sea-gulls, &c.] 

dovetail, to fasten boards together. 
(E.) From dove and taii; from the shape 
of the fitted ends of the board (::]), 

Dowager, a widow with a jointure. 
(F.— L.) O. F. douagere ; from douage, 
an endowment. Again douage is coined 
(with suffix -ag^ from F. dou-er, to endow. 
— L. dotare, to endow. — L. dot-, stem of 
dos, a gift, dowry. Allied to do-num, a 
gift, dare, to give. Der. en-dow, from 
F. en and douer. Brugm. i. § 167. 

dower, an endowment. (F. — L.) 
M. E, dowere. — O. F. doaire, later douaire. 
—Late L. ddta.rium.~\,. dotare, io endow 
(above) . Der. dowr-y, short for dower-y. 

Dowdy ; see Duds. 

Dowlas, a coarse linen. (Bret.) From 
Daoulas, S. E. of Brest, in Brittany. 

Down (i), soft plumage. (Scand.) 
M. E. down. — Icel. dunn, Swed. dun, 
Dan. dtiun, down ; whence Du. dons. 

Down (2), a hill. (C.) A. S. dUn, a 
hill. — Irish dun, a fortified hill, fort ; 
Gael, dun, W. din, n hill-fort. + A. S. 
tun ; see Town. 

down (3), prep, and adv. (E. and C) 
A corruption of adown = A. S. ofdune = off 
the hill, downwards. — A. S. of, off; diine, 
dat. of dun, a hill ; see Down (2) . 

dune, a low sand-hill. (C.) XVIII 
cent. — F. dune. — M. Du. dune (Du. 
duin) ; of Celt, origin. See Down (2). 

Dowse (1). to strike in the face. 
(E. ?) Apparently the same as Douse 
(above). Cf. Norw. dus, a push, blow; 
M. Du. doesen, to strike, E. Fries, dbssen, 
to strike. 

Dowse (2), to immerse ; see Douse. 
Prob. thesame as Dowse (i). 


Dowse (3), to extinguish. The same 
as Dowse (i) ; sense perhaps suggested 
by dout, q. v. 

DoxolOgy. (L.-Gk.) L. doxohgia. 

— Gk. SoloKoyia, an ascription of praise. 

— Gk. Soio-, for i6(a, glory, orig. a 
notion ; -Xo7m, from \iyuv, to speak. 

Doxy. (M. Du.) A cant term. Cf. 
E. Fries, doktje, dimin. of dokke, a doll. 
Prob. introduced from the Netherlands. — 
M. Du. docke, a doll. Cf. O. H. G. tocchn, 
a doll, also a term of endearment (G. 

Doze. (Scand.) Swed. dial. rf«<j-a, Dan. 
diise, to doze, mope ; Icel. diisa, to doze ; 
M. Dan. d&se, to be torpid. Allied to 

Dozen, twelve. (F.-L.) O. F. do- 
saine {¥.douzaine),z dozen. — O.'P.doze (F. 
douze), twelve ; with suffix -aine (L. -enn, 
as in eent-ena), — h. duodecim, twelve.— L. 
duo, two ; decent, ten. See Two and Ten. 

Drab (i)i a slut. (E.) Cf.ln&h drabog, 
Gael, drabag, a slut ; Gael, drabach, dirty : 
Irish drab, a spot, stain (all from E.). E. 
Fries, drabbe, puddle-water. Also Du. 
drabbe, f. dregs, draff; allied to Draff. 

Drab (2), dull light brown. (F.-L.) 
The colour of undyed cloth. — F. drap, 
cloth. See Drape. 

Drachm ; see Dram. 

Draff, dregs. (E.) M. E. draf (Laya- 
mon).+Dn. draf, hogswash, drahbc, draff; 
Icel. draf, Swed. draf, Dan. drav, dregs ; 
G. trdber, pi. [Cf. Gael, and Irish drabh, 
draff, from E.] 

Draft ; see Draught. 

Srag, vb. (Scand.) M. E. draggen ; a 
Northern form allied to Icel. draga, to 
draw. Cf. Swed. dragg, a drag, grapnel ; 
dragga. to drag. See Draw. 

Dragoman, an interpreter. (Span.— 
Arab.) Span, dragoman; [Late Gk. ipa- 
7ov^cos], an interpreter. — Arab, tar- 
juman, an interpreter, translator; see 

Dragon. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. dragon. 

— L. ace. draconem, from nom. draco.— 
Gk. ifxuuav, a dragon, lit. ' seeing ; ' from 
his supposed sharp sight. — Gk. hpax-, 
weak grade of Scpieoimi, I see. ^ Such is 
the usual account. 

dragoon. (F.— L. — Gk.) F. dragon, 
a dragoon ; so called because the dragoons 
orig. had a dragon on their standard ; or 
rather, because they were armed with a 
short carbine called (in F.) dragon. 


A. S. drShnigcan, dreh- 
away, strain off, Matt. 

Brain. (E.) 

nian, to drain 

xxiii. 24, also spelt dreahnian; oriji;. 'to 
become dry.' — A. S. *dreag- = Tent. 
*draug-, second grade of Tent. *dreug-an-, 
to be dry. Cf. Icel. drmigr, a dry log. 
See Dry. 

Brake, male of the duck. (L.-Gk.?) 
M. E. drake. Not found in A. S.; cf. 
drake, a drake, in Low G. (Bremen) ; 
M. Swed. drake, (i) a dragon, (2) a drake, 
(3) a boy's kite. Supposed to correspond 
to the latter part of Swed. and-drake, a 
drake (a form thought to be borrowed from 
Low G.). Cf. Swed. and, duck, anddrake, 
drake ; Low G. anderik, drake (Liibben) ; 
G. «»/«, duck; enterich, drake; O. H. G. 
antrahho, a drake, p. The Swed. and, A. S. 
ened, vl duck, is cognate with L. anas 
(stem anat-), a duck. The M. E. drake 
was suggested by A. S. draca, a dragon, 
borrowed from L. draco ; see Dragon, 

Bram, Brachm. (F. - L. - Gk.) 

M. F. dranie, drachme, ' a dram, eighth 
part of an ounce;' Cot.— L. drachma.— 
Gk. dpaxiJ-v, a handful, a drachma, used 
both as weight and coin ; cf. Spay/ja, as 
much as one can grasp. — Gk. Spaaao/iat, I 
grasp. Brugm. i. § 509. 

Brama. (L.-Gk.) L. drama.- Gk. 
Spa/ja (stem SpA/MT-), an act, a drama.— 
Gk. Spaa, I perform ; cf. Lith. darau, I 
make. (y'DAR.) Der. dramat-ic (from 
Spa/MT-) ; &c. 

drastic, effective. (Gk.) Gk. Spaa- 
TIK6S, effective; allied to Spaartos, verbal 
adj. of Spaw, I perform. 

Brape, to cover with cloth. (F.-L.) 
F. draper, to make cloth. — F. drop, cloth ; 
Late L. drappus. Of unknown origin. 
Der. drap-er, drap-er-y ; and see drab (2) . 

Brastic ; see Drama. 

Braw. (E.) M. E. drawen. A. S. 
dragan (A. S. -aga- becoming M.E. -awe-). 
+ Du. dragen, Icel. Swed. draga, Dan. 
drage, Goth, dragan, G. tragen, to pull 
along, carry. Teut. type *dragan-, pt. t. 

draught, draft. (E.) Draft is a 

phonetic spelling. M. E. draught, draht. 
From A. S. drag-an; with suffixed /.+ 
Du. dragt, a load, from dragen, to carry ; 
Dan. drcet; Icel. drdttr, a draught of 
fishes ; G. iracht, a load, from tragen. 

drawl. (Du.) Frequentative of ai-aif/; 
parallel to draggle from drag. Introduced 
from Da. dra/en, to be slow; from dragen, 


to draw. + E- Fries, draulen ; Low &. 

dray. (E.) A.S. drage, that which is 
drawn ; as in dmge, drag-net, a draw-net. 
+Swed. drag, a sledge, dray. 

Bread, vb. (E.) A. S. *dradan, in 
comp. on-drddan, to dread, fear.+O. Sax. 
ant-dradnn ; O. H. G. in-tratan. Teut, 
type *dr^dan-. 

Bream, a. vision. (E.) M. E. dreem. 
A. S. *dream, a dieum ; not found. [Quite 
distinct from A.S. dream, asweet sound, har- 
mony, also joy, glee, happiness,] +0. Sax, 
drom, dream ; Du. droom, Icel, draumr, 
Dan.Sv/ed.drom, G.tratim. Klugesuggests 
comparison with G. trug-bild, a phantom ; 
if correct, the Teut. sb. was *draugmoz, 
m. ; from Teut. *draug, strong grade of 
Teut. *dreugan- (O. H. G. triogan, G. 
triigen), to deceive. From the Idg. root 
*dhreugh, whence also Skt. drogha{s), a, 
crafty wounding ; O. Pers. drauga (Pers, 
durugh), a deceit, lie; Icel, draugr, a 
ghost, Brugm, i. §§ 681, 689. 

Breary, Brear. (E.) Drear is short 

[or dreary. M.E.drery. A. S. dreerig, sad; 
orig. ' gory ; ' formed with suffix -ig from 
A.S. dreor, gore. — A. S, dreosan, to drip. 
-t-Icel. dreyrigr, gory, from dreyri, gore ; 
G. traurig, sad, orig. gory, from O. H, G. 
tror, gore. From Teut. *dreusan-, vb. 

Bredge (i), a drag-net. (E.) North E. 
dreg. Answering to A. S. *drecg, *drecge 
(not found), for *drag-jo-; from A.S. 
dragan ; see Draw, And see Dregs, 

Bredge (2), to sprinkle flour on meat, 
(F._- Late L, - Gk.) To dredge is to 
sprinkle, as in sowing dredge (M, E, drage) 
or mixed corn. — O, F, dragee, mixed 
corn ; also a sweetmeat, sugar-plum, 
[Prov, dragea; Ital. treggea, a sugar-plum.] 
-Late L. dragata, drageia, a sugar-plum; 
altered form of tragemata, pi. of tragema, 
— Gk. rpiyriiia, something nice to eat. — 
Gk. Tparyeiv (2 aor. erpayov), to gnaw. 

BregS, lees, (Scand,) PI. of M. E. 
dreg, mire ; we also find M. E. dregges,, 
dregs. -Icel. dregg, pi. dreggjar, dregs; 
Swed. drdgg, pi. dregs, lees. Cf. Gk. 
Bpaaaiiv, to disturb. Distinct from L. 
/races, dregs of oil ; Brugm. i. § 41 7. 

Brench, vb. (E.) M. E. drenchen. 
A. S. drencan, causal of drincan ; hence 
' to make drink.'+Du. drenken, Icel. drek- 
kja, Swed. drdnka, Goth, dragkjan, G. 
tranken. See Drink. 

Bress. (F.-L.) O.F, dresser, drescer. 



to erect, set up, dress ; answering to a Late 
L. form *directiare. — 'L. directus, pp. of 
dtrigere, to direct ; see Direct. 

DribUe. (E.) Frequentative of obs. 
E. drib, to drip slightly; which is a 
weakened form of drip. Cf. drib-let. See 
Drip. So also Dan. dial, drible. 

Drift ; see Drive. 

Drill (i), to pierce, to train soldiers. 
(Du.) Borrowed from Du. drillen, to drill, 
-to bore, to turn round, shake, brandish, 
■drill soldiers, form to arms. Allied to 
M. H. G. drelkn, to turn round (pp. ge- 
drollen), Low G. drall, twisted tight. 
Tent, type *thrdlan- (pt. t. *thrall), to 
twist ; cf. A. S. pearl, strict. % Perhaps 
allied to Thrill. 

Drill (2), to sow com in rows. (E.) 
The same as drill, to trickle, which seems 
to be a variant of trill, to trickle. 

Drilling, a coarse cloth used for 
trousers. (G. — L.) Corrupted from G. 
drillich, ticking, huckaback. — L. trilic-, 
stem of irilix, having three threads. — L. 
iri-, fiom tres, three ; licium, a thread. 
See Three. 

Drink. (E.) A.S. drincan, pt. t. dranc, 
pp. drutuen.'\-V)yx. drinken, Icel. drekka, 
Swed. dricka, Dan. drikke, Goth, drigkan 
( = drinkari) , G. trinken. Tent. *dreiikan-. 

Drip. (Scand.) 'Hi.'E. dryppen. — 'Dzx\. 
dryppe, to drip { = Teut. *drtip-jan-). 
■ From Teut. *drup-, weak grade of *dren- 
pan-, as seen in Icel. drjfipa, to drip, A. S. 
dreopan (obs. E. dreep), G. triefen. Cf. 
O. Ir. truckt, a dew-drop. See Drop. 

Drive. (E.) M. E. driuen. A.S. drifan 
(pt. t. drdf, pp. (&-^»). + Dn. drijven: 
Icel. drifa, Swed. drifva, Dan. drive, Goth. 
dreiban, G. treiben. Tent. *dreiban-. 

drift. (E.) M. E. drift. Formed from 

■drif-, weak grade of drifan ; with suffix -t. 

'■' + Du. drift, Icel. drift, Swed. Dan. drift, 

G. trift. . Der. a-drift = on the drift ; see 

A- (2). 

drove. (E.) M. E. drof. A. S. drdf, 
a drove. From drdf, lai^xzAcoi drifan. 

Drivel, vb. (E.) M. E. drevelen. A. S. 
dreflian, to dribble or run at the nose. 
Cf. M. E. dravelen, to drivel. From the 
base draf, as in M. E. draf, draff. See 

Drizzle, to rain slightly. (E.) For- 
merly drisel or drisle, to keep on dripping. 
Frequent, form of M. E. dresen, A. S. 
dreosan, to drip ; see Dreary. Cf. Dan. 
drysse, to fall in drops ; Swed. dial, drbsla. 


Droll. (F.-Du.) M.F.rfra/d, 'a plea- 
sant wag; ' Cot. — Du. drollig, odd, strange ; 
M. Du. drol, ' a juglar ; ' Hexham. Per- 
haps from Du. droU-, pp. stem of drillen, 
to turn, wheel, whirl about ; see DriU(i). 

Dromedanr. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. 

dromedarie.—O. F. dromedaire (older form 
*dromedarie) . — Late L. dromaddrius. — L. 
dromad-, stem of dramas, a dromedary. — 
Gk. Spo/iaS-, stem of Spo/ids, fast running. 
— Gk. hfayiav, to run.+Skt. dram, to run. 

Drone (i), to hum. (E.) M.E. dnnten 
(also drouneti). Not in A. S. Cf. Icel. 
drynja, Swed. drbna, Dan. drone, to drone, 
roar, rumble, &c. Cf. Goth, drunjus, a 
sound, Gk. Bprpioi, a dirge ; Skt. dhran, 
to sound. 

Drone (2), a non- working bee. (I.ow 
G.) M. E. dran. A. S. dran ; which (like 
E. Fries, drane) was prob. borrowed from 
O. Sax. dran. Cf. M. H. G. treno (G. 
drohne being borrowed from Low G.). 
Teut. stems *drctn-, *dren- ; cf. Gk. av- 
Spfivr], a wild-bee, SpSival (Hesychius). 
^ With the parallel stems *dr&n-, *dren-, 
cf. the stems of Queen and Quean. 

Droop ; see below. 

Drop, sb. (E.) M. E. drope, sb. ; hence 
dropien, droppen, vb. — A. S. dropa, sb, ; 
dropian, vb. These are from the weak 
grade *drup- (A.S. dropr) of the Teut. 
vb. *dreupan- (A. S. dreopan), to drop, 
drip.+Du. drop, sb., Icel. dropi, Swed. 
droppe, Dan. draabe, G. tropfen. See also 

droop, to sink, fail. (Scand.) M. E. 
£&»«/««. — Icel. drupa, to droop; weak 
vb., allied to drjupa, strong vb., to drip = 
Teut. *dreupan- (whence also G. triefeii) ; 
see above. Cf. ' I am ready to drop^ i. e. 

DropSV ; see Hydropsy. 

DrOSlLEy, Drosky-jakind of carriage. 
(Russ.) Russ. drozhki, drojki, a low four- 
wheeled carriage (the j sounded as in 
French). Dimin. of drogi, a waggon ; 
which was orig. pi. of droga, a perch (of 
a carriage). 

Dross. (E.) M.E. dros. A. S. dros, 
dross, dregs ; cf. also obs. E. drosen, A. S. 
drSsna, pi., lees, dregs. + M. Du. droes, 
lees (Kilian); Du. droesem, dregs, lees, 
G. drusen, pi. dregs ; O. H. G. trusana, 
truosana, husks of pressed grapes. 

Dronght, Droath ; see Dry. 

Drove ; see Drive. 

Drown. (Scand.) M. E. drounen, dm- 



nen. — 'M.. Dan. druine, drougne, drovne, 
drone, to sink, be drowned (Kalkar) ; Icel. 
drukna. The -tikn- was preserved in Swed. 
drunkna, A. S. druncnian, to be drunk, 
also to sink, to be drowned. See Drun- 
ken. (£. Bjorkman.) 
Drowse, Browze, to be sluggish. 

(E.) Formerly i^TOKje. K.?i. drusian, to 
be sluggish ; allied to A. S. dreosan, to 
fail ; also to drip, to fall. See Dreary. 
Der. drowz-y. 

Drub, to beat. (Arab.?) ^ Drub, to 
beat the soles of the feet with a stick, a 
punishment used in Turkey ; ' (Phillips) . 
Apparently a travellers' word. Perhaps 
from Arab, darb (zarb), a beating with a 
stick ; from Arab, root daraba {zarabd) , 
he beat ; Rich. Diet. p. 952. (N. E. D.) 

Drudge, vb. (E.) M. E. druggen. 
A. S. *drycgean, not found ; but regularly 
formed from drus;-, weak grade of dreogan, 
to work, perform, endure (=Teut. *dreu- 
gan-, Goth, driugan, Lowl. Sc. dree). Cf 
Icel. drjilg-virkr, one who works slowly 
but surely. The Gael, drugair, a drudge, 
is from E. 

Drng. (F.) yi.'E. drogge, drugge.- 
O. F. drogue, a drug. Also Ital. and Span. 
droga. Origin imknown ; perhaps Ori- 
ental. Der. drugg-ist. 

Drugget. (F.) M.F. rfnJg-a^?, 'akind 
of stuff that's half silk, half wool ; ' Cot. 
Dimin. of drogue, used in the sense of 
rubbish, poor stuff; from the coarseness 
of the material ; cf. E. ' a drug in the 
market.' ^ Probably not the same word 
as F. drogue, a drug. 

Druidi a priest of the ancient Britons. 
(F. - L. - C.) F. Druide. - L. (Gaulish) 
pi. Dniides, Druidae (Lewis and Short). 
Cf. O. Irish druid, dat. and ace. of drui, 
a magician, sorcerer ; Ir. draoi, druidh, 
Gael, druidh (whence also A, S. dry, a 

Drum. (Du.) XVI cent. Imperfectly 
adapted from M. Du. tromme, trommel, a 
drum ; Low G. trumme ; Du. trom. + 
O. H. G. trumba, trumpa, M. H. G. 
ti-uinme, a pipe, trumpet ; Icel. trumba, 
a pipe, trumpet. [So also Ital. tromba, 
Span, trompa.'] Of imitative origin. 

Drunkard. (E. ; with F. siiffix.) 

From A. S. drunc-, base of pp. of drincan, 
to drink ; with F. suffix -ard (G. hart). 

dnmkeu, drunk. (E.) A. S. drtm- 

cen, pp. of drincan, to drink. 
Drupe, a fleshy fruit containing a stone. 


(F.— L. — Gk.) Y. drupe.— 1,. drupa, an 

over-ripe olive. — Gk. Spiimd, the same. 

Dry. (E.) M. E. dru)e. A. S. dryge. 
Cf. Du. draog, dry; G. trocken, dry; 
Icel. draugr, a dry \o%. 

drought. (E.) M. E. drojte, droujte ; 
also drouthe (P. Plowman). A. S. driigatS, 
drought. —A. S. drugian, to be dry ; dryge, 
dry.+Du. droogte, drought; from droog, 
dry. Doublet, drouth (Milton). 

Dryad, a nymph of the woods. (L. — 
Gk.) L. Dryad; stem oi Dryas, a wood- 
nymph. —Gk. S/niaS-, stem of dpvds, the 
same. — Gk. Spv-s, a tree ; see Tree. 

Dual, consisting of two. (L.) 'L.dudlis, 
dual. — L. duo, two ; see Two. 

Dub, to confer knighthood by a stroke. 
(F.) U.'E. dubben. A.S.dubban; A. S. 
Chron. an. 1086. [So also Swed. dubba.'] 
Usually derived from O. F. aduber, adou- 
ber, adober, to dub a knight ; a Romanic 
word of unknown origin (Ital. addobbare, 
O. Span, and Vioy. adobar, O. Port, adubar), 
^ Diez derives adouber, conversely, from 
dubban ; rather, from the cognate E. Fries. 
(Low G.) dtibben. 

Dubious. (L.) From L. dubiosus, 
doubtful. —L. dubium, doubt; neuter of 
L. dubius, doubtful, moving in two direc- 
tions. —L. ife-u, two. See Two. 

Ducal. (F.-L.) F. i^«fa/, adj. ; from 
due, a duke ; see Duke. 

ducat, a coin. (F. - Ital. - L.) O. F. 
ducat. — Ital. ducato, a ducat, also a duchy ; 
named from L. ducdtus (duchy of Apulia) 
alluded to in the legend upon it; see 
duchy below. 

duchess. (F.— L.) O. F. duchesse 
(Late L. ducissa), fem. of due, duke; see 

duchy. (F.-L.) F. duchl - Late L. 
ducdtum, ace. of ducaius, a dukedom. — 
L. due-, stem of dux, a duke. ^ Also 
O. F. duehde, fem., as if from Late L. 

Duck (i), to dive, bob the head. (E.) 
M.'E.duken, douken. Not in A. S.-t-Du. 
duiken, to stoop, dive ; G. tauehen, to 
plunge, dive. Teut. type *deukan-, pt. t. 
*dauk (whence G. taueh-eri) , pp. *duk-ano-. 
From the weak grade duk- we have Dan. 
dukke, Swed. dyka ; to which the shorten- 
ing of the vowel in mod. E. duck may have 
been partly due. 

duck (2), bird. (E.) M. E. doke, 
duke. Lit, ' diver ; ' the suffix -e repre- 
sents the A, S. f. suffix of the agent. A. S. 



diice, a duck. From the verb above. 
Cf. Dan. dukand, lit. 'diving duck;' 
Swed. dykfigel, 'diving fowl.' Der. 
dtuk-l-ing, with double dimin. suffix. 

DnckCs), a pet, darling. (E.) Appa- 
rently the same as Duck (2). 

Duck (4), light canvas. (Dn.) A nauti- 
cal word. "• Dn. doek, linen cloth, canvas. 
■+Dan. ditg, Swed. duk, Icel. diikr, G. 
tuck, O.U.G.lttoi. 

Duct, a conduit-pipe. (L.) L. ductus, 
a leading (lience, a duct). — L. ductus, pp. 
of diicere, to lead. See Duke. 

ductile. (F.— L.) F. ductile, malle- 
able. — L. ductilis, easily led. — L. duct-us, 
pp. of diicere (above). 

Dude, an exquisite, a dandy. (G.) 
From G. dude ; see Supplement. 

Dudgeon (i), resentment. Of unknown 

Dudgeon (2), haft of a dagger. (Un- 
known.) M. E. dogeon, a kind of wood 
used for the handles of daggers. Etym. 

Duds, clothes. (Scand.) Jamieson has 
dudis as well as duds ; the u was prob. 
once long. — Icel. diitii, swaddling clothes ; 
dutia, to wrap up. Cf. E. dowd, a woman's 
cap, a slut; dowd-y, ill-dressed. 

Due. (F.— L.) M. E. dew, dewe.— 
O. F. deu, masc, deue, fem. ; pp. of de- 
voir, to owe. — L. debere. See Devoir. 

Duel. (Ital.— L.) Ital. duello, a duel. 

— L. duellum, a fight between two men 
(archaic form of L. bellum,\isx).^\u. du-o, 

duet. (Ital. — L.) Ital. duetto, music 
for two. — Ital. due, two. — L. duo, two. 

Duenna. (Span.— L.) Span, duena, 
a married lady, duenna. — L. domina, fem. 
of dominus, a lord. See Douua. 

Duet ; see Duel. 

Duffel, coarse woollen cloth. (Du.) 
Du. duffel; so called from Duffel, a place 
near Antwerp. 

Duffer, a stupid person. (Scand.) 
Lowl. Sc. doufart, formed with suffix -art 
from the adj. dowf, stupid, dull ; lit. 'deaf.' 

— Icel. dauf-r, deaf ; see Deaf. 

Dug, a teat. (Scand.) Perhaps allied 
to Swed. ddgga, Dan. dcigge, to suckle. 
Cf. Goth, daddjan, O.H. G. taan, to 
suckle, f But cf. Skt. duh, to milk. 

Dugong, a sea-cow. (Malay.) Malay 
duyong, diiydng, a sea-cow. 

Duke, a leader. (F.-L.) M.E. duk.- 
O. F. due, ace. formed from O. F. nom. 


dux.—l-,. dux, a leader. — L. diicere, to 
lead. (VDEUK.) f The L. ace. «f«fm 
would have given O. F. dois, F. doix; 
like F. noix from nucem, croix from 
crttcevi. (N. E. D.) Brugm. i. § 593. 

Dulcet, sweet. (F,-L.) 'ill.'F . doucet 
(Cot.), refashioned after L. dulcis (cf. 
Ital. dolcetto). - O. F. dols (F. doux), 
sweet. — L. dulcis, sweet. 

dulcimer. (F.-Span.-L.) Roque- 
fort has F. doulcemer (undated) ; cf. 
O.P\ doulcemele (Godefroy). — Span, dulce- 
mele, a dulcimer ; named from its sweet 
sound. — L. dulce melos, sweet sound; see 

Dull, stupid. (E.) M. E. dul ; cognate 
with Low G. dull; answering to Tent. 
*dul-joz. Closely allied to A. S. dol, 
foolish, cognate with Du. dol, mad, G. toll, 
mad, answering to Teut. *dul-os. Both 
are from Teut. *dul- {<,*dwul), weak 
grade of *dwel-an, as seen in A. S. dwelan, 
to err, to be stupid ; see Dwell. Cf. A.S. 
gedwol-god, a false god, idol ; Irish and W. 
dall, blind. Brugm. i. § 375 (6). 

Dulse, an edible seaweed. (C.) Irish 
duileasg, Gael, duileasg, dulse. According 
to Macleod, it means ' water-leaf,' from 
Ir. and Gael, duille, leaf, and uisgi/), 

DtuuI). (E.) M.K domi. A.S. dumb, 
mute. + Du. dam, Icel. dumbr, Swed. 
dumb, Dan. dum, Goth, dumbs, G. dumm, 
O. H. G. tumb, tump, stupid. The orig. 
sense seems to have been 'stupid,' and 
perhaps Goth, dumbs is allied to Goth. 
daubs, deaf; see Deaf. Der. dumm-y 
{ = dumb-y'). 

Dump (i), an ill-shapen piece. (E. ?) 
Prov. E. dump, a clumsy lump, a bit ; 
dumpy, short and thick. Probably ' a thing 
thrown down in a mass' ; see Dump (2). 
dumpling, a kind of pudding. (E. ?) 
A small solid ball of pudding; dump-l-ing 
is a double dimin. oi duvip (i). 

Dump (2). to strike, fling down. 
(Scand. ?) Cf. Lowl. Sc. dump, to beat. 
Dan. dumpe, to plump, plunge; Norw. 
dumfa; Swed. dial. dompa. — SvieA. dial. 
dump-, as in dump-iS, supine of str. vb. 
dimpa, to fall down plump. 

Dumps, melancholy. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial, dumpin, melancholy, orig. pp. of 
dimba, to steam, reek ; Dan. dump, dull, 
low.+Du. domp, damp, hazy, G. dumpf, 
damp, dull. Allied to Damp ; cf. ' to 
damp one's spirits.' 



Sun (i), brown. (C.) A. S. (/»««, dark. 
— Iiish and Gael, donn, brown ; W. dwn, 
<lun, dnsky. Celtic type *donnos. 

Sun (2), to urge for payment. (Scand.) 
Said (in 1708) to be derived from the 
name of Joe Dun, a famous bailiff in the 
time of Henry VII. But perhaps from 
the notion of noisiness. Cf. M. E. dunning, 
a loud noise. — Icel. duna, to thunder; 
iovia einum dynfyrir dyrr, to make a din 
before one's door ; Swed. dana, to make a 
noise. Allied to Din. 

Snnce, a stupid person. (Scotland.) 
From the phr. ' a Duns man,' i.e. a native 
of Dunse, in Berwickshire. In ridicule of 
the disciples of John Duns Scotus, school- 
man, died A.D. 1308. ^Not to be confused 
with John Scotus Erigena, died A. D. 875. 

Sune, a low sand-hill. (F. — Du. — C.) 
F. dune. — 'M.. Du. dune (Du. duin) ; cog- 
nate with A. S. dt'in, a down ; see 
Down (2). Brugm. i. § 112. 

Snug. (E.) A. S. dung.+Sviei. dynga, 
dung ; Dan. dynge, a heap, mass ; G. 
dung. Root uncertain; it answers, in 
form, to the pp. of Ding; as if it were 
' what is thrown down or away.' Cf. 
Swed. dial, dong, (i) heap, (2) dung. 

Sungeon, Sonjou. (F.-L.) M. E. 
dongeon. — 0.¥. donjon, the chief tower 
of a castle. — Late L. domnionem, ace. of 
domnio, a dungeon- tower, chief-tower; 
shortened from dominio, properly domi- 
nion, feudal power ; see Dominion. 

Snniwassal, a Highland gentleman, 
yeoman. (C.) In Sir W. Scott's Bonny 
Dundee. — Gael, duine uasal, gentleman. — 
Gael, duine, a man (W. dyri) ; uasal, 
noble, gently born (W. uckel), orig. 
' exalted ; ' see Brugm. i. § 219 (4). 

Suodecimo. (L.) in duodecimo = \iil\i 
1 2 leaves to the sheet. — L. duodecimo, abl. 
oi duodecimus, twelfth; cf. L. duodecim, 
twelve ; see Dozen. 

Snodennm, the first of the small 
intestines. (L.) Late L. duodenum, so 
called because about 12 finger-breadths 
long. — L. duodenl, twelve apiece, distribu- 
tive form of duodecim, twelve ; see Dozen. 

Sup. (E.) Short for do up, i.e. lift up 
(a latch) ; to open a door. 

Snpe, a person easily deceived. (F.) 
F. dupe, a dupe. The M. F. dupe meant 
a hoopoe ; whence dupe, a dupe, because 
the bird was easily caught. (So also Bret. 
houperik, a hoopoe, a dupe.) Perhaps of 
imitative origin. 


Snplicate, two-fold. (L.) L. dupli- 

catus, pp. of dtiplicdre, to double.— L. 

duplic-, stem of duplex, two-fold (below). 

duplicity. (F. — L.) Lit. doubleness. 

— F. dupliciti. — L. ace. diiplicitdiem.,— L. 
duplici; decl. stem oi duplex, two-fold.— 
L. du-o, two ; pKc-dre, to fold. 

Snrance, Snration ; see Dure. 

Surbar, a hall of audience, levee. 
(Pers.) Pers. darbdr, a prince's court, 
levee; lit. 'door of admittance.' — Pers. 
dar, door ( = E. dooi^ ; and bar, admit- 
t.ince, court. 

Sure, to last. (F. — L.) F. durer.— 
L. diirare, to last. — L. dilrus, hard, lasting. 
+ Irish and Gael, dur, firm ; W. dur, 
steel. Cf Gk. Suvo^is, force. Der. dur- 
ing, orig. pres. pt. of dure ; dur-able, &c. 
durance, captivity. (F.— L.) The 
orig. sense was long endurance of hardship. 
O. F^ durance, duration, — F. durer, to 
last ; with suffix -ance ; see above. 

duration. (F. — L.) O. F. duration. 

— Late L. diirationem, ace. of durdtio. A 
coined word; from the pp. of L. diirare, 
to last. 

duress, hardship. (F.-L.) M. E. 
duresse. — O. F. duresce. — 'L.dUritia, harsh- 
ness. — L. dUrus, hard, severe. 

Surian, a fruit. (Malay.) Malay du- 
rXan, a fruit with a prickly rind. — Malay 
dUri, a thorn, prickle. 

Snsk, dim. (Scand.) Properly an adj. 
M. E. dosk, dark, dim ; deosc, the same. 
Prob. a Northern form (as the sk did not 
become sK). Cf. A. S. dox (for *dosc), 
translating \j. flduus ; Vocab. 239. 36.— 
Swed. dial, duska, to drizzle ; duskug, 
misty, dim ; Norw. dusk, mist, duskregn, 
fine rain. Der. dusk, sb. ; whence dusk-y, 

Sust. (E.) A. S. (f»rf. + Du. duist, 
Icel. dusl, dust, Dan. dyst, meal ; G. 
dunst, vapour, fine dust. AH from a 
Tent, base *dunst- (for *dwuns-t-), the n 
being lost except in G. Cf. Skt. dhvaths, 
to fall to pieces (pp. dhvas-ta-). 

Sutch, belonging to Holland. (G.) 
Formerly applied to the Germans. — G. 
Deutsch, German; lit. belonging to the 
people; M. H.G. diut-isk, where the 
suffix -isk — Y^. -ish, and diut is cognate 
with A. S. ])eod, Goth, thiuda, a people, 
nation ; Ir. tuath, a people ; cf. Oscan 
touto, a city. Brugm. i. § 218. 

Suty. (A. F.-L.) M.E. rf»e/«».- 
A. F. dueU, duty (O. F. has only devoir). 


A coined word ; from A. F. deu, du, dne, 
and the suffix -U (L. -tatem). See Due. 

Dwale ; see Dwell. 

Dvrarf. (E.) M.E. dwerj, diaergh ; the 
/represents the guttural. O. Merc, dzuerg, 
A.S. dweorg, a dwarf.+Dn. dwerg, Icel. 
dvergr, Swed. Dan. dverg, G. ziuerg. Teut. 
type *dwerg-oz. 

Swell. (E.) M. E. dwellen, to linger. 
A. S. dwellan, in the active sense to retard, 
also to seduce ; also dwelian, to go astray, 
err, tarry, dwell. Causal of A. S. *dwelan 
(pt. t. *dw(El, pp. dwoleri), to be torpid or 
dull, to err.+Icel. dvelja, to dwell, delay, 
orifj. to hinder; Swed. dvaljas, to dwell 
(reflexive) ; Dan. (&«&, to linger; M.H.G. 
iwellen, to hinder, delay. Teut. type 
*dwaljan, causal of the str. vb. *dwelan- 
(pt. t. *dwal, pp. *dwulano-), to be torpid, 
to cease, to err (A. S. *dwelan, O. H. G. 
gi-tvjelan). Cf. Skt. dh-or, to bend aside, 
dhiir-ta-, fraudulent. (VDHWEL.) And 
see Dull. 

dwale, deadly nightshade. (Scand.) 
Named from its soporific effects. Dan. 
dvale, stupor, dvaledrik, a soporific, 
' dwale-drink ; ' Swed. dvala, a trance. 
Cf. A. S. dwala, an error, stupefaction, 
from the 2nd grade of A. S. *dwelan 
(above) . 

Swindle. (E.) The frequent, form of 
M. E. dwinen, to dwindle, A. S. dwinan 
(pt. t. divan), to dwindle, languish. + 
Icel. dvTna ; Swed. tmna, to dwindle, 
pine away ; Du. ■ver-dwijnen, to vanish. 

Sye, to colour ; a colour. (E.) M. E. 
deyen, vb. ; deh, sb. A. S. deagian, vb., 
to dye ; from diah, sb., dye, colour. A. S. 
deak (gen. deag-e), sb. f., answers to Teut. 
type *daug-a. % Not allied to 'L.filais, 
whicli is from Gk. (pvnos, 

Syke ; see Dike. 

Synamic, relating to force. (Gk.) 
Gk. SwaiuK6s, powerftil. — Gk. SivaiJis, 
power. — Gk. Sivaum, I am strong; see 
Dure. (^DEU.) 

dynaarty, lordship. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
Y.dynastie. — 'La.ts'L. dynastia. — Gk. Sv- 
vaareia, lordship. — Gk. hxmaaTqs, a lord. 
— Gk. iiraiuu, I am strong. 

Sysentenr, disease of the entrails. 
(L. — Gk.) i. dysenteria. — GV. hvatv- 
repia, — Gk. Sva-, prefix, with a bad sense ; 
evTfpa, pi., the inwards, bowels, from 
fVTos, within, ev, in ; see Interior. 

Dyspepsy, indigestion. (L.^Gk.) L. 
dyspepsia. — Gk. Svaireifla. — Gk. Svaireirros, 


hard to digest. -Gk. Sva-, prefix, with s 
bad sense ; vtimtv, to cook, digest ; see 
Cook. Der. dyspeptic (from hia-ntin-oi). 

E-, prefix ; see Ex-. 

Sacn, every one. (E.) M. E. eche, ekk. 
A. S. celc, each, short for a-gi-lTc, i. e. 
aye-like (ever -like or ever alike).4-Du. 
elk, eacli ; O. H. G. eogalth, M. H. G. 
ie^elich, G.jeglicher. See Aye. 

Eager. (F..-L.) M. E. <5«.-A.F. 
egre (F. aigre^.-'L,. acrent, ace. of ac-er, 
sharp. See Acid. Der. vin-egar. 

Eagle. (F.-L.) M.E. egle.-k.^. 
egle, O. F. aigle (F. aigl^ . — L. aquila. See 

Eagre, tidal wave in a river. (F. — L.) 
O. F. aiguere, a flood (Godefroy). — Late 
L. aquaria, a conduit ; cf. aquare, to 
irrigate. — L. aqua, water. See Ewer. 

Eanliug, a lamb. (E.) Eanling is 
from the verb ean, which is y-ean without 
the prefixj/- ( = A. S. ^e-). See Yean. 

Ear (i\ organ of hearing. (E.) M. E. 
ere. A. S. «rre.+Du. oor, Icel. eyra, Swed. 
bra, Dan. ore, G. ohr, Goth. auso. Teut. 
type *auzon-. Cf. also Russ. ucho, L. 
auris, Lith. ausis, Gk. oSs, O. Irish o. 

earwig, an insect. (E.) A. S. ear- 
wicga, from its being supposed to creep 
into the ear. Cf. A. S. wicga, a kind oi 
insect; prov. E. wiggle, to wriggle. 

Ear (2), spike of corn. (E.) M.E. «;-. 
A. S. ear (pi.) ; Northumb. «Acr.+Dn. aar, 
Icel. Dan. Swed, ax (for ahs), Goth, ahs, 
G. iihre. Teut. type *ahoz, *ahiz-, cognate 
with L. acus (gen. aceris). Bnigm. i. 
§183. Allied to Awn. (VAK.) 

Ear (3), to plough. (E.) M. E. eren. 
A.S. erian, to plongh.+Icel. erja, Goth. 
arjan, L. arare, Lith. arti, Russ. orat{e) ; 
also Irish araim, I plough, Gk. &.piw, I 
plough. (VAR.) 

Earl. (E.) M. E. erl. A. S. eorl. + 
Icel. jarl, O. Sax. erl, a man. O. Norse 
(runic') type erilaR. 

Early, soon. (E.) M.E. e?-/)/. A.S. 
Srltce, adv. ; from *Srltc, adj., not used. — 
A. S. ar, soon ; lie, like. See Ere. 

Earn. (E.) M.E. emien. A.S. eartiian. 
+0. H. G. amon (cf. also G. ernten, to 
reap, from ernte, harvest). Tent, type 
*az{a)ndjan, to get the profit of labour; 
from the sb. *az{a)nd (Icel. onn), labour ; 




cf. O. H. G. aran, Goth, asans, a harvest. 
(VAS.) f Others connect it with Gk. 
apvvftai, I earn. 

Earnest (i), seriousness. (E.) Properly 
a sb., as in ' in earnest.' M. E. emesi, sb. 
A. S. eornost, sb.+Du. ernst, sb. ; G. emst, 
O. H. G. ernust. Teut. type *ernustiz. 

Earnest (2), a pledge. (F.-L.-Gk. 
— Heb.) The ; is added. M. E. «/-»«j; 
also spelt erles, arles. Dimin. of O. F. 
erres, arres (F. arches), f. pi. — L. arrha, 
arrhabo. — Gii. dppa^uiv, a pledge. — Heb. 
'erabon, security; from 'drab, to give 

Earth. (E.) M.E.erM«. \.S.eorSe. 
+Du. aarde, Icel.jorS, Dan. Swed./ord, 
Goth, airtha, G. erde. Teut. types *ertha, 
*erthdn-, f. Cf. Gk. ?/)o, earth. 

Earwig ; see Ear (i). 

Ease. (F.) M. E. ese. — O. F. aise, ease. 
Cf. Ital. agio, ease, Port, azo, occasion. 
Orig. unknown. Der. dis-ease. 

Easel. (Du.— L.) Du. e%el, an ass; 
also a support, a painter's easel. [G. esel; 
Goth. asiius.'\ — 'L.- asellus, dimin. of L. 
asimis, ass. 

Bast, the quarter of sun-rise. (E.) M.E. 
est. A. S. east, adv., in the east ; eastan, 
from the east.+Du. oost, G. ost, Dan.oj/; 
Swed. ostan, G. osten ; Du. ooster-, G. 
oster-, Dan. Swed. lister, Icel. atistr (gen. 
austr-s). Teut. types *aus-to-, *aus-to-no- ; 
also *aust-ro- , for Idg.*aaj-ro- (see easter). 
Cf. L. aur-ora, (lawn, Gk. ^tuj, etur, auius, 
dawn, Skt. ushas, dawn. Brugm. i. § 218 


easter. (E.) U. E. ester. A.S. eastar-, 
in comp. ; eastre, Lu. xxii. i, Easter.— 
A. S. eastre, a goddess whose festivities 
were at the vernal equinox ; see Beda, De 
Temporum Ratione, c. 15. Cf. Lith. 
auszra, f. dawn ; Skt. usra-, m. a ray. 

Eat. (E.) M. E. eten. A.S. etan.+ 
Du. ete», Icel. eta, Swed. ata, Dan. ade, 
Goth, itan, G. essen. Teut. type *etan-. 
Cf. L. edere, Gk. e6«>', Skt. arf, to eat. 

Eaves, the clipped edge of a thatched 
roof. (E.) Also E. dial. (Essex) oavis. 
M. E. euese ; pi. eueses {=eaveses); 
also ««««. A.S. e/es, a (clipped) edge 
of thatch, whence efesian, to shear, also 
*oefes, whence oefsung, Corp. gl. 474.+ 
Icel. ups, Swed. dial, uffs; Goth, ubiawa, 
a porch, from the projection of the eaves ; 
O. H. G. ofasa. Teut. type *obeswa. 
Prob. allied to Over. Der. eavesdropper, 

one who stands under droppings from the 
eaves, a secret listener. 

Ebb. (E.) M. E. ebbe. A. S. ebba, ebb 
of the tide. + Du. eb, ebbe, sb. [-whence 
Dan. ebbe, sb. and vb., Swed. ebb, sb.]. 
Perhaps the Teut. type is *afjon-, with the 
sense of going off ; see Off. 

Ebony, a hard wood. (F. — L. — Gk. — 
Heb.) Formerly «fe««. — M.F. ebene, ebony. 

— L. hebenus, ebenus. — GV. i^aio%, f0evt], 

— Heb. hovntm, pi. ebony wood ; prob. a 
non-Semitic word. 

Ebriety, drunkenness. (F.— L.) F. 
ibriit4. — \,. ace. ebrietatem.—l^. ebrius, 
drunken. "Det .in-ebriate,X.o makedrunken. 

Ebullition, a boiling over. (F.-L.) 
O. F, ebullition. — 'L,. ace, ebullitionem ; a 
rare word, from ebullitus, pp. of ebullire, 
to bubble up. — L. e, out; bulltre, to 
bulible; see Boil (i). 

Ecart6, a game at cards. (F.— L. and 
Gk.) In this game, cards may be discarded 
and exchanged ; hence thename. — F.i/ca?'//, 
discarded, pp. of icarter, to discard. —L. 
ex, out, away ; F. carte, from Late L. carta, 
from Gk. x^-fl, a leaf of paper, hence a 

Eccentric, departing from a centre, 
odd. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. excentrique.— 
Late L. eccentricus. — Gk. eK«fVTp-os, out 
of the centre ; with suiifix -icus. — Gk. tic, 
out ; Kfvrpov, centre. See Centre. 

Ecclesiastic. (L.— Gk.) LateL.gfc/^- 
siasticus. — Gk. iKKKriaiaarucbs, belonging 
to the iicicKriaia, i. e. assembly, church. — 
Gk. eie«\T]TOS, summoned. — Gk. iKKaXim, I 
call forth. — Gk. kx, out ; KoXiai, I call. 

Echelon. (F.-L.) F. Echelon, an 
arrangement of troops in parallel divi- 
sions ; orig. a round of a ladder. — F. 
ichelle, a ladder (O. F. esckiele). -h. 
scala, a ladder; see Scale (3). 

Echo.. (L. - Gk.) M.E. ecco. - L. echo. 

— Gk. ■fjx'^, a sound, echo ; cf. ^x"*, ^XV, 
a ringing noise. Der. cat-ech-ise, q. v. 

Eclat. (F.-Teut.) F. iclat, splen- 
dour ; lit. ' a bursting forth.' -F. ^clater, 
to burst forth ; O. F. s'esclater, to burst. 
Origin doubtful ; perhaps from L. type 
*exclappitare, formed from Low G. klap- 
pen, to clap, make a noise ; see Clap. 

Eclectic, choosing out; hence, a 
philosopher who selected doctrines from 
various sects. (Gk.) Gk. fKKexTiKds, 
selecting; as sb. an Eclectic- Gk. iic- 
\h^iv, to select -Gk. Ik, out ; \ifuv, to 



Eclipse. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. e<:/i>, 
clips. — O.V. eclipse. — IL. eclipis.— Qk. 
tKKet^is, a failure, esp. of light of the sun. 
— Gk. i«KfiiT(iv, to leave out, fail, suffer 
eclipse. — Gk. ««, out ; \einfiv, to leave. 

HclOgne, a pastoral poem. (L. — Gk.) 
L. ecloga (the F. word was Jglogite). — Gk. 
ixKoy^, a selection, esp. of poems. — Gk. 
inKiffiv, to choose out ; see Solectic. 

Economy. (F — L. — Gk.) Formerly 
ceconomy. — M. F. aconotnie. — L. mconomia. 

— Gk. o'tKovoiMa, management of a house- 
hold.— Gk. oIkov6ixo$, a steward. — Gk. 
otKo-, for or«tor, a house ; and vijitiv, to 
deal out. 

Ecstasy. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. ex- 
tasie (H.). — Late L. ecstasis, a trance.— 
Gk. iicaraffts, displacement; also, a trance. 

— Gk. I«, out ; (TToffis, a standing, allied 
to tarajxai, I stand. 

EcTUaenical, general. (L. — Gk.) 
Late L. ariiiiienicus; with sufhx -al. — Gk. 
olKovfuviKos, universal. — Gk. oikou^eVi; 
(sc. 75), the inhabited world, fem. of 
oiKoiyievos, pres. pt. pass, of oi/ce'tu, I inhabit, 

— Gk. oZkos, a house. Brngm. i. § 6ii. 
Eczema, a breaking-out of pustules on 

the skin. (Gk.) Gk. cKfe/m, a pustule. — 
Gk, eK^ifiv, to boil over. — Gk. I«, out; 
(eeiv, to boil. See feast. 

Eddy. (Scand.) M.E. ydy { = idy). 
Icel. iSa, an eddy, whirlpool ; of. iSa, to 
whirl about; Swed. dial. iSa, idH, Dan. 
dial, ide, an eddy. Perhaps formed from 
Icel. iS-, A. S. ed-, Goth, id- (prefix), 
backwards. Cf. Brugm. 1. § 574. 

Edge. (E.) M. E. egge. A. S. ecg, an 
edge, border.+Du. egge, Icel. Swed. egg, 
Dan. eg, G. ecke. Tent, type *agja. Cf. 
L. cuies, Gk. axis, a point, Skt. ap-i-, edge, 
comer. (.^AK.) 

EdiTllCi eatable. (L.) Late L. edibilis. 
— L. edere, to eat ; see Eat. 

Edict. (L.) L. Idictum, neut. of pp. 
of edicere, to proclaim. — L. ^, out ; dfcere, 
to speak. 

Edify. (F.-L.) O.S. edifier.'-l.. 
adificare, to build (hence, instruct). — L. 
adi-, stem of cedes, a building, orig. a 
hearth ; -Jic-, for facere, to make. Der. 
edifice, F. idijice, L. cedificium, a building ; 
edile, L. adilis, a magistrate who had the 
care of public buildings. Brugm. i. % 202. 

Edition. (F.-L.) O.F.«rf««V«(H.).- 
L. editimem, ace. of editio, a publishing. — 
L. editus,y^.ai edere, to give out, publish. 
— L. ^, out; «fe«, to give. Der. edit, a 


coined word, from the sb. editor (L. 

Educate. (L.) From L. educatus, 
pp. of educare, to educate; allied to L. 
edUcere, to bring out. — L. <?, out ; ducere, 
to bring. 

educe. (L.) L. Iducere, to bring out. 
Der. eduction (from pp. educt-us). 

Eel. (E.) M.E. ^/. A.S. <?/. + Du. 
flfl/, Icel. all, Dan. aa/, Swed. dl, G. «a/. 
Teut. type *c^loz. 

Eery, timid, affected by fears, melan- 
choly, strange. (E.) See Jamieson. M. E. 
ar), arh, are), arje, er)e, timid ; spelt eri 
in Cursor Mundi, 1 7685. — A.S. earg, earh, 
limid, cowardly. Cf. Icel. argr, ragr; 
G. arg; Du. erg, bad. 

Efface. (F.-L.) F. effacer.-Y. ef- 
(L. ef-, for ex, out) ; and_/a«, from Folk- 
L. *facia (for 'L. faciem, ace. oi fades), 
face. See Face. 

Effect. (F.-L.) K.V. effect (J. effet). 
— L. effectum, ace. of effectus, an effect.— 
L. effectus, pp. of efficere, to work out. — 
L. ^-, for ejK, thoroughly ; facere, to do. 

Effeminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

efflmindre, to make womanish. — L. ef-, 

for ex, thoroughly; femina, a woman. 

See Peminine, 
Effendi, sir, master. (Turkish — Gk.) 

Turk, efendi, sir. — Mod. Gk. aipivTrji, for 

Gk. oAffeKTiys, a despotic master, ruler; see 

Effervesce. (L.) "L.effernescere.—h. 

ef-, for ex, out ; feruescere, to begin to 

boil, inceptive oiferuere, to boil, . 
Effete, exhausted. (L.) L, effitus, 

weakened by having brought forth young. 

— L. ef-, for ex, out ; fetus, that has 

brought forth ; allied to L. fui, I was 

(Brugm. i. § 361 ; ii. § 587). 
Ef&cacy, force, virtue. (L.) L. effi- 

cacia, effective power. — L. efficac-, stem of 

efficax, efficacious. — L. efficere, to effect 

efS.cient. (L.) From stem of pres. 

pt. of efficere, to effect ; see Effect. 
Efagy. (F.-L.) F. effigie.-L.. effi- 
giem, ace. of effigies, an image. — L. effig-, 

base of effingere, to form. — L. ef, for ex, 
out : fingere, to form. See Figure. 

Efioresceuce. (F.-L.) F. efflore- 
scence, lit. ' a flowering.' From L. efflo- 
rescere, inceptive form of efflorere, to 
blossom out. — L. ef- — ex, out ; fidrere, to 
blossom. See Floral. 

Effluence, a ilo\ying. (L.) From the 



pres. pt. of effluere, to flow out. — L. ef-, 

for ex, ont ; fluere, to flow. See Fluent. 

Effort. (F.-L.) F. effort, an effort; 

verbal sb. from F. iefforcer, to endeavour. 

— Med. L. exfortiare, to nse force. — L. 
ex, out ; forti-s, strong. See Force. 

Effrontery- (F.-L.) XVIII cent. 

— F. effronterie, ' impudency ; ' Cot. — 

0. F. effronti, shameless. — O. F. ef- (L. 
ef-, for ex), oat; front, face, forehead (as 
if putting forward the forehead). Cf F. 
affronter, to oppose face to face. See 

Effulgent, bright. (L.) From stem 
of pres. pt. of L. effulgere, to shine forth. 

— L. ef, for ex, out ; fulgere, to shine. 
Effuse. (L.) L. effnsus, pp. of effitn- 

dere, to pour out. — L. ef, for ex, out; 
fundere, to pour. 

Egg (i), the oval body whence chiclcens, 
&c. are hatched. (Scand.) M. E. eg, pi. 
egges. — Yz^. egg, Dan. ag, Swed. dgg.-\- 
A.S. Sg {= M. E. ey) ; Du. ei, G. ei. 
Prob. allied to Irish ugh, Gael, itbh, W. 
ivy, L. duum, Gk. i>6v, egg. Brugm. i. 

§ .^09 (2). 

Egg (2), to instigate. (Scand.) M. E. 
eggen. — Icel. eggja, to goad on. — Icel. e^, 
an edge (point). See Edge. 

Eglantine. (F.— L.) F. iglantine, 
M . E. aiglantine, aiglantier, sweet-briar. 

— O. F. aiglant, the same. — L. type 
*acuknt-us, prickly (not found). —«-j, 
a needle; -lentus (as in uii-u-lentus). Cf. 
L. aculeus, a prickle, dimin. of acus. See 
Aglet. (VAK.) 

Egotist, Egoist, a self-opinionated 
person. (L.) Coined from L. ego, I ; see 

1. Cf. F. ^^«ii-/« (a. d. 175.";). 
Egregious, excellent. (L.) L. egre- 

gi-us, chosen ont of a flock, excellent ; 
with sufSx -ous. — 'L. e, out; greg-, stem of 
grex, a flock. 
Egress, a going out. (L.) L. egressus. 

— L. egressus, pp. of egredi, to go out. — 
L. ^, out ; gradi, to go. 

Egret, the lesser white heron. (F.— 
O. H. G.) M. F. egrette, aigrette, dimin. 
of a form *aj|^« (whence also Pro v. aigr- 
on, O. F. hair-on, E. ^«r-tfK). — O. H.G. 
heigir, heiger. a heron. See Heron. 

Eh ! inteij.' (E.) M. E. ey. Cf. A. S. 
ea; Hxx.kelG.ei! Y.ehl 

Eider-duck. (Swed. and E.). The E. 
duck is here added to the Swed. spelling 
of Icel. alSr, an eider-duck (a pronounced 
like i in timi) ; whence Dan. ederfugl 


(eider-fowl), Swed. ejder; and cf. Swed. 
dial. Sd. Ver. eider-dovm, Icel. aSardUn. 

Eight. (E.) M. E. eightK A. S. 
eahta. -|- Du. atht, Icel. atta, Dan. otte, 
Swed. atta, Goth, a^toa, G. acht; Irish 
(»f/4^, Gael, ochd, W. zty^/4, L. wz'o, Gk. 
oK-rai, Pers. hasht, Zend ashta, Skt. ashiau. 
Idg. type *okto{u). Der. eigh-teen, A. S. 
eahtatene, eahtatyne; eigh-ty, A. S. Qiund)-^ 
eahtatig; eigh-th, A. S.-eo^/c9o. 

Eisel, vinegar. (F.— L.) In Shak. 
M. E. «■«/, m«7, ajjiV. — O. F. o!«/, e?j-z7, 
also <J2«, vinegar (Godefroy). Aisil ap- 
pears to be a dimin. form of «2«. — Late L. 
acitus, bitter; closely related to L. acetum,. 
vinegar. The Goth, akeit, vinegar, A. S. 
ecid, G. essig, is due to Late L. acitunt or 
L. acetum. 

Eisteddfod, a congress of (Welsh) 
bards. (W.) W. eisteddfod, a sitting, con-, 
gress. — W. eistedd, to sit. 

Either, (E.) M. E. either, aither. 
A. S. cegper, contracted form of Sghwcefer. 
Comp. of a-gi-hwcefer ; where a = aye, gi 
(for ge-) Is a prefix, and hwcefer = whether. 
+Du. ieder, G.jeder, O. H. G. eohwedar. . 

Ejaculate, to jerk out an utterance. 
(L.) From pp. of L. eiaculari, to cast 
out. — L. e, out; iaculum, a missile, from 
iacere, to cast. 

eject. (L.) L. eiectare, frequentative 
of L. Hcere, to cast out. — L. l, out ; iacere, 
to cast. 

Eke (i), to augment. (E.) M.E. eken.. 
O. Merc, ecan, A. S. lecan, weak vb. 
Teut. type *aukjan-, weak vb. ; allied to 
Icel. aiiha, Goth, aukan (neuter), str. vb. ; 
cf. L. augere. (VAUGw.) Brngm. i. §635. 
eke (2), also. (E.) M. E. eek, eke. 
A. S. ffl^.-f-Du. 00k, Icel. auk, Swed. och 
(and), Dan. og (and), G. auch. All from, 
the Teut. base auk- above. 

Elaborate. (L.) L. elahsratus, pp. 

oi elaborare, io labour greatly. — L. e, out, 
greatly ; laborare, to work, from labor-, 
stem of labor, labour. 

Eland, a S. African antelope. (Du. - G. 
— Lith.) Du. eland, an elk. — G. elend.— 
Lithuan. ilnis, an elk. Cf. W. elain, a 
hind, Russ. olene, a stag. See Elk. 

Elapse, to glide away. (L.) From L. 
elapsus, pp. of llabi, to glide away. — L. e, 
away ; labT, to glide. 

Elastic. (Gk.) Formerly elastick. 
Gk. *t\a.<niicU, propulsive, coined from 
Gk. e\a<u = c\ai;i/(u, I drive (fut. iKaa-a). 
Cf. Gk. i\aaT{\%, also tKatiip, a driver. 


Elate, Hfted up, proud. (L.) 'L.eldtus, 
lifted up.— L. e, out ; lotus, used as pp. of 
ferre, but allied to tolUre, to lift. 

mbow, the bend of the arm. (E.) 
M. E. elbowe. A. S. elboga, also eln-boga. 

- A. S. eln, signifying ' ell,' orig. ' arm ; ' 
and boga, a bow, a bending (see Bow). 
A. S. eln is allied to Goth, aleina, „. cubit, 
W. elitt, Irish m'le, L. ulna, Gk. diKivr), 
Skt. aratni-, the elbow. See EU.+Du. 
elle-boog, Icel. ohi-bogi, Dan. a«a«, G. 

Eld, old age. (E.) M. E. «/</«, old 
age ; O. Merc, aldo, old age ; from aid, 
old. Ci. K.S. teldu,yldu; bom eald, oli. 
+Icel. «//»■ ; Dan. aide. See Old. 

elder (i), older. (E.) Both as adj. 
and sb. O. Merc, tuldra (A. S. yldrd), 
elder, adj.; comparative of aid (A. S. 

eldest. (E.) O. Merc, aldesta (A. S. 
yldesta), snperl. of aid {\.S. eald), old. 

Elder (2), a tree. (E.) The d is excre- 
scent. M. E. eller. A. S. ellen, ellam.-\. 
Low G. elloom. *\ Distinct from alder. 

Elecampane, a plant. (L.) A. S. 
eolone, elene, perverted from L. inula ; and 
VL-Y ,enuU-campane (Cot.) . — L. inula cam- 
pana, elecampane. Here campana prob. 
means wild, growing in the fields; from 
L. campus, a field. 

Elect, chosen. (L.) L. electus, pp. of 
eligere,to choose out.— L. <?, out; legere, 
to choose. 

Electric. (L.— Gk.) Coined from L. 
electrum, amber, which has electric pro- 
perties. -" Gk. ^Keierpov, amber, also shin- 
ing metal; allied to ij\f KTtap, gleaming. 

Electuary, a kind of confection. (F. 

— L.-Gfc.) M..E. letuarie.--O.F. lec- 
tuaire, M. F. electuaire. — Late L. electud- 
rium, eledarium, a medicine that dissolves 
in the mouth. Perhaps for *e{c)lict-arium, 
from Gk. fic\fiKT6v, an electuary, from 
e«\eixftv, to lick out.— Gk. in, out; 
\eixiiv, to lick. 

EleemOSynaty, relating to alms. 
(Late L. — Gk.) Late L. eleemosynarius, 
an almoner ; from eleemosyna^ alms. — Gk. 
iX.ii)jMavvr), pity, alms. See Alms', 

Elegant, choice, neat. (F.— L.) M. F. 
elegant, — L.. elegant-, stem of elegans, 
tasteful, neat.— L. e, out; leg-, base of 
legere, to choose. 

Elegy, a funeral ode. (F, — L. — Gk.) 
M, F. elegie. — L. elegla. — Gk. i\eyela, 
fem, sing., an elegy ; orig. neut, pi. of 



(Keyttov, a distich (of lament). — Gk. 
?Xc7or, a lament. Der. elegi-ac. 

Element. (F.-L.) O. F. element.— 
L. elemenium, a first principle. 

Elephant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 

elyphaunt, olifaunt. — O. F. oltfant, ele- 
fant. — L. elephantem, ace. of elephas. — 
Gk. k\{<pas, an elephant. Origin unknown; 
some compare Heb. elep/i, an ox. 

Elevate. (L.) From pp. of L. lleudre, 
to lift up. — L. e, out; leudre, to lighten, 
lift, from leuis, light. See Levity. 

Eleven. (E.) M. E. enleuen. A. S. 
en{d)leofan, endlufon; O. Northumb. 
iBllefne.-\-'D\x. elf, Icel. elHfu, Dan. elleve, 
Swed. elfva, Goth, ainlif, G. elf, O. H. G- 
einlif. p. A compound of Teut. *ain-, 
one; and -/y^ = Lithuan. -lika (in veno- 
lika, eleven). Lith. -lika perhaps means 
' remaining ' ; cf. L. linquere, to leave. 
Brngm. ii. § 175. 

Elf. (E.) M. E. elf. O. Merc. alf.+ 
Icel. dlfr, Dan. alf; also G. alp, a night- 
mare. Der. elf-in, adj., for *elf-en ; but 
prob. suggested by the M. E. gen., pi. 
elvene, of elves (in the Southern dialect). 

Elicit, to coax out. (L.) From pp. 
of L. elicere, to draw out by coaxing.— 
L. e, out ; lacere, to entice. And see 

Elide. (L.) L. elldere, to strike out. — 
L. e, out ; ladere, to dash. Der. elis-ioa 
(from pp. ells-US'). 

Eligible. (F.-L.) ¥.^ligible.-Usi. 
L. eligibilis, fit to be chosen.— L. ///^fisye, 
to choose out ; see Elect. 

Eliminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

elimindre, to thrust out of. — L. e, forth ; 
llmin-, stem of limen, a threshold. See 

Elision; see Elide. 

Elixir. (Ar.— Gk.) Med. L. elixir; 
for Arab, el ikslr, the philosopher's stone, 
esp. a sort of powder (Devic) ; where el is 
the definite article. — Gk. i'^piov, dry pow- 
der, or lrip6v, dry (residuum). 

Elk, a kind of deer. (G.) Prob. adapted 
from M. H. G. elck, an elk ; O. H. G. elahe. 
Cf. Icel. elgr, Swed. elg, an elk; Russ. 
olene, a stag; L. alces, Gk. oA/tTj. (His- 
tory obscure.) Found in A. S. as elck, elk. 

Ell. (E.) U.'E.elle,el}ie. A.S.el{i)n, 
a cubit.+Du. elle, el; Icel. alin, the arm 
from the elbow to the tip of the middle 
finger ; Swed. aln, Dan . alen, Goth, aleina, 
G. elle, ell ; L. ulna, elbow, cubit ; Gk. 
(S/A^jt;, elbow. £ll=el-m ei-bow. 


XSllipse. (L.— Gk.) Yoxmeiij ellipsis. 

— L. ellipsis. — Gk.. iWft^is, a defect, an 
ellipse of a word ; also, an oval figure, 
because its plane forms with the base of 
the cone a less angle than that of a para- 
bola. — Gk. iWiiiretv, to leave in, leave 
behind. — Gk. lA-, for iv, in; \(iiTttv, to 
leave, cognate with L. linqtiere. 'Dei. 
elliptic, adj., Gk. lAAeiirxiKos. 

Elm, a tree. (E.) A.S. elm.+O. H. G. 
elm ; of. Icel. almr, Dan. aim, Swed. aim ; 
also L. ulmus (whence G. ulme, Da. olm). 

Elocution. (L.) From L. elociUio- 
nem, ace. of ilocutio, clear utterance. — L. 
elocutus, pp. of eloqul, to speak out. —L. 
£, out ; loqul, to speak. Cf. Eloctuent. 

Eloign, Eloiu, to remove and keep 
at a distance, to withdraw. (F. — L.) 
O. F. esloigner, to remove, keep away 
(Law L. exlongdre) . — O. F. es, away ; 
loing (F. loin), far off. — L. ex, away; 
longe, adv. f^r off. See Iiong. 

Elope. (A.F. — Scand.) A. F. aloper, 
to run away (from a husband ; see N. E. D.) . 

— A. P". a- prefix (perhaps for O. F. es-, 
away, as in E. a-bash) ; and M. E. lopen, 
to run (Cath. Anglicnm), from Icel. hlaupa, 
cognate witli E. Iieap. p. Or from 
M. E. alop-en, pp. of alipen, to escape ; 
from A. S. a-, away, and hleapan, to run, 
to leap. 

Eloq,ueut. (F. — L.) M. E. eloquent. 

— O. F. eloquent. — L. eloquent-, stem of 
pres. pt. of eloqul, to speak out or clearly. 

— L. e, out ; loqui, to speak. 

Else, otherwise. (E.) A. S. elles, adv. ; 
stem *aljo-, signifying ' other,' as in Goth. 
aljis, other.+Swed. eljest; allied to L. 
alias, and to Alien. The suffix -es marks 
the gen. case, neater. 

Elucidate. (L.) From pp. of Late L. 
ilucidare, to make clear. — L. e, out, very ; 
lucid-US, lucid, clear. See Iiucid. 

Elude, to avoid slily. (L.) L. eludere 
(pp. eliisus), to mock, deceive.— L. /, out ; 
laidere, to play, Der. elus-ory, from the 

Elysium, a heaven. (L. — Gk.) L. 
e/ysium. — Gk. ^\vffiov, short for ■^Kvawv 
nfSiov, the Elysian field (Od. 4. 563). 

Sm.;pre^x. (F. — L.) F.em-< 
(for in), in, before i and p. Hence em- 
balm, to anoint with balm ; em-bank, to 
enclose with a bank, cast up a bank ; em- 
body, to invest with a body, &c. 

Emaciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
Imacidre, to make thin. — L. e, very ; 


maci-, base of macies, leanness; cf. macer, 

Emanate. (L-) from L. emSnatus, 
pp. of emanare, to flow out. — L. /, out ; 
mandre, to flow. 

Emancipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
emancipare, to set free. — L. e, out ; man- 
cipare, to transfer properly.— L. mancip-, 
stem of man-ceps, lit. one who takes pro- 
perty in hand or receives it.— L. man-its, 
Land ; capere, to take. 

Emasculate, to deprive of virility. 
(L.) From pp. of L. emasculdre. — i-.. e, 
away from ; masculus, male. See Mas- 

Embargo. (Span.) Span, embargo, 
an arrest, a stoppage of ships ; lit. a put- 
ting a bar in the way. — Late L. type 
*imbarricare, to bar in. Formed with 
prefix em- ( = Lat. ifi) from Span, barra, 
a bar. See Bar, Barricade. 

Embark. (F. — Late L.) F. embar- 
quer. — Late L. imbarcare, to put in u 
bark. — L. im- (for iti), in ; barca,a. bark ; 
see Bark (i). 

Embarrass. (F. — Span.) F. embar- 
rasser, to perplex ; lit. to hinder, put a 
bar in one's way. — Span, embarazar, the 
same. — Span, em- (L. im-, for in) , in ; 
barra, a bar. Cf. Smbargo ; and Bar. 

Embassy, a mission. (F.— Late L.— 
C.) A modification of O. F. ambassee; 
cf. M. F. embassade, Ital. imbasciata, weak- 
ened form of ambasciata. All from Late 
L. ambasciata, sb., orlg. fem. of pp. of 
ambascidre, to send on a mission, from 
ambascia, a mission. See Ambassador. 

Embattle, to furnish with battle- 
ments. (F.) M. E. embattelen. — O. F. 
em- (L. im-, for in-, prefix) ; and O. F. 
bastiller, to fortify. See Battlement. 

Embellish. (F.-L.) .M. E. etnbe- 
lissen. — 0.¥. embeliss-, stem of pres. pt. 
of embellir, to beautify. — O. F. em- (L. 
iti) ; and bel, fair. See Belle. 

Ember-days. (E.) M. E. ymber, 
as in ymber-weke. A. S. ymbren-, prob. 
from ymbryne, a circuit, or period ; the 
ember-days are days that recur at each of 
the four seasons of the year. The A. S. 
ymb-ryne is lit. 'a running round.' -A. S. 
ymb, round ( = G. um, Gk. d/i^f) ; and 
ryne, a run, course; see Run. Prob. 
confused with L. quatuor tempora, four 
seasons ; whence G. quatember. 

Embers, ashes. (E.) M. E. emeres. 
K. S. cemyrgean, embers ; A. S. Leech- 




doms, iii. 30 (rare). + Icel. eimyrja, 
Dan. emmer, Swed. mSrja, O. H. G. 
eimnrja, sb. ember. Cf. Icel. eim-r, vapour ; 
prov. E. ome ( = A. S. *am) , vapour. 

Embezzle, to filch. (F.) A. F. en- 
besiler, to make away with (a. D. 1404).— 
O. F. en- (for L. in-, prefix) ; and O. F. 
besillier, to maltreat, destroy, apparently 
from O. F. bes- (Late L. bis-, used as a 
pejorative prefix). Cf. O. F. besil, ill- 
treatment, torture ; and see Bezzle in the 
N. E. D. % Certainly influenced, in the 
16th cent., by a supposed etymology from 
imbicill, to weaken, an obsolete verb 
formed from the adj. imbecile, q.v. 

Emblem. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.F. ««- 

bleme.-- L. emblema. — Gk. infiXruxa, a 
thing put on, an ornament. —Gk. e/i-, for 
Iv, in, on ; P&KKnv, to throw, to put. See 

Em.blemen.tS, the produce of sown 
lands, crops which a tenant may cut after 
the determination of his tenancy. (F.— L.) 
O. F. emblaement, harvest. — O. F. em- 
blaer, emblader (F. emblaver), to sow 
with com. — Late Lat. imblddare, to sow. 

— L. im- (for in), in; Late L. bladum 
= L. ablSium, a crop, corn, lit. 'what is 
carried away' (F. bli). 

Embolism. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 

emboUsme. — L. embolismus. — Gk. ijJiPo- 
fuffitSs, an intercalation or insertion of 
days, to complete a period. — Gk. i/i, for iv, 
in; kaWetv, to cast; cf. iiifioKfi, an inser- 

Embonpoint, plumpness of person. 
(F. — L.) F. embonpoint, plumpness. 
For en bon point, in good case. — L. in, 
in ; bonum, neut. of bonus, good ; punc- 
tum, point. 

Emboss (1), to adorn with bosses or 
raised work. (F.— L. and G.) From 
Em-, prefix ; and Boss. 

Emboss (2), to take shelter, or drive 
to shelter in a wood, &c. (F. — Late L.) 
O F. embosquer, to shroud in a wood. — 
O. F. em- (L. in), in ; O. F. bosc, a wood; 
see Bouquet. 

EmboncbTire. (F.— L.) F. embou- 
chure, the mouth or opening (of a river). 

— F. emboucher, to put in or to the mouth. 
-L. in, in; F. bouche, from bucca, the 

Embrace. (F.-L.) O.F. embracer, 
to grasp in the arms. — O. F. em-, for en 
(L. in) ; and brace, the grasp of the 
arms; see Brace. 


Embrasure. (F.) F, embrasure, an 
aperture with slant sides. — M. F. embraser, 
to slope the sides of a window. -"O.F.ew- 
(L. in), in; M.F. braser, 'to skue, or 
chamfret ; ' Cot. (Of unknown origin.) 

Em.brOCation, a fomenting. (F.- 
Late L. — Gk.) O.F. embrocation. — Med. 
L. embrocatus, pp. of embrocare, to foment. 

— Gk. ifiPpox^, a fomentation. — Gk. iii- 
jSpe'x«i', to soali in. — Gk. 11*- = h, in; 
Ppixf'v, to wet, soak. 

Embroider. (F.) From Em- and 
Brolder. Cf. O.F. embroder, to em- 

Em.broil. (F.) From F. embrouiller, 
to confuse. — F. em- (L. im-, for iri) ; 
brouiller, to confuse. See Broil {2) ; 
and cf. Imbroglio. 

Embryo. (F. — Gk.) Formerly em- 
bryon. — M. F. embryon. — Gk. e/ifipvov, 
the embryo, foetus. — Gk. en- = iv, within ; 
fipvov, neut. of pres. pt. of Ppvuv, to be 
full of, swell out. 

Emendation. (L.) Coined from the 
pp. of L. emendare, to free from fault. — 
L. e, free from ; mendum, menda, a fault. 

Emerald, a green gem. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
M. E. emeraude. — O. F. esmeraude (Span. 
esmeralda) ; also esmeragde. — L. sma- 
ragdum, ace. of smaragdus. — Gk. apa- 
paySos, an emerald. Cf. Skt. marakata-, 
an emerald. 

Emerge, to rise from the sea, appear. 
(L.) L. emergere, to rise out of water. — 

- L. e, out ; mergere, to dip ; see Merge. 
Emerods ; see Hemorrhoids. 
Emery, a hard mineral. (F. — Ital.— 

Gk.) Formerly emeril \ XVII cent.- 
F. imeri; M.F. emeril, esmei-il. — ltal. 
smeriglio. — Gk. ffiiijpis, apvpis, emery. 

Emetic. (L. — Gk.) L. emeticus.- 
Gk. l/i«TiK(5r, causing sickness. — Gk. I^em, 
I vomit ; see Vomit. 

Emigrate. (L.) From pp. of L. i- 
migrare, to wander forth. — L. I, out ; 
migrare, to wander ; see Migrate. 

Eminent, excellent. (L.) 'L. eminent-, 
stem of pres. pt. oieminere, to project, 
excel. -L./, out; *»«»«-«, to project ; for 
which cf. im-mitunt, pro-minent. 

Emir, a commander. (Arab.) Arab. 
amir, a nobleman, prince. — Arab, root 
amara, he commanded. Der. admir-al. 

Emit, to send forth. (L.) L. Imittere, 
to send forth; pp. emissus. — 'L. e, out; 
mittere, to send. Der. emiss-ion, emiss- 
ary, from the pp. 


Emmet) an ant. (E.) M. E. emele, 
amole. A. S. Smetle, or cemette, an ant.+ 
G. amdse, O. H. G. dmeha, or ameiza, an 
ant. Doublet, ant. 

Emmew; seeBnew. 

Emollient, softening. (F.-L.) M.F. 
emollient. — L. emollient', stem of pres. pt. 
of emollire, to soften. — L. e, out, very ; 
molllre, to soften, from mollis, soft. 

Emolument, gain. (F.-L.) O. F. 

emolument.— 1-,. emolumentum, what is 
gained by labour. -- L. emoltrf, to work out, 
accomplish. — L. e, out, greatly ; molsn, to 
work, from moles, heap, also effort. ^ So 
usually explained; but the short vowels 
in -mSia- suggest a derivation from emJS- 
lere, to grind thoroughly. 

Emotion. (L.) Coined from L. emolus, 
pp. of emouere, to move away or much. — 
L. e, out, much ; mouere, to move. 

Emperor, a ruler. (F.-L.) O.F. 
empereor.—Li. imperatorem, ace. of im- 
perator, a ruler. —L. imperare, to rvXe.— 
L. im- (for in-), upon, over; parare, to 
make ready, order. Der. empr-ess. 

Emphasis, stress of voice. (L. — Gk.) 
L. emphasis. — Gk. efupacris, a declaration, 
emphasis ; orig. appearance. — Gk. e/jifai- 
vofiM, I appear. — Gk. in- (Ik), in; 
tjMivoitcu, I appear, whence ^iais, an 
appearance ; see Phase. Der. emphatic, 
from Gk. iiupariKSs, significant. 

Empire. (F.— L.) i'. empire. —L,.im- 
perium, command. —L. im- {in-), upon, 
over ; parare, to make ready, order. 

Empiric, a quack doctor. (F.— L.— 
Gk.) M. F. empirique. — L. empiricus. — 
Gk. kiiireipiK6s, experienced ; also one of 
a certain set of physicians. — Gk. l/t- = Ic, 
in; jrapa (=*«/«o), a trial, experience, 
allied to ir6pos, a way, and to E. Fare. 
Brugm. i. § 293. 

Employ. (F.-L.) fiH.'P. employer, to 
employ.— L. implicdre, to implicate (in 
Late L., to use for, employ). — L. im- (for 
in-), in ; plicare, to fold ; see Implicate, 

Emporium, a mart. (L. — Gk.) L. 
emporium. -. Gk. iimbpiov, a mart ; nent. of 
l/iirSpios, commercial. —Gk. iniropia, com- 
merce, iiiiropos, a traveller, merchant.— 
Gk. in-=lv, in ; trbpos, a way ; see Pare. 

Emprise, enterprise. (F.-L.) M. E. 
emprise. — O. F. emprise ; orig. fern, of 
empris, pp. of O. F. emprendre, to take in 
hand. — L. im- (?«-), in; frehmdere, to 
take. See bomprehend; 


Empty, void. (E.) M. E. empti. A.S. 
Smtig, Smetig, lit. full of leisure. — A. S. 
Smta.^ Smetta, leisure, older form emota 
(Epin. Glos. 680). Perhaps cemetta is for 
*cemotjon-, from S-, prefix, privative, and 
mot, a meeting for business. 

Empyrean, Empsrreal, pertaining 

to elemental fire. (L.— Gk.) Adjectives 
coined from L. empyra-tts, Gk. *ipmip- 
aios, extended from iji-irvpos, exposed to 
fire. — Gk. 1^- = Iv, in ; -irvp, fire ; see Fire. 

Emu, Emeu, a bird. (Port.) Port. 
ema, an ostrich. 

Emulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
\<Bmulari, to try to equal. —L.i cemulus, 
striving to equal. 

Emulsion, a milk -like mixture. (F. — 
L.) M. F. emulsion ; formed from L. 
emuls-us, pp. of Imitlgere, to milk out. — 
L. e, out ; mulgere, to milk ; see Milk. 

"R-a.-, prefix. (F.-L.) F.««-.-L. m-, 
in ; sometimes used with a causal force, as 
en-case, en-chain, &c. See Em-. 

Enact. (F.-L.) In Shak.-F. en, 
in (L. in") ; and Act. Lit. ' to put in act.' 

Enamel, vb. (F. -O. H. G.) M. E. 
enamaile, sb., enamelen, yh. — A^'F. ena- 
meller, enamailler, vb. — F. en (L. iti), on ; 
amaile, for O.F. «j-»2H!«7, enamel ( = Ital. 
smalto), from O. Low G. smalt (Liibben). 
See Smalt. 

Enamour. (F.-L.) O.Y.enatnorer^ 
to inflame with love. — F. en amour, in 
love ; where F. en is from L. in, in, and 
amour from L. ace. amorem, love. 

Encamp. (F.-L.) Coined from ««- 
(F, en, L. in) and camp ; hence ' to 
form into a camp.' See Camp. 

Encase. (F.-L.) Cf. F. encaisstr, 
'to put into a case;' Cot. — F. en, in (L. 
in) ; and M. F. caisse, casse, a case ; see 
Case (2). 

Encaustic, relating to designs burnt 
in. (F.— L. — Gk.) F. encaustique. — 'L. 
encausticus. — Gk. kficavanxSs, relating to 
burning in. -Gk. h, in; /calm, I burn. 
See Calm. 

Enceinte, pregnant. (F.—L.) F. en- 
ceinte. — Late L. incincta, ungirt, said of a 
pregnant woman, fem. of pp. of cingere, 
to gird, with neg. prefix in-. % Isidore 
explains Late L. incincta as meaning 
' ungirt ' ; so also Ital. incinta (Florio). 

Enchant. (F.-L.) F. enchanter, to 
charm. — L. incantare, to repeat a chant. — 
L. in-, upon; and cantare, to sing: see 
Cant (I). ® 



Enchase. (F.-L.) M.^. enchasser, 
' to enchace or se.t in gold ; ' Cot. Hence 
to emboss. — F. en, in (L. in) ; and cAasse 
(F. ekSsse), the same as casse, a case ; see 
Case (2). 

Encircle. (F.-L.) From Eu- and 

Encline. (F.-L.) M. K emlinen. - 
O.F. encliner.—'L. mclinare; see Incline. 

Enclitic. (Gk.) Gk. iyicKirt«6s, en- 
clining, dependent ; used of a word -whicli 
'leans' its accent upon another. — Gk. 
iyxXiveiv, to lean upon, encline. —Gk. iv, 
on; K\iveiv, to lean; see I>ean (i). 

Enclose. (F.-L.) From En- and 
Close (i). Cf. A.F. enclos, pp. of en- 
clorre, to shut in. 

Encomium, commendation. (L. — Gk.) 
Latinised from Gk. kyKiifuov, neut. of 
iyxdiiitos, laudatory, full of revelry. — Gk. 
fv, in ; kSi/xos, revelry. 

Encore, again. (F.— L.) F. encore 
(= Ital. ancord), still, again.— L. kanc 
hoi-am, for in hanc horam, to this hour; 
see Hour. % Somewhat disputed. 

Encounter, vb. (F.-L.) O.F. ««- 

contrer, to meet in combat. — F. en, in; 
contre, against. — L. in, in ; contra, against. 

Encourage. (F. — L.) F. encourager; 
from F. en (L. in) and courage ; see Cou- 

Encrinite, the ' stone lily ' ; a fossil. 
(Gk.) Coined from Gk. kv, in ; Kpivor, a 
lily ; with suffix -trtjs. 

Encroach. (P.— L. and Teut.) Lit. 
to hook away, catch in a hook. — O. F. 
encrochier, to seize upon. — F. en, in ; croc, 
a hook ; cf. F. cucrocher, to hook up.— L. 
in, in; and M. Tiyx-kroke, Icel. krokr, Sec; 
see Crook. 

Encumlier. (F.-L. ?) O. F. encom- 
Irer, to block up (a way).— Late L. in- 
combrare, to obstruct. — L. in-, in ; and 
Late L. combrus, an obstacle. See Cum- 

Encyclical, drcular, said of a letter 
sent round (ecclesiastical).. From Gk. 
I7K1/KA1-0S, circular (said of a letter) ; with 
suffix -c-al. — Gk. iv, in ; KinXo-s, a circle. 
encyclopsedia. (L.-Gk.) Latinised 
from (a coined) Gk. *iriicvKK(yiriuS(ia, for 
iy«vK\ios irmSfta, circular (or complete) 
instruction ; from iynixMos (above), and 
irmSela, instruction. 

End, sb. (E.) M.^. ende. A.S. emfe, 
sb.+Du. einJe, Icel. endir, Sw. ande, Dan. 
ende, Goth, andeis, G. ende. Teut. type 


*and-joz. Cf. O. Irish ind, Skt. anla-, 
end, limit, f Hence the prefixes ante-, 
anti-, an- in answer. 

Endeavour, to attempt. (F. - L.) 
Coined from the M. E. sb. dcver, devoir, 
duty, with F. prefix en- (= L. in). 
Compare the old phrase ' to do his dever' 
= to do his duty (Ch. C. T. 2598) ; see 

Endemic, peculiar to a district. (Gk.) 
Gk. ivSriii-o$, belonging to a jjeople.- 
Gk. (V, in ; S^/ios, a people ; see Demo- 

Endive, a plant. (F.-L.) F. endive 
(Ital. endivia). — 'Lut. type *intibea, adj.; 
from L. intibus, intubus, endive. 

Endogen, a plant that grows from 
within. (F. — Gk.) F. endogine (1813). 
From Gk. tvho-v, within ; y^v-, base of 
yiyvo/iai, I am born, allied to 7ci'os, race. 

Endorse. (F.-L.) Foimtily endosse. 
0. F. endosser, to put on the back of — F. 
en, on ; dos, the back, from L. dorsum, the 
back (whence the spelling with rs). 

Endow. (F.-L.) A.F. endower. 
From F. en- and doner. — J-,, in-, in, and 
dotare, to give u dowry, from dot-, stem 
of dos, a dowry ; cf. dare, to give. 

Endue (i), to endow. (F.-L.) An- 
other spelling ol endow; XV cent. — O. F. 
endoer (later endotter), to endow (Burguy). 
— L. in, in; and dotare, to endow; see 
above. % Confused both with O.F. en- 
duire, to introduce (from L. inducere), 
and with Endue (2) below. 

Endue (2), to clothe. (L.) A corrup- 
tion of indue ; as in ' endue thy ministers 
with righteousness.' — L. induere, to 
clothe. See Indue (2) ; and see above. 

Endure. (F.-L.) M. E. enduren.— 
F. endurer. — F. en (L. in) ; and durer 
(L. dUrdre), to last. See Dure, 
Enemy. (F. — L.) M. E. enemi. — 
O. F. enemi. — L. inimtcus, unfriendly. — 
L. in, not ; amicus, friendly, from L. 
atnare, to love. 

Energy. (F.— L.— Gk.) O.Y.energie. 

— Late L. energia. — Gk. tvipyeia, vigour, 
action. — Gk. iytpySs, at work. — Gk. ev, 
in ; Ipyav, work ; see "Work. 

Enervate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
eneruare, to deprive of nerve or strength. 

— L. e, out of; neruus, a nerve; see 

Enew. (F.— L.) Misspelt emmew in 
Shak. ; read enew, to drive into the water. 

— F. en, in; A.F. twe (F. eaii), water. 



from L. aqua. Cf. O. F. enewer, to soak 
m water (Godefroy). 

Eufeofff to endue with a fief. (F.— L. 
aiid O. H. G.) The spelling is Norman 
F. ; formed from F. en (L. in), in ; and 
fief, a fief. See Fief. 

Enfilade, a straight line or passage. 
(F.— L.) F. enfilade, a long string (of 
things). — F, enfiler, to thread. — F. en- 
(L. in), in; fil, a thread, from h. fi/iim, 
a thread. See Pile (i). 

Engage. (F.-L.) O. F. engager, to 
bind by a pledge. — F. en (L. in), in; 
e, a pledge ; see Gage. Der. dis- 

Bngender, to breed. (F.-L.) M.E. 
engendren. — O. F. engendrer. — L. ingen- 
erare, to produce. — L. in, in ; generare, 
to breed, from gener- (for *genes-), stem 
oi genus, a race, See GenviB. 

Engine. (F. — L.) O. F. engin, a 
tool. — L. ingenium, natural capacity, also, 
an invention. — L. in, in; geni-, as in 
genius ; see Genius. 

English, belonging to the Angles. (E.) 
A. S. Englisc, /Englisc. — A. S. Engl-e, 
^ngl-e, pi. , the Angles ; with suffix -isc, 
-ish. Cf. A. S. Angel-cynn, Angle kin 
{gens Anglorum). 

Engrailed, indented with curved lines; 
in heraldry. (F.-L. o«rf Teut.) O.F. 
engresle, pp. of engresler, to engrail (indent 
as with hailstones). — O. F. en, in ; gi-esle 
(F. grHe), hail. — L. in, in ; and (perhaps) 
Qi.gries,^\\.. See Grail (3). 

Engrain, Ingrain, to dye of a fast 

colour. (F. — L.) M. E. engreynen, to 
dye in grain, i. e. of a fast colonr. Coined 
from F. en (L. in) ; and O. F. graine, 
' the seed of herbs, also grain, wherewith 
cloth is died in grain, scarlet die, scarlet 
in graine ; ' Cot. From Late L. grdna, 
the cochineal ' berry ' or insect ; a fem. sb. 
formed from the pi. {grand) oigrdnum, a 

Engrave. (F. and E.) From En- 
and Grave (i) ; imitating O. F. engraver 
(from L. in and O. H. G. graban. Low G. 
graven, cognate with E. grave) . 

Engross, to write in large letters, to 
occupy wholly. (F. — L.) The former 
llegal) sense is the older. A. F. engrosser. 
From F. en grosse,'\. e. in large characters. 
— L. in, in ; Late L.grossa, large writing, 
from L. grossus, thick. 

Enhance, to raise, exalt, increase. 
(F. — L.) A. F, enhauncer, a form of O. F. 



enhancer, enhaiuier, to lift (Ital. intml- 
zare). — \.. in; and Lale L. altiare, to 
lift, from altus, high. 

Enigma. (L.-Gk.) L. mnigtna.— 
Gk. awitiia (stem alviyfiar-) , a riddle, 
dark saying. — Gk. airWo/ttu, I speak in 
riddles. -Gk. aXvos, a tale, story. Der. 
enigmat-ic (from the stem). 

Enjoin, to bid. (F.-L.) O.F. ««- 
joindre (l p. pres. enjoin-s). — L. iniun- 
gere, to bid, ordain, orig. to join into.— 
L. in, in ; iungere, to join. See Join. 

Enjoy, to joy in. (F.-L.) M. E. en- 
ioien {=enjoyen); A. F. enioier. — ¥. en 
(L. in); O.F. ioie, V.joie; see Joy. 

Enlighten, vb. (E. ; with Y. pre- 
fix) Coined with F. prefix en- (L. m), 
from lighten, vb. ; see Iiighten. 

Enlist, to enter on a list. (F. — G. ; 
with Y .—1.. prefix) Coined by prefixing 
P". en (L. in) to List (2). 

Enmity. (F.-L.) M.E. enmite.— 
A. F. enemite ; O. F. enamistie{t). — O. F. 
en- (L. in-), neg. prefix ; and amistie{t), 
amity ; see Amity. 

Ennui. (F.— L.) Mod. F. ennui, an- 
noyance ; O. F. anoi. See Annoy. 

Enormous, great beyond measure. 
(F. — L.) Formed from enorm (obsolete) ; 
with suffix -ous. — M. F. enorme, huge. — L. 
enormis, out of rule, huge. — L. e, out of; 
norma, rule. See Iformal. 

Enough. (E.) M. E. inoh, enogh ; 
•pX. inohe, enoghe. A.S. genoh, genog, pi. 
genoge, sufficient; allied to A.S. geneah, 
it suffices.+Icel. gndgr, Dan. nok, Swed. 
nog, Du. genoeg, G. genug, Goth, ganohs. 
The ge- is a prefix. Cf. L. nancisd, to 
obtain (pp. nac-tus) ; Skt. na{, to attain. 

Enauire. (F.— L.) M.E. enqueren; 
altered from enquere to enquire, and later to 
inquire, under the influence of the L. form. 

— O. F. enquerre ,enquerir, —\^..inqmrere, 
to search into. — L. in, in ; quarere, to 
seek. Der. enquiry, often turned into 
inquiry; enquest (now inquest), from 
O. F. enqueste, L. inqmsita {res), a thing 
enquired into. 

Ensample. (F.-L.) M. 'E. ensample. 

— A. F. ensample, corrupt form oiessample, 
exemple. — 'L. exemplum, a sample, pattern. 

— L. eximere, to select a sample. —L, ex, 
out ; emere, to take. Der. sample. 

Ensign. (F. — L.) O. F. ensigne, 
more correctly enseigne, ' a signj en- 
signe, standard ; ' Cot— Late L. insignia, 
pi, of L. insigne, a standard. —L. insignis, 


remarkable. — L. in, upon; signum, a 
mark ; i. e. ' with a mark on It.' See 

Ensilage, the storing of grain, &c., 
underground. (F.-Span.-L. attd Gk.) 
F. ensilage. --S^a-a. ensilar, to store up 
underground. -Span, en, in; silo, a pit 
for storing grain. — L. in, in; strus, bor- 
rowed from Gk. o-ipiSr, a pit for storing 

Ensue. (F.-L.) O.F. ensu-, a 
stem of ensivre, to follow after. - Late L. 
insequere, for L. insequl, to follow upon. 
— L. in, on ; sequi, to follow. 

Ensure, to make sure. (F.—L.) A. F. 
enseurer. — Y. en (L. in), in; and O.F. 
setir, sure ; see Sure. 

Entablature. (F. - L.) Obs. F. 

entablature, ' an intablature ; ' Cot. [Cf. 
Ital. intavolatura, 'a planking,' Torriano; 
from intavolare, ' to board,' Florio.] Pro- 
perly ' something laid flat,' and, though 
now applied to the part of a building sur- 
mounting the columns, orig. applied to a 
panel or flooring. — L. in, upon ; *tabu- 
lare, a verb formed from the sb. tabula- 
turn, boardwork, a flooring, from tabula, 
a plank ; see Table. 

Entail, to bestow as a heritage. (F.— 
L.) Orig. to convert an estate intoy«e- 
tail {feodum tallidtum, where talliatum 
means ' limited ' in a certain way). From 
F. en- (L. in) and tailler {tallidre). In 
another sense we find M. E. entailen, to cut, 
carve. — O. F. entailler, to carve, grave. — 
F. en- (L. in), in ; and tailler, to cut ; see 
Tailor, Tail (2), Tally. 

Entangle; from En- and Tangle, 

Enter. (F.-L.) M.E.««<r««. -O.F. 

entrer. — L. intrdre, to go into. — L. in, in ; 
and *trare, to go through (cf. pene-trdre 
and trans) ; allied to Skt. tara-, a passage. 
See Brugm. ii. § 5^9. Der. entr-ance. 

Enterprise. (F.—L.) O.F. entre- 
prise, enterprinse, an enterprise. — O. F. 
enterpris, pp. of enterprendre, to under- 
take. —Late L. interprendere.—L,. inter, 
among ; prendere, short for prehendere, to 
lay hold of. See Prehensile. 

Entertain. (F. - L.) O. F. entre- 
tenir.— hate L. intertenere, to entertain, 
lit. ' to hold or keep among.' — L. inter, 
among ; tenere, to hold. 

Enthnsiasm, inspiration. (L. — Gk.) 
I^te L. enthilsiasmiis. — Gk. ivBovaiaa/tds, 
inspiration. — Gk. ivBovata^ai, I am inspired. 


— Gk. ivSfos, full of the god, having a god 
within, inspired. — Gk. iv, in; $<6s, a 

Entice. (F.-L.) M. E. enticen.- 
O. F. enticier, enticher, to excite. — Lat. 
type *intitidre, to kindle, set on fire. — L. 
in; and *iititis, for titio, a firebrand. Cf. 
F. attiser, Ital. attizzare, to set on fire. 

Entire. (F.-L.) O.F. ««/«>?-, whole. 

— L. integrum, ace. of integer, whole. 
See Integer. 

Entity, being. (L.) A coined word, 
with suffix -ty, from L. enti-, decl. stem of 
*ens, a thing, a being ; see Kssence. 

Entomology. (F.— Gk.) V.entomo- 
logie (A. D. 1 764). From Gk. ivroim-v, 
an insect ; neut. of evTo/io-s, cut into, so 
called from the very thin middle part (see 
Insect). — Gk. ev, in; Tifivetv, to cut; 
with suffix -Koyta, discourse, from \iyeiv; 
to speak. 

Entrails, the inward parts. (F.-L.) 
O. F. entraille, intestines. — Late L. intra- 
Ha, also (more correctly) intranea, en- 
trails. — L. interdnea, entrails, neut. pi. of 
interdneus, inward, adj., from inter, 
within. ^ The O. F. entraille was a fem. 
sing, made from a neut. pi. 

Entreat. (F.-L.) Orig. to treat; 
then to treat with, beseech. O. F. entraiter, 
to treat of. — F. en (<L. iti), in, concern- 
ing ; F. traiter<h. tractdre, to handle, 
treat ; see Treat. 

Enumerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

enumerdre, to reckon up. — L. /, out, fully; 
numerdre, vb., from numerus, number. 

Enunciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
enuncidre, better spelt enuntidre, to utter, 
declare fully. — L. /, fully ; nuntidre, to 
tell, from nuntius, a messenger. 

Envelop. (F.-Teut.) l/l.¥..envolupen. 
O. F. envoluper, later enveloper, to wrap 
in, wrap round, enfold. — F. en (L. in), in ; 
and O. F. voluper, voloper, vloper, to wrap, 
from a base vlop-, to wrap. This base re- 
sembles M. E. wlappen, to wrap ; which, 
however, is not known outside English. 
See Lap (3). Note Walloon ewalpi, to 
envelop (Remade) j M. Ital. goluppare, to 
wrap (Florio). Cf. Develop. 

Environ, to surround. (F.-L.) O.F. 
environner, to surround. — F. environ, 
round about. — F. en (L. iti) , in ; O.F. 
■viron, a circuit, from virer, to turn, veer ; 
see Veer. 

Envoy. (F.-L.) O. F. envoy, a send- 
iug. — O. F. envoier, to send. — F. en voie. 



on. the way. — L. in uiam, on the way. 
Cf. Ital. inviare, to send. 

Envy, sb. (F.— L.) M. E. enuie {en- 
me), — 0. F. envie.—i,. inuidia, enyy; see 

Epact. (F. -r Late L. ^ Gk.) O. F. 
(and F.) epacte, an addition, the epact 
(a term in astronomy).— Late L. epacta.— 
Gk. liroKT^ (for iiraKT6s ijiiipa), late fem. 
of iiranTos, added. — Gk. iirayfiv, to bring 
in, add. — Gk. iji-, for iiri, to ; and a'/itv, 
to lead, bring. (^AG.) 

Epaulet, a shoulder-knot. (F.— L.— 
Gk.) F. ipaulette; dimin. from ipauk 
(O. F. espaule), a shoulder, — Late L. 
fpaiula, shoulder-blade ; L. spatula, a 
broad blade ; see Spatula. 

EpergUe, an ornamental stand for the 
centre of a table. (F.-O. H. G.) F. 
(pergne, commonly spelt ipargne, lit. 
thriftiness, sparingness. So called from 
the method of ornamentation ; the F. taille 
(fipargne is applied to a sort of ornamen- 
tation in which certain parts are cut away 
and filled in with enamel, leaving the design 
in relief, i. e. spared or left uncut. See 
Littre, and Cotgrave (s. v. espargne). — 'F. 
ipargner; O. F. espargner, espergner, to 
spare. — O. H. G. sparSn, G. sparen, to 
spare j see Spare. 

Ephah, a Hebrew measure. (Heb. — 
Egypt.) Heb. ephah, a measure ; of 
Egyptian origin ; cf. Coptic opi, measure. 

Ephemera, sing. ; orig. pi. , flies that 
live for a day. (Gk.) XVII cent. - Gk. 
i<p^Hepa, neut. pi. of iipfiiupos, lasting for 
a day. — Gk. f<f>- = iiti, for; ■fiiiipa, a day. 
Der. ephemer-al, adj. ; ephemer-is (Gk. 
iipjffiepis, a diary). 

Ephod, part of the priest's habit. 
(Heb.) Heb. iphod, a vestment. — Heb. 
Sphad, to put on. 

"^■^^-f prefix. (Gk.) Gk. Iir?, upon, to, 
liesides ; spelt eph- in eph-emeral, ep- in 
ep-isode, ep-och, ep-ode. 

Epic, narrative. (L. — Gk.) 'L. epicus. 
— Gk. em«6s, narrative. — Gk. firos, word, 
narrative, song ; see Voice. 

Epicene, of common gender. (L.— 
Gk.) L. epiecenus. — Gk. Ittikoicos, com- 
mon. — Gk. M, among ; hoiv6s, common. 

Epicure, a follower of Epicurus. (L. 
— Gk.) L. ^picHrus. — Gk.'EmKovpos, a 
proper name ; lit. ' assistant.' 

Epicycle, a small circle, with its 
centre on the circumference of a larger one. 
(L.— Gk.) L. epicyclus. — Gk. imxvKKsK. 



^Gk. hi, upon; icixKos, « circle; see 

Epidemic, affecting a people. (L. ^ 
Gk.) Formed from L. epidlmus, epi- 
demic— Gk. ariSriitos, among the people., 
general. — Gk. Im, among; 5^/ios, people. 
See Endemic. 

Epidermis, cuticle.^ (L.-Gk.) L. 

epidermis. — Gk. imBfpfiis, upper skin. — 

Gk. iiri, upon ; Slpii-a, skin. See Derm. 

Epiglottis, the cartilage forming a 

lid over the glottis. (Gk.) Gk. liri7X<i0TTis. 

— Gk. fui, upon; fKamis, glottis; see 

Epigram, a short and piithy poem or 
saying. (F. -L. — Gk.) F. ipigramme. 

— L. epigramma. — Gk. firiypafifM, an 
inscription, epigram. — Gk. iiriypa<pea', to 
inscribe. — Gk. M, upon; ypaiptiv, to 
write. See Grammar. 

Epilepsy, (F. -L.-Gk.) M.F.epi- 
lepsie, 'the falling sickness;' Cot.— L. epi- 
lepsia. — Gk. (TsiKif^ia, km\tjtpis, a seizure. 

— Gk. imXanPavfiv, to seize upon. — Gk. 
ivi, on ; \a/i0avftv, to seize. Der. epi- 
leptic (Gk. kniXqwTiKos). 

Epilogue. (F — L.-Gk.) Y.ipilogue. 
— L. epilogus. — G\s.. firi\oyos, s, concluding 
speech. — Gk. Iiri, upon; \6yos, a speech, 

Epiphany, Twelfth Day. (F. -L.- 
Gk.) O.F. epiphanie.—X.. epiphania.— 
Gk. kn<l>ina, manifestation ; orig. neut. 
pi. of Im^nos, manifest, but used as 
equivalent to iimpdvfia, sb. — Gk. kirupai- 
vtiv, to shew forth. — Gk. kiri, to, forth; 
(paiv^iv, to shew. See Phantom. 

Episcopal. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
episcopal. —h. episcopalis., belonging to a 
bishop. — L. episcopus, a bishop. —Gk. M- 
ff/coTTos, an over-seer, bishop. — Gk. IW, 
upon; axoTrds, one that watches. See 

Episode, a story introduced into an- 
other. (Gk.) Gk. iTreia65iov, orig. neut. 
of iitfiaiSim, coming in besides. — Gk. iir- 
(lirt), besides ; citroSios, coming in, from 
els, in, dS6s, a way. 

Epistle, a letter. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
O.F. epistle, also episire. — L,. epistela.— 
Gk. kmaTo\li, message, letter. — Gk. tiri- 
a-riM^etv, to send to. — Gk. M, to ; ariK- 
Afiv, to equip, send. 

Epitaph. (F.-L.-Gk.)^ Y.ipitaphe. 

— L. epitaphium. — Gk. Iirtrd^ios, upon a 
tomb. — Gk. iiti, on; lii^s, a tomb. 

Epithalamium, a mnniage - song. 
(L.— Gk.) L. epithalamium. —•iSk., eiri- 


eaXafUov, bridal song. — Gk. Iti, upon, 
for J edAa/ios, bride-chamber. 

Eltitliet. (L.-Gk.) \^. epitheton.- 
Gk.lm'efToi', an epithet; neut. ofJir^eeros, 
attributed. - Gk. «iri, besides; e€-T<Ss, 
placed, from fle-, weak grade of t'lBrnu, I 

Epitome. (L.-Gk.) L. epitome. - 
Gk. emTOfiTi, a surface-incision, also an 
abridgment. — Gk. iiri, upon ; Teia/tiv, to 

Eppch. (I — Gk.) J.a.teL.epocia.- 
Gk. tirox^, a stop, pause, fixed date. — Gk. 
Iir- (lirO, upon ; «x*"'> to hold, check. 
(VSEGH.) Brugm. i. § 602. 

Epode. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. epode. - 
L. epodos. — G]s:. iir^Sds, an epode, some- 
thing sung after. — Gk. eir-i, upon, after; 
oflSeiv, to sing. 

Eq,ual. (L.) L. aqtialis, equal. — L. 
aquus, just, exact. 

equanimity, evenness of mind. (L.) 
From L. aquanimitas, the same. — L. 
aquanimis, of even temper, kind. — L. 
aqu-tts, e(^ual ; animus, mind. 

ectnation, a statement of equality. 
(L.) L. ace. cequationevi, an equalising ; 
from pp. of cequare, to make equal. — L. 
(gquus, equal. So also equator<X'. (Equa- 

equilibrium, even balancing. (L.) 
L. (equilibrium. — L. eequilibris, evenly 
balanced. — L. cequi-, for aquus, even ; 
libra, a balance ; see Librate. 

eq,ui]10X. (F.— L.) Y.iquinoxe.—'L.. 
ceqttinoclium, time of equal day and night. 
— L. aqui-, for cequus ; nocti-, decl. stem 
of nox, a night ; see Ifight. 

ectnipoUent, equally potent. (F. — L. ) 

O. F. equipohnt, — L. (equipollent-, stem of 

■ (equipollens, of equal power. — L. cequi-, for 

cequus : pollens, pres. pt. of pollere, to be 


equity. (F.-L.) O.F. equitd.-'L. 
(equitatem, ace. of (squitas, equity. — L. 
(eqtius, equal. 

equivalent. (F.— L.) M. F. equi- 
valent. — L. tequiualent-, stem of pres. pt. 
of (Squiualere, to be of equal force.— L. 
cequi-, for cequus ; ualere, to be worth ; see 

equivocal. (L.) Formed from L. 
(2quiu0c-us, of doubtful sense. — L. cequi-, 
(zquits ; itoc-, stem of uocdre, to call ; 
see Voice. Der. equivoc-ate, to speak 
doubtfully. % So also equi-angular, equi- 
multiple, &c. 


Equerry, an officer who has charge of 
horses and stables. (F. — O.H. G.) Pro- 
perly equerry means a stable, and mod. E. 
equerry stands for squire of the eqtierry. — 
F. icurie, O. F. escurie, a stable ; Low L. 
scUria, a stable. -O. H. G. skura, skiura 
(G. scheuer), a shelter, stable; allied to 
O. H. G. skiir, a shelter. Brugm. i. § 109. 
(VSQEU.) f Altered to equerry by 
confusion with equus, a horse. 

Equestrian ; see Equine. 

Equilibrium ; see Equal. 

Equine. (L.) L. equinus, relating to 
horses. —L. equus, a horse. + Gk. itsto^, 
(Jkico<!) ; Skt. afva ; Pers. asp ; O. Irish ech ; 
A. S. eoh. Brugm. i. § 116. 

equestrian. (L.) Formed from L. 
equestri-, stem of equester, belonging 
to horsemen. — L. eques, a horseman. —L. 
equus, a horse. 

Equinox ; see Equal. 

Eq.uip, to furnish, fit out. (F.-Scand.) 
M. F. equiper, O. North F. esquiper, to 
fit out ; A. F. eskipper. — Tict\. skipa, to set 
in order, perhaps allied Xq- skip, a. ship. 
Der. e^uip-age, -ment. 

Equipollent, Equity ; see Equal. 
Equivalent, Equivocal ; see 

Era. (L.) L. cera, an era, fixed date. 
From a particular sense of cera, counters 
(for calculation), pi. of ces, brass, money. 

Eradicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

eradicare, to root out. — L. e, out; radi- 

care, to root, from radic-, stem of radix, 

root. See Badiz. 

Erase. (L.) L. Irasus, pp. of Iradere, 

to scratch out. — L. e, out ; radere, to 


Ere, before. (E.) M. E. er. A. S. 
ter, soon, before ; adv. prep, and conj.+ 
Du. eer, O. H. G. er, G. eher; Goth. 
airis, sooner, comp. of air, Icel. ar, adv., 
early, soon. ^ The two last are positive, 
not comparative, forms. Cf. Gk. §pi, 

early, soon. (E.) M. E. erly. A. S. 
cerlice, adv. ; from *Srlic, adj., not used. — 
A. S. «>", soon ; lie, like. 

erst, soonest. (E.) M. E. erst. A. S. 
Hrest, superlative of ar, soon. 

Erect, adj. (L.) L. erectus, upright; 
pp. oi erigere, to set up straight. —L. e, 
out, up ; regere, to make straight, rule. 

Ermine, a beast. (F. - O. H. G.) 

M. E. ermine. — O. F. ermine (F. her- 

I mine). — 0. H. G. harmin, ermine-fur (,G. 




). — O. H. G. harmo, an ermine. 
•\-K.^.hearma; Lithuan. «ar»2^, a weasel. 
^ButHatzfeld supports the derivation from 
Amienius mils, an Armenian mouse ; cf. 
Ponticus mils, supposed to be an ermine. 

Erode. (F. — L.) Y. iroder. — 'L. ero- 
dere, to eat away. — L. e, out ; rodere, to 
gnaw. Der. eros-ion (from pp. eros-us). 

Erotic. (Gk.) Gk. (puTixds, relating 
to love. — Gk. IptuTi-, crude form of epius, 
love ; allied to fpanai, I love. 

Err, to stray. (F. — L.) M.E. erren.— 
O. F. errer. — h. errare, to wander (for 
*ers-are).^-G. irren, to stray, Goth. ajVz- 
jan, to make to stray. Brugm. i. § S78. 

erratum, an error. (L.) L. erra- 
tum, neut. of pp. of errare, to make a . 

erroneous, faulty. (L.) Put for L. 
errSne-iis, wandering; with suffix -ous." 
L. errare (above). 

error. (F. — L.) M. E. errour. — 
O. F. errour. — L. errorem, ace. of error, 
a mistake. — L. errare (above). 

Errand. (E.) M. E. cr««*. A. S. 

terende, a message, business. +0. Sax. 
arundi, O. H. G. arunti, a message ; cf. 
Icel. eyrenJi, bretzdi, Swed. arende, Dan. 
erende. Usually connected with A. S. dr, 
Icel. arr, Goth, aims, a messenger; which 
is hardly possible. 
Errant, wandering. (F. — L.) ¥. er- 
rant, pres. pt. of O. F. errer, eirer, to 
wander. — Late L. iterare, to travel. — L. 
iter, a journey. % It sometimes repre- 
sents the pres. pt. of errare, to wander. 
Doublet, arrant. 

Erratum, Erroneous, Error ; 

see Err. 

Erst ; see Ere. 

Erubescent. (L.) L. erubescent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of erubescere, to grow red. 
— L. e, out, much; rubescere, to grow red, 
inceptive form of rubere, to be red. See 

Eructate. (L.) From pp. of L. eruc- 
tSre, to belch out. — L. e, out ; ructdre 
to belch ; allied to e-rUgere, to belch ; cf. 
Gk. Ipeu'7e(r9ai. Brugm. i. § 221. 

Erudite, learned. (L.) L. erudttus, 
pp. of erudire, to free from rudeness, to 
teach. — L. e, from; rudis, rude. 

Eruption. (L.) From L. eruptionem, 
acc.ol eruptio, a breaking out.— L.^;-«//«j, 
pp. of irumpere, to break out. — L. e, out ; 
rumpere, to break. See Bupture. 

Erysipelas, a redness on the skin. 


(L. — Gk.) L. erysipelas. — Gk. ipvaiireXai, 
redness on the skin. — Gk. ipvai-, allied to 
ipvB-p6s, red; jrt'AAa, skin. Cf. 4/ivat0Ji, 
red blight on corn. 
Escalade, a scaling of walls. (F.— 
Span. — L.) F. escalade. — Span, escalado, 
escalada, a scaling ; from escalar, to scale. 

— Span, escala, a ladder. — L. scala, a 
ladder; see Scale (3). Cf. Ital. jira/a/a, 
an escalade ; Florio also has ' Scalada, 
an escalado," from Spanish. 

Escape. (F.— L.) M. E. tscapen." 
O. 'i^orVa.Y .escaper (F. ichapper),to escape, 
lit. to slip out of one's cape ; Picard dcaper. 

— L. ex cappd, out of one's cape; see 
Cape (i). 

Escarpment. (F.-Ital.-Teut.) F. 

escarpement. Formed from F. escarpe, a 
scarp ; with suffix -ment (L. -menium) ; < 
see Searp. ', 

Escheat. (F. — L.) M. E. eschete ) 
(also c/iete) , a forfeit to the lord of the fee. 

— O. F. esckete, rent, that which falls to 
one, orig. fem. pp. of escheoir (F. ichoir). 

— Late L. excadere, to fall to one's share. 

— L. ex, out ; and cadere, to fall. Hence 

Eschew, to shun. (F. - O. H. G.) 
M. E. eschewen. — O. F. eschiver, eschever, 
to shun. — O. H. G. sciuhan, to frighten, 
also to fear.-O. H. G. *scioh, M. H. G. 
schiech, shy, timid. See Shy. 

Escort, a guide, guard. (F.— Ital.— L.) 
M..Y.escorte. — \\s\. scoria, a guide; fem. 
of pp. of scorgere, to see, perceive, guide 
(orig. to set right). - L. ex, entirely; 
corrigere, to correct ; see Correct. 

Escrow, a deed delivered on condition, i 
(F. — Teut.) A. F. escrouwe, M. E. scroue, 
scrowe ; the orig. word of which scro-ll is 
the diminutive. -O. F. escroe, a slip of 
parchment. — M. Du. sckroode, a shred, slip 
of paper (Kilian) ; cf. O. H. G. scrot, a 
shred. See Shred and SoroU. 

Escuage, a pecuniary satisfaction in 
lieu of feudal service. (F. — L.) O. F. 
escuage < Late L. scutagium. Formed 
with suffix -age from O. F. escu, a shield ; 
because escuage was first paid in lieu of 
service in the field. -L. scutum, a shield. 

Esculent, eatable. (L.) L,. esculentus, 
fit for eating. -L. esca, food. For *ed-sca. 

— L. edere, to eat. Brugm. i. § 753. 
Escutcheon, Scutcheon, a painted , 

shield. (F. — L.) Formerly escochon ; \ 
XV cent.; A. F. escuchon. — O. North F. ' 
escuchon, O. F. escusson, the same; answer- 



ing to a Late L. ace. *scati5nem, extended 
from L. senium, a shield. 

Esophagns, gullet. (L.-Gk.) Late 
L. asophagus. — Gk. oio-o^a^os, the gullet, 
lit. conveyer of food. - Gk. oiVo- (of doubt- 
ful origin)'; ^07-, base oi (fiafiiv , to eat. 

Esoteric. (Gk.) Gk. kaampMb^, 
inner; hence, secret. -Gk. iaimpoi, inner, 
comp. of iaa, adv., within; from U=(h, 
into, prejD. Opposed to exoteric. 

Espalier, frame-work for training trees. 
(F, - ItaL - L. - Gk.) M.F. espallier; 
Cot. — Ital. spalliera, back of a chair, sup- 
port, espalier. -Ital. spalla, shoulder. -L. 
spatula ; see Epaulet. 

Especial. (F.-L.) O. F. especial- 
ly, specialis, belong to a special kind.— L. 
species, a kind. Doublet, special. 

Esipionaffe ; see Espy. 

Esplanade, a level space. (F.— Ital. 

— L.) M. F. esplanade, 'a planing, level- 
ling, evenning of ways ; ' Cot. Formed 
from O. F. esplaner, to level ; the suffix 
being due to an imitation of Ital. spianata, 
an esplanade, a levelled way ; from spia- 
nare, to level. —L. explanare, to level.— 
L. ex, out; pldnare, to level, ixora. planus , 
flat. See Plain. 

Espouse. (F.—L.) O.Y.espouser,\.o 
espouse, wed. — L. sponsare, to betroth. — 
L. sponsus, pp. of spondere, to promise. 
See Spouise, Sponsor. 

Espy, to spy, see. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. 
espyen.—O.'F. espier. — O.R.G. spehon 
(G. spdhen), to spy ; see Species. Der. 
espi-on-age, F. espionnage, from M. F. 
espion, a spy, borrowed from Ital. spione, 
a spy, from O. H. G. spehon, to spy. 

Esq,Tlire, a shield-bearer. (F. — L.) 
M. E. squyer. — O. F. escuyer, escuier, a 
squire. —Late L. scutarius, a shield-bearer. 

— L. scut-um, a shield, cover (F. icii). 
(VSQEU.) Brugm. i. § 109. Doublet, 

Essay, Assay, an attempt, trial. 
(F.—L.) O. Y . essai,s.\.n&\..—\,. exagium, 
a trial of weight ; cf. exdmen, a weighing, 
a swarm. — L. ex, out ; ag-ere, to drive, 
impel, move. (y'AG.) 

Essence, a quality, being. (F.-L.) 
F. essence. — \i. essentia, a being. — L. *es- 
sent-, fictitious stem of pres. pt. of esse, 
to be. Der. essenti-al ; and see entity. 

Essoin, an excuse for not appearing in 
court. (F. — L. and Teut.) O. F. essoine, 
M. F. exoine, ' an essoine, or excuse ; ' Cot. 

— O. F. essonier, to excuse (Godefroy).— 



O. F. «- (L. ex\ away; and Low L. 
sunnia, O. H. G, sunne (for *sundjaj 
Braune^ xiv. 9), lawful excuse. Cf. Goth. 
sitnjon sik, to excuse oneself, ga-sunjon, 
to justify, from sunja, truth ; Skt. satja-, 
true. Brugm. i. § 28^. 
Establish. (F.-L.) M. E. estabUs- 
sen.—O. F. establiss-, base of pres. pt. of 
establir, to establish. — L. stabilire, to 
establish.— L. stabilis, firm; see Stable 


Estate. (F.-L.) O.F. estat.-\.. 
statum, ace. of status, state ; see State. 

Esteem, to value. (F.-L.) O.F. 
estimer. — 'L. astimdre, O. L. testumdre, to 
value. Allied to Goth, aistan, to regard. 
Brugm. ii. § 692. 

estimate. (L.) Frompp. ofL. i^j/j- 

mdre, to value (above). 
Estop, to bar. (F.—L.) The same as 


Estovers, supplies of various neces- 
saries. (F. — L.) A. F. estovers, M. E. 

stovers, -p\. of stover; see Stover. 
Estrange, to make strange. (F.—L.) 

O.F. estranger, to make strange. — O. F. 

estrange, strange. — L. extrdneum, rice, of 

extrdneus, foreign, on the outside. — L. 

extra, without; see Extra. 
Estreat, a true copy, in law. (F.—L.) 

Lit. ' extract.' A. F. estrete, fem. of pp. 

of estraire, to extract. — L. extracta, fem. 

of pp. oiextrahere; see Extract. 
Estuary, mouth of a tidal river. (L.) 

L. astudrium, the same. — L. cestudre, to 

surge, foam as the ticje. — L. ccstus, heat, 

surge, tide. Allied to Ether. 
Etch, to engrave with qcids. (Du. — G.) 

Du. etsen, to etch. — G. dtzen, to corrode, 

etch ; orig. ' to make to eat ; ' causal of 

G. essen, to eat. See Eat. 
Eternal. (F.-L.) M. E. etemel.— 

O.F ete7~iiel. — \,. cetemdlis, eternal. —L. 
cetemus, lit. lasting for an age; for aui- 
ternus. — L. aui-, for aiium, an age. See 

Ether, pure upper air. (L.-Gk.) 
L. cether. — QA^. alSrjp, upper air; from 
its brightness. — Gk. aWfiv, to glow. 
(y'AIDH.) Brugm. i. § 202. 

Ethic, relating to morals. (L. — Gk.) 
L. ethicus, moral. —Gk. ■^0ik6s, moral.— 
Gk. ^Bos, custom, moral nature ; cf. l9os, 
manner, custom. + Skt. svadhd-, self-will, 
strength, from sva, self, dhd, to place ; cf. 
Goth, sidus, G. sitte, custom. 

Ethnic, relating to a nation. (L. — Gk.) 


L. ethnicus. — Gk.. Itfyuids, national. — Gk. 
iBvos a nation. 

Etiolate, to blanch plants. (F.— L.) 
r. itioler ; with suffix -ate. From a 
dialectal form answering to s'^teulei', to 
grow into haulm or stalk, like etiolated 
plants.— F. 4teule, O. F. esleule, a stalk. 
•- Late L. stupula, for L. stipula, straw. 
See Stubble. 

EtiCLUette, ceremony. (F.-G.) F. 
itiquette, a label, ticket, also a form of 
introduction ; cf. M. F. etiquet (O. F. 
estiquet), ' a little note, such as is stuck 
up on the gate of a court,' &c.; Cot. — 
G. stecken, to stick, put, set, fix ; causal 
of G. stechen, to stick, pierce. See Stick 
(i). Hovihlst, ticket. 

Etymon, the true source of a word. 
(L. — Gk.) L. etymon. — Gk. ervfiov ; neut. 
of Itviios, real, true. 

etsrmology. (F.-L.-Gk.) F.ety- 
mologie.—l.. etymologia.—Gk. tTv/ioXoyia, 
etymology. — Gk. Irvfto-s, true ; -\oyia, 
account, from Xiyfiv, to speak. 

Eu-, prefix, well. (Gk.) Gk. tS, well ; 
neut. of ivs, good. Cf. Skt. vasti, wealth. 

Eucalyptus, a genus of trees, includ- 
ing the blue gum-tree. (Gk.) Latinised 
from Gk. eu, well ; KaKvnrds, covered, 
surrounded. The reference is to the hood 
protecting the stamens. 

Eucharist, the Lord's Supper, lit. 
thanksgiving. (L. — Gk.) L. eucharistia, 
— Gk. ivxafiOTla, a giving of thanks.— 
Gk. eS, well ; xapl^oiuu, I show favour, 
from x^P", favour. Cf. Team. 

Eulogy, praise. (L. — Gk.) From L. 
eulogium. — Gk. fvKoyia, praise, lit. good 
speaking; with suffix suggested by L. 
ilogium, an inscription. — Gk. eS, well; 
Xiyuv, to speak. 

Eunuch, one who is castrated. (L.— 
Gk.) L. eunuchus. — Gk. cAroCxofj a 
chamberlain ; one who had charge of 
sleeping apartments. — Gk. eii'^, a couch ; 
^X"", to keep, have in charge. 

Euphemism, a. softened expression. 
(Gk.) Gk. ev^r]niafi6s, the same as cii- 
jnjlda the use of words of good omen. — 
Gk. fv, well ; tprjiii, I speak. (.^BHA.) 

Euphony. (Gk.) Gk. cv0(vi/ia, a 
pleasing sound. — Gk. tv<pavos, sweet- 
voiced. — Gk. «S well; (pavii voice. 

Euphrasy, the plant eye-bright. (Gk.) 
Supposed to be beneficial to the eyes ; lit. 
'delight.' - Gk. titppaaia, delight. -Gk. 


tiippalvtiv, to delight, cheer; cf. fv<t>poiv, 
cheerful. Allied to Gk. fS, well; ^pc; 
stem of ippriv, midriff, heart, mind. 

Euphuism, affectation in speaking. 
(Gk.) So named from a book Euphues, 
by J. Lyly (i679).-Gk. t\)ip\ii]i, well- 
grown, excellent. — Gk. «5, well ; ^inj, 
growth, from tpvo/uu, I grow. (VBHEU.) 

Euroclydon, a tempestuous wind. 
(Gk.) Gk. tipoKXiSwv, supposed to mean 
' a storm from the east.' — Gk. tvpo-s, S. E. 
wind; KXiiSiw, surge, from ic\v(fiv, to 
surge, dash as waves. ^ Only in Acts 
xxvii. 14; where some read fvpaicv\a>v, 
i. e. Eur-aquilo ; from L. Eur-us, E. wind, 
and Aqtiilo, N. wind. 

Euthanasia, easy death. (Gk.) Gk. 
fiOavaata, easy death; cf. ivBavaros, dying 
well. — Gk. <3, well ; Savfiv, to die. 

Evacuate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
euacuare, to empty. — L. e, out ; uacutis, 

Evade, to shun. (F.— L.) Y.dvader. 

— L. euddere (pp. eiiastis}, to escape. — L. 
e, away ; uadere, to go. Der. evas-ion 
(from the pp.). 

Evanescent. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of L. euanescere, to vanish away. 

— L. e, away ; udnescere, to vanish, from 
udnus, empty, vain. 

Evangelist, writer of a gospel. (F. — 
L. — Gk.) O. F. evangeliste. — L. euangel- 
ista. — Gk. tvayytKiaTiit. — Gk. eiayyiKi- 
fo/«ii, I bring good news. — Gk. «B, well; 
dyyt\ia, tidings, from a,yyf\os, a mes- 
senger ; see Angel. 

Evaporate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
euapordre, to pass off in vapour. — L. i, 
out ; uapor, vapour. 

Evasion ; see Sivade. 

Eve, Even, the latter part of the day. 
(E.) Eve is short for even. [¥ or evening, 
see below.) M. E. eue, euen. A. S. &fen, 
e/en.-\-0. Sax. dtand, Du. avond, G. abend. 
Of doubtful origin. Der. even-tide, A. S. 
Sbfcntid. Brugm. i. § 980. 

evening, even. (E.) '^.'E. ettening. 
A. S. &fnung ; formed from &fnian, to 
grow towards evening, with suffix -img; 
from &fen, even (above). 

Even, level. (E.) M. E euen {even). 
A. S. efen, «/«.+Du. even, IcxX.Jafn, Dan. 
Jcevn, Swed. j'dmn, Goth, idns, G. eien. 

Event, result. (L.) L. euentus, euen- 
tum, sb. — L. euentus, pp. of euentre, to 
come out, result. -L. e, out; uenlre, to 
come, allied to Come. 



_Ever, (E.) U.'E: titer {ever). A. S. 
afre,eytx. Related to A.S. a, Goth, aiw, 
ever. Der. ever-lasting, ever-more. 

every, each one. (E.) M. E. eueri, 
euerich. — A. S. a/re, ever ; and a/c, each. 
Ever-y = ever-each ; see Each. 

everywhere. (E.) M. E. eueri- 

hzvar. — A..S. cefre, ever; gehw&r, where. 
The word really stands for ever-ywhere, 
i. e. ever-where ; j/- is a prefix {=ge-). 

Evict. (L.) From L. euid-tis, pp. of 
luincere, to evince; also, to expel. See 

Evident. (F.-L.) O. F. evident.— 
L. euident-, stem of euidens, visible, pres. 
pt. of euidere, to see clearly. —L. e, out, 
clearly ; uidere, to see. 

Evil. (E.) 'SA.^.euel. A. S. y/el, adj. 
and sb.+Du. euvel, G. iiiel, Goth. uiih. 
Teut. type *ubiloz. Prob. allied to over 
(G. Uber), as meaning 'excessive.' 

Evince. (L.) L. euincere, to conquer, 
to prove beyond doubt. —L. e, out, ex- 
tremely ; uincere, to conquer. 

Eviscerate, to gnt. (L.) From pp. 
of L. euiscerare, to gnt. — L. e, out ; 
uiscera, entrails. 

Evoke. (F. — L.) 'F.^voqiier. — 'L.euo- 
cdre, to call forth.— L. e, forth; uocdre, to 
call. See Vocal. 

Evolve. (L.) L. euoluere, to unroll, 
disclose. —L.?, out ! uoluere, to roW. Der. 
evolut-ion, from pp. euoliUus, 

Ewe. (E.) M. E. ewe. A. S. ewe, 
Laws of Ine, 55 ; eowu, a female sheep.+ 
Du. ooi, Icel. ar, M. H. G. ouwe ; Lithuan. 
avis, a sheep^ Rnss. ovtsa, L. ouis, Gk. ois, 
O. Irish oi ; Skt. avi-, a sheep. Cf. Goth. 
awi-str, a sheep-fold. 

Ewer. (F.-L.) M. E. ewer.-A..V. 
ewer, *eweire ; spelt ewer. Royal Wills, 
pp. 24, 27. —L. aqudrium, u vessel for 
water ; cf. A. F. ewe, water; mod. F. eau. 
— L. aqua, water. 

Ez-, E-, prefix. (L.) L. ex, e, out. + 
Gk. tie, i(, out; Russ. 22', Lith. isz. 

Exacerbate, to embitter. (L.) From 
pp. oi exacerbdre, to irritate. —L. ex, very; 
acerbus, bitter ; see Acerbity. 

Exact (0> precise. (L.) From L. ex- 
actus, pp. of exigere, to drive out, weigh 
out. — L. ex, out; and agere, to drive. 

exact (2), to demand. (F.—L.) From 
M. F. exacter; Cot. (obsolete).— Late L. 
exactare. — 'L. ex, out; and (K-/«j, pp. of 
agere (above). 

Exaggerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 



exaggerare, to heap up, amplify.— L. ex, 
very; agger, a heap, from ag- = ad, to; 
gerere, to bring. 

Exalt. (F.-L.) T.exalter.-'L.exal- 
tare, to lift out, exalt. - L. ex, out ; altus, 

Examine, to test. (F.-L.) F. ^•x- 
aniiner. — h. exdminare, to weigh care- 
fiiUy. — L. exdmin-, stem of exdmen, the 
tongue of a balance, for *exdgmen ; cf. 
exigere, to weigh out.— L. ex, out ; fl^«;v, 
to drive, move. Brugm. i. § 768. 

Example. (F. -L.) O. F. example ; 
F. cxemple.—\j. exemplum, a sample. —L. 
exim-ere, to take out ; with suffix -lum ; 
for the inserted/ cf. the pp. exem-p-tus.— 
L. ex, out ; emere, to take, procure. 

Exasperate, to provoke. (L.) From 
the pp. of exasperdre, to roughen, provoke. 
— L. ex, very ; asper, rough. 

Excavation. (F.-L.) F. excava- 
tion.— 1^. ace. excaudtionem, a hollowing 
out. — L. excaudtus, pp. of excaudre, to 
hollow out. — L. ex, out ; caudre, to hol- 
low, from cauus, hollow. 

Exceed. (F.-L.) O.V.exceder. — l,. 
excedere, lit. to go out, — L. ex, out ; 
cedere, to go. 

Excel, to surpass. (F.—L.) O.'S.ex- 
celler. — L. excellere, to rise up, surpass. 

— L. ex, out ; *cellere, to rise, only in 
comp. ante-, ex-,prce-cellere, and in cel-sus, 
high, orig. 'raised.' Cf. Lithuan. kilti, 
to raise ; see Hill. Brugm. i. § 633. 

Except, to exclude. (F.—L.) Y.ex- 
cepter, to except ; Cot. — L. exceptdre, 
frequent, of excipere, to take out. — L. ex, 
out; capere, to take. Der. except, prep. ; 

Excerpt, a selected passage. (L.) L. 
excerptum, an extract ; neut. of pp. oi 
excerpere, to select— L. ex, out; carper e, 
to cull. See Harvest. 

Excess. (F. — L.) O. F. exces.—'L. 
ace. excessum, lit. a going out or beyond. 

— L. excess-, as in excessus, pp. of exce- 
dere ; see Exceed. 

Exchange. (F.—L.) O.Y.eschange, 
sb. ; eschangier, yh., to exchange. —O.F. 
es- (<L. ex); and O.F. change, sb., 
changier, to change. See Change. 

Excheq,Uer, a court of revenue. (F. — 
Pers.) M. E. eschekere. — O. F. eschequier, 
a chess-board; hence, a checkered cloth 
on which accounts were reckoned by means 
of counters (Low L. scaccdriutn). — 0. F. 
eschec, check ; see Check. 


Excise, a cLuty, tax. (Du.-F.-L.) 
A misspelling of M. Dn. aksiis or aksys, 
excise. (Cf. G. accise, excise.) — O. F. 
acceis, a tax, given in the N. E. D. ; allied 
to Low L. accTsia (Ducange) ; also spelt 
exsisa (id.). — Late L. accensus, a payment, 
rent; cf. accensare, to tax.— L. ac- (for 
cut), to ; and census, a tax. ^ For the 
sound-change, cf. Du. spij's, food, from 
Late L. spensa (for dispensd), a larder, 
a spence. 

ZSxcision. (F.— L.) F. excision, 'a 
destroying;' Cot. — L. ace. excisionem, a. 
cutting out, a destroying. — L. excisus, pp. 
of excidere, to cut out. — L. ex, out ; and 
ecedere, to cut. 

Exclaim. (F. — L.) F. exc/amer,—!^. 
exclamare, to call out.— L. ex, out; cld- 
mdre, to call. See Claim. 

Exclude. (L.) L. excludere, to shut 
out. — L. ex, out; claudere, to shut. See 

Excommxiiiicate. (L.) From pp. 

of L. excommunicare, to put out of the 
community. —L. ex, out of; communis, 
common. See Communicate. 

Excoriate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
coriare, to strip off skin. — L. ex., off; 
corium, hide, skin. See Cuirass. 

Excrement (l). (L.) L. excremen- 
tum, refuse, ordure. —L. excretus, pp. of 
excernere, to separate, sift out. — L. ex, 
out ; cernere, to sift. 

Excrement (2), out-growth. (L.) In 
Shak. From L. excrementum. — L. excrl 
ius, pp. of excresccre, to grow out (below) . 
excrescence. (F.-L.) O. F. ex- 
crescence.— \^. excrescentia, an outgrowth. 
— L. excrescent-, stem of pres. pt. of ex- 
erescere, to grow out. — L. ex, out; crescere, 
to grow. See Crescent. 

Excretion. (F.— L.) M.'F. excretion; 
formed (with suffix -ion), from L. excretus, 
pp. of excernere ; see Excrement (i). 

Excmciate, to torture. (L.) From 
pp. of L. excruciare, to torment greatly. — 
L. ex, very ; crucidre, to torture on a 
gibbet, from criici-, dec], stem of crux, 
a cross. 

Exculpate. (L.) From pp. of Late 
L. exculpdre, to clear of blame.— L. ex, 
out of; culpa, blame. 

Excursion. (L.) L. excursiSnem, 
ace. of excursio, a running out. — L. ex- 
cursus, pp. of excurrere, to run out. — L. 
ex, out ; currere, to run. 

Excuse. (F. — L.) F. excuser.—h. 


excusdre, to release from a charge.— L. ex, 
or:t ; and causa, a charge, a cause. 

Execrate. (L.) From pp. of L. exe- 
crdrt, for exsscrdri, to curse greatly. 
-L. ex, greatly; sturdre, to consecrate, 
also to declare accursed. — L. sacr-nm, 
neut. oisacer, sacred; also, accursed. 

Execute. (F.-L.) O.'e.executer.— 
L. execiUus, exsecUtus, pp. of exsequt, to 
follow out, pursue, perform. — L. ex, out; 
sequt, to follow. 

Exegesis, exposition. (Gk.) ^Gk.l^^- 
77)tris, interpretation. — Gk. i^rf^aaBai, to 
explain. — Gk. ff, out J ^fw-flai, to guide, 
perhaps allied to Seek. Brugm. i. § 187. 

Exemplar. (F.-L.) M.E. exem- 
plaire.—O.Y. extsmplaire. — lu. exempld- 
rium, late form of exemplar, a copy (to 
which the mod. E. word is now conformed). 
— L. exempldris, adj., serving as a copy. 
—L. «j;«»ir//«»t; see Example. Tiei.ex- 
emplar-y, from L. exempldris. 

exemplify, to shew by example. (F. 

— L.) A coined word ; as if from F. *ex- 
emplifier. — Late L. exemplificdre, pro- 
perly ' to copy out.' — L. exempli; for ex- 
emplum, a copy ; fie-, ioxfacere, to make. 

Exempt, freed. (F.-L.) O. F. ^jc- 
empt\ whence exempter, to exempt, free. 
— L. exemptus, pp. of eximere, to take 
out, deliver, free. — L. ex, out; emere, to 
take. Cf. Lith. im-ti, to take. 

ExecLuies. (F.-L.) O.F. exeques, 
exequies, 'funerals;' Cot. — L. exsequids, 
ace. pi. of exsequia, funeral obsequies, lit. 
' foUowings.' — L. exsequi, to follow out. 

— L. ex, out ; sequi, to follow. 
Exercise, sb. (F.-L.) M.E. exer- 
cise, — O. F. exercice. — L. exercitium, exer- 
cise. —L. exercitus, pp. of exercere, to 
drive out of an enclosure, drive on, set at 
work. — L. ex, out; arcere, to enclose;, 
see Ark. Der. exercise, vb. 

Exergue, the small space left beneath 
the baseline of a subject engraved on a 
coin. (F. — Gk.) The final -ue is not 
pronounced; oi. prologue, &c. — F. exergue, 
so called because lying ' out of the work.' 

— Gk. l£, out of; (pyov, work. 
Exert. (L.) Lit. to 'put forth.' L. 

exertus, belter spelt exsertus, thrust forth ; 
pp. of exserere, to thrust out. — L. ex, out; 
serere, to join, to put. 

Exfoliate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
foliSre, to strip off leaves ; from ex, off, 
anA folium, a leaf. 

Exhale. (F.-L.) V.exhaler.-'L.ex- 


halare, to breathe out.— L. ex, out; halare, 
to breathe. 

Exhanst. (L.) From L. exhamtus, 
pp. of exfiaurcre, to draw out, drink up. — 
L. ex, out ; haurire, to draw water. 

Exhibit, to show. (L.) From L. 
exhibit-US, pp. of exkibere, to hold forth. 

— L. exy out; habere, to have. 

Exhilarate, to cheer. (L. - Gk. ; with 
L. prefix^ From pp. of L. exhilarare, to 
gladden greatly.— L. ex, very; hilaris, 
kilarus, glad, cheerful, from Gk. lAo/wis, 
cheerful. See Hilarity. 

Exhort. (F.-L.) O.¥.ex{h)orter.- 
L. exhortari, to encourage greatly. — L. 
ex, out, very ; hortari, to encourage ; see 

Exhume, to disinter. (F.-L.) F. 
exhumer. — Late L. exhumare. — L. ex, 
out of ; humus, the ground. 

Exigent, exacting. (L.) From the 
stem of pres. pt. of exigere, to exact. — L. 
ex ; and agere^ to drive. 

Exile, banishment. (F. — L.) O. F. 
essil; later exit, 'an exile, banishment;' 
Cot.— L. exilium, better exsilium, banish- 
ment ; cf. exsul, a banished man. — L. ex, 
out of; and (perhaps) sed-ere, to sit, abide. 
Cf. Consul. Der. exile, verb; hence, 
exile, sb. ( = one who is exiled). 

Exist, to continue to be, (L.) L. ex- 
istere, better exsistere, to stand forth, arise, 
be. — L. ex, out ; sistere, to set, stand, from 
stare, to stand. 

ElElt. (L.) L. exit, i. e. ' he goes out,' 
used as a stage direction ; 3rd pers. s. pres. 
oi exfre, to go out. — L. ex, out; ire, to 
go. % Mxit, departure, is from L. exit- 
us, sb. 

Exodus, departure. (L. — Gk.) L. 
exodus. — Gk. i^oSos, a going out. — Gk. If, 
out ; a8<5s, a way, a march. (.^SED.) 

Exogen, a plant that increases out- 
wardly. (F. — Gk.) F. exogine (1813). 
From Gk. ef -<u, outside, from If, out ; and 
7ev-, base of ytyveaffai, to be bom. 

Exonerate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
onerare, to free from a burden. — L. ex, 
away ; onerdre, to burden, from oner- 
(for *ones-), stem oionus, a burden. 

Exorbitant, extravagant. (F. — L.) 
F. exorbitant. — Ij, exorbitant-, stem of 
pres. pt. of exorbitare, to fly out of a 
track.— L. ex, out; orbita, a track of a 
wheel, from orbi', stem of orbis, a wheel, 
with suffix -ta. 
Exorcise. (L. — Gk.) LateL. ^xcr- 


eizS,re. — Q)s.. i(epici(etv, to drive away by 
adjuration. -Gk. If, away; ipxi^fiv, to 
adjure, from opKos, an oath. 

ExordiniU. (L.) L, exordium, a be- 
ginning.— L. exordiri, to begin, to weave. 
—1j. ex; and ordirt, to begin, weave. 

Exoteric, external. (Gk.) Gk. i^oire- 
piK(5s, external. — Gk. i^aripia, more out- 
wapd, comp. of adv. efw, outward, from 
If, out. 

exotic, foreign. (L,-Gk.) L. exoti- 
cus.— On. IfftiTiKof, outward, foreign.— 
Gk. «fai, adv., outward, from If, out. 

Expand, (L.) L. expandere (pp. ex- 
pansus), to spread out.— L.&n:, out; pand- 
ere, to spread out ; causal from patere, to 
lie open. Cf. Gk. nhyrjiu, I spread out. 
Der. expanse, from the pp. 

Expatiate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
expat iari, better exspatiari, to wander.— 
L. ex, out; spatiart, to roam, from 
spatium, space. 

Expatriate. (L.) From pp. of Late 
L. expatridre, to banish.— L. ex, out of; 
patria, native country, from pater, father. 

Expect. (L.) L. expectdre, better ex- 
speciSre, to look for anxiously.— L. ex, 
tlioroughly; spectdre, to look, frequenta- 
tive of specere, to see. 

Expectorate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
expectordre, to expel from the breast. — L. 
ex, out of; pector- (for *pectos), stem of 
pectus, the breast. 

Expedite. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
pedire, to extricate the foot, release, get 
ready. — L. ex, out; ped-, stem oipes, foot 
Der. expedient, from the stem of the pres. 

Expel. (L.) L. expellere, to drive out. 
— L. ex, out; pellere, to drive. Der. ex- 
pulsion, O. F. expulsion, L. ace. expul- 
sidnem, from pp. expuls-us. 
Expend, to spend. (L.) L. expendere, 
to weigh out, lay out. — L. ex, out ; pen- 
dere, to weigh. Der. expense, from A. F. 
expense, L. expensa, money spent, fem. of 
pp. expensus ; expendit-ure, from Late L. 
expenditus, a mistaken form of the pp. ex- 
Es^erience, knowledge due to trial. 
(F. — L.) O. F. experience. — L. experientia, 
a proof, trial. — L. experient-, stem of pres. 
pt. of experirt, to make a thorough trial 
of (below). Der. experi-ment, M. F. ex- 
periment, L. experimentum, a trial. 

expert, experienced. (F.—L.) O. F. 
expert. ""L. expertus, pp. of experirt, to 



make full trial of. — L. ex, thoroughly; 
and *pertrt, an obs. vb. of which the pp. 
perttus is common. See Peril. 

Expiate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
piare, to atone for fully. — L. ex, fully; 
piare, to propitiate, from pius, devout. 

Expire. (F.-L.) O.F. expirer.-l.. 
expirare, exspirare, to breathe out, die. — 
L. ex, out ; spirare, to breathe. 

Explain. (F.— L.) M. F. explaner, 
Cot. — L. expldnare, to make plain. — L. ex, 
thoroughly ; pldndre, to make plain, lit. to 
flatten, ttom planus, flat. See Plain. 

Expletive. (L.) L. explltluus, filling 
tip. — L. expletus, pp. of explere, to fill 
np. — L. ex, fully ; plere, to fill. See 

Explicate, to explain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. explicdre, to unfold, explain.— 
L. ex, out ; plicdre, to fold. 

explicit. (L.) L. explicitus, old pp. 
o{ explicdre, to unfold, make plain (above). 
Cf. F. explicite. 

Explode, to drive away noisily, burst. 
(F.— L.) M. F. exploder, 'to explode, 
publicly to disgrace or drive out ; ' Cot. — 
L. explodere (pp. explosus), to drive off 
the stage by noise (the old sense .in E.). 
— L. ex, away; plodere, plaudere, to 
clap hands. Der. explos-ive, -ion, from 
the pp. 

Exploit. (F.-L.) M. E. «j//otV, suc- 
cess, Gower, C. A. ii. 258. — O. F. esploit, 
revenue, profit ; later, an exploit, act. — L. 
explicitum, a thing settled, ended, or dis- 
played ; neut. of explicitus; see explicit. 
Cf. Late L. explicta, revenue. 

Explore. (F.— L.) F. explorer. "'L. 
explordre, to search out, lit. to make to flow 
out. — L. ex, out ; plordre, to make to flow. 
Cf. de-plore, im-plore. Brugm. i. § 154. 

Exponent. (L.) L. exponent-, stem 
of pres. pt. of exponere, to expound, indi- 
cate. — \^. ex, out ; ponere, to put. 

Export. (L.) L. exportdre, to carry 
away. — 'L,, ex, away j port are, to carry. 

Expose. (F.-L. a»a' Gk.) O. F. «;i:- 
poser, to lay out. — O. F. ex- (L. ex), out ; 
V. poser, to place, lay. See Pose (i). 

Exposition. (F.— L.) F. exposition. 

— L. ace. expositionem. —L,. expositus, pp. 
of expSnere, to set forth, expound. See 

Expostulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
expostuldre, to demand earnestly. — L. «j;, 
fully ; postuldre, to ask. 

Expound. (L.) The d is excrescent, 


but was suggested by the form of the O. F. 
infinitive. M. E. expouncn. — O. F. es- 
pondre, to explain. — L. exponere, to set 
forth, explain. -I>. ex, out; ponere, to 
put. See Exposition. 

Express, adj., exactly stated. (F.-L.) 
O.F. expres.—h. expressus, distinct; pp. 
of exprimere, to press out.— L. ex, out; 
premere, to press ; see Press. 

Expnlsion ; see Expel. 

Expunge. (L.) L. expungere, to 
prick out, blot out. [In MSS., expunction 
of a word is denoted by dots under it.']— L. 
ex, out; pungere, to prick. Der. ex- 
punct-ion, from the pp. expunctus. 

Expurgate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

expurgdre, to purify thoroughly. — L. ex, 
thoroughly ; purgdre, to purge, purify ; see 

Exquisite, sought out, excellent. (L.) 
L. exquisitus, pp. of exquirere, to seek 
out. — L. ex, out ; qjMcrere, to seek. 

Exseq,uies ; see Exeguies. 

Extant, existing. (L.) Late L. ex- 
tant-, stem of extans, for exstans, pres. pt. 
of exstdre, to stand forth, exist. — L. ex, 
out ; stdre, to stand. 

Extasy ; see Ecstasy. 

Extempore. (L.) From L. ex tem- 
pore, at the moment. — L. £j;, from, out of; 
tempore, abl. oitempus, time. 

Extend. (L.) M. E. extenden. — 'L. 
extendere, to- stretch out ; pp. extentus, 
exteiistts. — L. ex, out ; tendere, to stretch. 
Der. extens-ion, -ive (from the pp.). 

extent. (F.— L.) O. F. extente, 
commonly estente, extent. — Late L. ex- 
tenta, fem. of extentus, pp. of extendere 

Extenuate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
tenudre, to thin, reduce, palliate. — L. ex, 
out, very ; tenu-is, thin. See Thin. 

Exterior, outward. (F.-L.) For- 
merly exteriour, — M. F. exterieur. — L. ex- 
teridrem, ace. of exterior, outward, com- 
parative of exterus or exter, outward. — L. 
ex, out ; with compar. suiEx -tero-. 

Exterminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
extermindre, to put or drive beyond 

bounds. — L. ex, out ; terminus, boundary. 

External, outward. (L.) From L. 

extern-US, outward, extended form from 

exterus, outward. See Exterior. 
Extinguish.. (L.) Coined, with sufliix 

-ish,txorti h. extinguere,'betleT exstingticre 

(pp. extinctus, exsiinctus), to quench.— 

L. ex, out ; *stinguere, to prick, also to 



qnench. Der. extinct (from pp. extinclus) . 
Cf. Distinguish. 

Extirpate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
Hrpare, to root out, better spelt exstirp- 
dre, to pluck up by the stem. — L. ex, out j 
stirp-s, stirp-es, the stem of a tree. 

£ztol. (L-) L- extolUre, to lift or 
raise up. — L. ex, out, up ; iollere, to lift. 

Extort. (L.) L. extori-us, pp. of ex- 
torquere, to twist out, wring out. — L. ex, 
out ; torquere, to twist. 

Extra. (L.) L. extra, beyond, beyond 
what is necessary ; O. L. extrdd, allied to 
L. exter ; see Exterior. 

extraneous. (L.) L. extrane-us, 
external, with suffix -ous ; extended from 
extra (above). Cf. Strange. 

Extract, vb. (L.) L. extract-us, pp. 
of extrahere, to draw out. — L. ex, out ; 
trahere, to draw. 

Extraordinary. (L.). l^-extra-ordi- 

narius, beyond what is ordinary, rare. — L. 
extra, beyond ; ordinarius, ordinary. See 

Extravagant. (F.-L.) F. extra- 
vagant.— 'LaHs L. extravagant-, stem of 
extrdvagans, extravagant, lit. wandering 
beyond. — L. extra, beyond; uagans, pres. 
pt. of uagdri, to wander. 

Extravasate, to force (blood) out of 
its (proper) vessel. (L.) Coined from 
extra, beyond; tids, a vessel; with suffix 

Extreme. (F. - L.) O. F. extreme. — 
L. extremus, superl. of exterus, outward ; 
see Exterior. 

Extricate. (L-) From pp. of L. ex- 
tricdre, to disentangle. — L. e^t;, out of; 
trtcce, impediments, perplexities. 

Eairinsic, external. (F.—L.) It should 
rather be extrinsec. — O. F. extrinseque, 
outward. —Late L. ace. extrinsecum, adj. ; 
allied to L. extrinsecus, adv., from without. 
— L. extrin { = *extrim), oAsexhKiX form 
from exter, outward ; and secus, beside; 
so that extrinsecus = on the outside; cf. 
interim. Secus is allied to secundum, 
according to, from seqm, to follow; see 

Extmde. (L.) L. extrOdere, to 
thrust out. — L. ex, out ; trudere, to 
thrust. Cf. Intrude. 

Exuberant. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of L. exOberare, to be fruitful or 
luxuriant. —L. ex, very ; arid Hberare, to be 
fruitful, from Oier, fertile, allied to uber, 
an udder, fertility ; see XTdder. 


Exude. (L-) From L. exudare, better 
exsiidare, to sweat out, distil. — \..ex, out ; 
siiddre, to sweat. See Sweat. 

Exalt, to leap for joy. (F.— L.) F. 
exulter.—'L. exultSre, better spelt exsul- 
tdre, to leap up, exult. — L. exsultus, pp. 
of exsiltre, to leap out. — L. ex, out ; satire, 
to leap. See Salient. 

Exuvise, cast skins of animals. (L.) 
L. exuuics, things stripped off. — L. exuere, 
to strip off. Cf. induuice, clothes. 

Eyas, a nestling. (F. — L.) Yot nias; 
by substituting an eyas for a nias. — F. 
niais, a nestling ; Cot. He also gives 
niard, ■^'heaa faulcon niard, ' a nias faul- 
con.' Cp. Ital. nidiace, or nidaso falcone, 
' an eyase-hawk, a young hawk tsJcen out 
of her nest; ' Torriano. Formed as if from 
Late L. *niddcem, ace. of *nfdax, adj. 
from L. nidus, a nest. See ITest. 

Eye. (E.) M. E. eye, eighe; pi. eyes, 
eyen (whence eyne). O. Merc, ege; A. S. 
eage, pi. eagan.-^T>u. oog, Icel. auga, Dan. 
oie, Swed. oga, Goth. a7i^, G. auge. 
Perhaps allied to Russ. oko, L. oculus 
(dimin. of *ocus') ; Gk. iaai (dual) ; Lith. 
akis, Skt. akshi. Brugm. i. § 68i. Der. 
dais-y, q. v. ; window, q. v. 

Eyelet-hole. (F. - L. ; and E.) 
Eyelet is for M. E. oilet, from M. F. 
oeillet, ' a little eye, an oilet hole,' Cot. ; 
dimin. of O. F. oeil, from L. oculum, ace. 
ot oculus, eye. 

Eyot, a little island. (E.) Also spelt 
ait, eyet, eyght. Late A. S. yget (Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. v. 17, 1. 30); for A.S. igotS, 
igeoS, a dimin. from ig, ieg, an island ; see 

Eyre, a circuit. (F.— L.) M.E. eire, 
circuit, esp. of a judge. — O. F. eire, 
journey, way.-O. F. eirer, to journey, 
wander about. — Late L. iterare, to journey 
(for L. itinerdre) ; from L. iter, a journey. 
See Errant. 

Eyry, a nest ; see Aery. 


PaWe, a story. (F.-L.) Y. fable. - 
'L.fdbula, a narrative. — L. /«-?-«, to speak, 
tell. See Fate. 

Pabric. (F.-L.) F. fabrique.— 'L. 
fabrica, workshop, fabric. — L. fabric, for 
faber, a workman. From L. base *fah-, 
to be skilful ; cf. Lith. dab-inh, I adorn, 



clean ; Goth, ga-dab-ith, it is fit ; Russ. 
deb-ruii, good. See Deft. Der. fabric- 
ate, from pp. of L,.fabricari, to construct ; 
iiomfabrica (above). Bmgm. i. f 563. 
Facade, face of a building. (K. — Ital. 

— L.) M. F. facade (Cot.). - lta\. facciata, 
face of a building. — Ital. faccia, face. — 
Folk-L.^«a, for h.facies (below). 

face. (F. - L.) F. face. - Folk-L. 
facia, for 'L. fades, the face, appearance. 
Facetious. (F. — L.) F. facilieux 
(Cot.). -. M. V.facetie, ' witty mirth,' id. - 
L. facetia, wit ; common in pi. — L. face- 
tus, witty, courteous ; orig. ' fine.' 

Facile, easy to do. (F. — L.) F. 
facile. — Ij.facilis, i. e. do-able. — 'L.facere, 
to do. Der. facility ; faculty. 

fac-siniile. (L.) For foe simile, 
make thou like. p-L.^Jk-, imp. s. oi facere, 
to make ; simile, neut. of similis, like ; 
see Similar. ^ We also find factum 
simile, i. e. made like. 

fact, a deed, reality. (L.) L. factum, 
a deed ; orig; neut. oi foetus, pp. of facere, 
to make, do. 

faction. (F. — L.) F. faction, a sect. 

— L. factianem, ace. of fctctio, a doing, 
taking part, faction. — L. facttfs,, pp. of 
facere, to do. 

factitious. (L.) 'L.factUi-us, artifi- 
cial; with suffix -oaj. — L. factus, pp. of 
facere, to make. 

factotum. (L.) A general agent.— 
"L-facien) totiim, to do everything. 

faculty, facility to ^ct. (F.-L.) 
M. E. facultee. — V. facidti. — 'L. faculta- 
tem, ace. oi facultas (_=facilitas), facility. 

— i-,.facilis, easy; see Facile. 

Fad, 3 folly. (F.-Prov.-L.) Ap- 
parently shortened from F.fadaise, fiddle- 
faddle; ef. 'fadeses, follies, toyes, fooleries ;' 
Cot. — Prov. fadetq, folly (Hatzfeld).- 
VioY. fat (G!isco|i_/ai^),foolish. — 'L.fatuus, 

Fade,vb. (F.-L.) O.V. fader; from 
F. fade, adj., tasteless, weak, faint. — L. 
uapidum, ace. of uapidtis, vapid. See 
Vapid. ^ Vade, iorfade, is from M. Du. 
vadden ; from O. Y. fader. 

Fadge, to fit, suit, be content with, 
succeed. (E.) Formed^ in some unex- 
plained way, from the Teut. base fag-, to 
suit, whence also O. Sax. fSgian, A. S. 
fegan, to join, suit, M. E. fSjen, to adapt, 
fit, G. fiigen, Dn. voegen (see Klnge and 
Franek). Cf. Goth, fulla-fahjan, to 
satisfy, O. H. G. S'l^^S) content, Dn. mge- 


fuur, cleansing fire, purgatory. See 
Faeces. (L.) 1.. fi^cis, dregs; pi. of 

fax, the same. Der. fec-ulent, L. fac-u- 
lentus, adj. iiorafcex. 

Fag, to drudge. (E.?) ' T:o fag, ^efi- 
cere ^ Levins (1570). The orig. sense was 
' to droop.' Perhaps a corruption oijffag;, 
see Flag (i) ; and see below. 

Fag-eud, remnant. (E.?) In Mas- 
singer, Virg. Mart. ii. 3. Perhaps for 

flag-end— \oois end ; seff above. Cf. ' the 

flagg or ih.e faggfederis' (feathers); Book 
of St. Albans, fol. B i 3. 
Faggot, Fagot. (F.-ItaL-L.?) 
F. fagot, ' a fagot, a bundle of sticks y 
Cot. Of doubtful origin; perhaps borr 
rowed from lta.\. fagotto, 'a faggot,' Florio; 
or (liVie fagotto) from Norw. fagg, a bundle 
Fail. (F.-L.) F. fatllir; cf. Ital. 

fallire.— Fo\k-h. *falllre, for h.fallere, to 
beguile, also, to be defective sfallt, to err. 
Brugm. i. § 757. 

Fain. (E.) M.F,fayn. A.S. fagea, 
glad.+O. Sax. fagan, lce\. feginn, glad.. 
Cf. A. S. gefeon (pt. t. gefecih), to rejoice. 
Teut. root *feh-, as in A. S. ge-fion (for 
*-feh-ari); cf. Go\ii.fah-eths,}ay. 
Faint. (F.-L.) M. E. /««/.- O. F. 

feint, weak, pretended ; orig. pp. of 

feindre, to feign.— L. y&«^«r«, to form, 

^ feign. See Figure. 
Fair (i), pleasing, beautiful. (E.) 
M. E. fayr, A. S. fceger, falr.-|rlcel. fagr\ 

\ Dan. S'us&.fager, Go'Ha.fagrs, fit,O.H.G. 

\fagar. Teut. type *fagro's. Cf. Gk. Tr47- 

wviu, I fasten. Brugm. 1. §§ zoo, 701. 

I Fair (2), a holiday. (F.-L.) M. E. 
feii-e. — A. F. feire (F. faire). — 'i^.flria, a 
holiday, later, a fair; commoner as pi. 

fence, for *fes-ice, feast-days; allied to 

i Feast. Brugm. ii. § 66, 
Fairy. (F.-L.) lA.'E. faerie, fayrye^ 
enchantment. [Tlie mod. use of the word 
is new ; fairy = enchantment, the old 
word for 'elf htmg fay.'] — O.F. faerie^ 
enchantment. — O. F.fae, a fay; see Fay. 
Faith. (F.-L.) M. E. feith; alsa 
fey. Slightly altered from O. F. feid, fei, 

; faith. — \a.fidem, ace. oifides^ faith ; allied 
io fidere, to trust. Cf. Gk. majis, faith. 
(VBHEIDH.) Allied to Bide. Brugm. 
i. § 202. 
Falchion, a sword. (F.— Ital.— L.) 
M. E, fanchon. — O. F. fauchan. — Ital. 

falcione [ci pron. as cK). - Late L. falcif- 



mm, ace oi falcio, a bent sword. -L. 
falci', decl. stem of/alx, a sickle. Allied 
lojlectere, to bend. 

ifelcon. (F.-L.) U.-E. faucim.- 
O. F. faucon,faulcon. — 'LsXf: L. falcSnem, 
ace. oifalco, a falcon, so named from its 
hooked claws. - L. /a/f-, stem oifalx, a 


Faldstool, a folding-stool. (Low L.- 

O. H. G.) Low 'L.faldislolium. - O. H. G. 

fald-an, to fold ; stud (G. j/«^/), a stool. 

Cf. Y.fauteuil. See Fold. 
Pall, to drop down. (E.) M.'E. fallen. 

O. Merc, fallan ; A. S. }«a//a«. +Du. val- 

len, Icel./alla, T)a.n./alde (for/a/&),Swed. 

/alia, G. fallen. Teut. *fallan-. Cf. Lith. 

/i^j, to fall ; and perhaps L. fallere, to 

deceive, /a/ff, to err. Brugm. i. § 757. 

Der. betfaU, from A. S. befeallan, to fall 

out, happen ; fell (i). 
Fallacy. (F.^L.) Formed by adding 

-y to M. E. fallace, a fallacy, deceit. — F. 

fallace.-'L. fallaeia, deceit.— L. fallac-, 

stem oifallax, deceitful. - L. fallere, to 

det^ive. See above. 

fallible. (L.) L. falimiis, liable 

to err.— L. falli, to err; fallen, to de- 
Fallow (1), orig. ' harrowed ; ' of lanA 

(E.) A. S. fcelging, fallow-land. — A. S. 
fealh, a harrow. Cf. E. Fries, falgen, to 

fellow land ; O. H. G.felga, a harrow. 
Fallow (a), used with reference to 

eolour. (E.) O. Merc, falu ; A. S. fealu, 
fealo, pale red, yellowisL+Du. vaal, Icel. 
felr, pale, G. fahl, pale, also falb ; Lith. 
palvas; cf. also L. pallidus, Gk. iro\t(5s, 

gray, Skt. talita-, gray. See Pale. 

False. (F.-L.) M. E. fals. - O. F. 
fdls {¥. faux). — 'L. falstis, felse; pp. of 
fallere, to deceive. 

Falter, to totter, stammer. (E. ?) 
M. E. faltren, to totter; frequentative 
from a base fait-. Of obscure origin. 
Perhaps connected with Icel. refl. vb. 
faltrask, to be cumbered, to be puzzled. 

Fame, report. (F.-L.) Y.fame.-"L. 
fama, report. — L. fart, to speak ; see 

Family. (F.-L.) F. famiUe.-'L. 
familia, a household. — L. famulus, a 
servant, Oscaxi famel ; cf. Oscan faamat, 
he dwells. 'Dei. fmnili-ar (^. familiaris). 

Famine. (F.— L.) '?. famine.— l^sXe. 
L. *famina, unrecorded, but plainly an 
extension from L. fames, hunger. Der. 
fam-ish, formed (by analogy with lan- 

guish, &c.) from L. fam-es, hunger; cf. 
O. F. afamer, to die of hunger. 

Fan, an instalment for blowing. (L.) 
A. S.^««. — Late L. vannus, L. ttannus, 
a fan (whence also F. van) ; see Tan (a). 
Brugm. i. § 357. 
Fanatic, religiously insane. (F.— L.) 
^^.fanatique.'-\u.fandticus, (1) belonging 
to a temple, (2) inspired by a divinity, 
enthusiastic. — L. fanum, a temple ; see 

Fancy. (F.-L.-Gk.) Short for M.E. 
fantasie. — O. F. fantasie. — Late L. phan- 
tasia. — G\i, (jmvTaaia, a making visible 
(hence, imagination).— Gk. ^vri^fty, to 
display ; see Phantom. 

Fandango, a Spanish dance. (Span.) 
Span, fandango, ' a dance used in the W. 
Indies ; ' Pineda (i 740). 
Fane, a temple. (L.) L. fdnum, a 
temple ; shortened from an earlier form 
*fasnom ; cf. Oscan fisnam, a temple ; 
allied to 'L.festus,feria. Brugm. ii» 5 66. 
Fanfare, a flourish of trumpets, (F. ^ 
Span. ?) F. fanfare. Prob. of imitative 
origin, or borrowed from Si^(xm.fanfarria, 
bluster, yauntjng, which is of similar for- 
mation. 'Det.fanfarr-on-ade, bluster. 

Fang, a talon, claw. (E.) A. S.fang; 
lit. a seizing. — A. S. *fdhan, to seize, only 
used in the contracted form fon^ pt. t. 
feng, pp. gefangen ; the pp. form having 
alone survived, evolving an iniin. inood 
in dialects.-f Du. vangen, to catch; Icel. 
fa (cf fang, sb,, a catch of iish)^ Dan. 
faae, Swed.yiJ, Goth. /aAa«, G.fangen, 
to catch, fang, sb., a catch, also a fang. 
Allied to L.pangere; Brugm. i. § 421. 
Fantastic. (Gk.) Gk. (pavTaarucos, 
able to represent or shew. — Gk. tpavTa^€a>, 
io display. See Fancy. 
Fantasy, older form of Fancy, q. v. 
Faquir, FaUr, ap Oriental religious 
mendicant. (F. — Arab.) Y .faquir.fakir. 
— Arab, fagtr, one of a religions order of 
mendicants; lit. 'poor, indigent;' Richard- 
son's Diet. p. 1096. 
Far. (E.) U.E.fer. A.S.feor.+Bn. 
ver, lce\. fr'arri, Svred, fierran, adv., Dan. 
f/em,G.fem; Goth. _/a«>ra, adv. Allied 
to Gk. iripav, beyond ; Skt. paras, beyond, 
para-, far. (^PER.) The com^. farther 
[for M. E. ferrer (j. e, far-ery] is due to 
confusion yiithfurther, comp. of Forth. 

Farce. (F'.— L.) The orig. sense is 
' stuffing ' ; hence, a jest inserted into a 
comedy. — F, farce, stiiffing, a farce. — F. 



farcir, to stuff. — L. _/&?■«>«, to stuff.+Gk. 
(j>paacrftv (for *<ppaK-}'(tv), to shut in. 

Fardel, a pack, bundle. (F. — Arab.) 
M. E. fardel. -O. F. /arJel (F. fardeau). 
Dimin. of O. F. farde, a burden. Prob. 
from Arab, fardah, a package (Devic). 
Perhaps borrowed through Spanish ; cf. 
^^xa. fardel, fardo, a bundle. 

Fare, to travel, speed. (E.) A. S. 
faran, to go, travel. + Du. varen, Icel. 
Swed. fara, Dan. fare, G. fahren, Goth. 
faran, to go; Tent. *faran- (pt. t. *fdr). 
Cf. Gk. ■noffioiiai, I travel ; L. experior, 
I pass through, Skt. /y, to bring over. 
(^PER.) Der. fare-well, i.e. may you 
speed vifell ; thoroughfare, a passage 
through; welfare, successful practice or 

Farina, ground com. (L.) Y,. farina, 
meal.— L. far, a kind of grain ; allied to 
Barley. "Dev. farinaceous , from X,.fanna- 
ceus, Brugm. i, § i8o. 

farrago. (L.) L. farrago, mixed 
food for cattle, a medley.— L.}^;- (gen. 
farr-is), grain (above). 

Farm. (F. - L.) [A. S. feonn\ 
A. F. and O. F. ferine^ a farm. — Late 
'L.firma, a feast, farm, tribute; fem. of L. 
firmus, durable. (From the fixed rent ; 
also food, from its support^ See Firm. 

Farrier. (F.— L.) Formerly /cmcr, 
a worker in iron. — O. Y.ferrier (the same) . 

— 'L.ferrariuSjS. blacksmith.— L._/^;-?7<z«, 

Farrow, to Utter pigs. (E.) From the 
sb. farrow, a litter of pigs. — A. S. fearh, 
" P'g ; pl- fearas. + M. H. G. varch, a 
pig; G.ferk-el; L.porcus; see Pork. 

Partner ; see Far. 

Farthing', fourth part of a penny. 
(E.) M.E. ferihing. A. S.f erring, feer- 
Sing, older l<yrai feorpiing. — A. S. feorS-a, 
fourth; with dimin. suffix -ing or -l-ing. 
Allied to A. S.feower, four. 

Farthingale, Fardingale, a 

hooped petticoat. (F Span.-L.) M.F. 

verdugalle, 'a vardingall ; ' Cot. -Span. 
verdugado, a farthingale, lit. 'provided 
with hoops.' — Span, verdugo, young shoot 
of a tree, rod, hoop. — Span, verde, green. 

— L. uiridis, green. See Verdant. 
Fascinate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

fascinare, to enchant. — L. fascinum, a 
Fascine, a bimdle of rods. (F. — L.) 
F. fascine. — L. fascina, a bundle of twigs. 
—h.faseis, a bundle. 


Fashion. (P". — L.) O. F, faceon, 
fachon, make, shape. — L. faciiatiem, ace. 
of fac/io, a making ; see Faction. 
Past (i), firm. (E.) A. S. fcest.+Dn. 
vast, Dan. Swed. fast, Icel. fastr, G.fest ; 
Armen. hast. Der. fast (2), fast (3). 
Brugm. ii. § 79. 

fast (2), to abstain from food. (E.) 
A.S. feestan,oiig. to make fast,' observe, 
be strict ; from fast (above). +Du. vasten, 
Dan. fasfe, Swed. and Icel. fasta, G. 
fasten ; Qoih.. fastan, to observe, fast. 

fast (3), quick. (Scand.) A peculiar 
use ai fast (i) above ; this use is Scand. 
Cf. Icel. drekka fast, to drink hard, sofa 
fast, to be fast asleep, fastr i verkum, 
hard at ■woik,fylgjafast, to follow fast, &c. 
It means firm, close, nrgent, quick. 

fasten. (E.) A. S.fastnian, to make 
fast or firm. — A- B.fcest, firm. 

fastness. (E.) M. E. festnes, fast- 
ness, orig. ' strength.' — A. S. fastness, the 
firmament, a fastness; orig. that which is 
fam. — A.S.feest, firm. 
Fastidions. (L.) 'L.fastidiosus, A\s- 
dain(nl. — L,.fastidium, loathing; perhaps 
for *fastutfdium (Vanicek). — L. fastu-s, 
arrogance ; tcedium, disgust ; so ihsX fasti- 
dium = arrogant disgust. 

Fastness ; see Fast. 

Fat (i), gross. (E.) M.'E.fatt,fet,fat. 
A. S. fatt, orig. a pp., contr. from *fmted, 
fattened, enriched.+O. H. G. feizit (G. 
feist), pp. of a Tent. vb. *faitjan-, formed 
from Teut. adj. *faitoz, which is represented 
by Icel. feitr (Swed. fet, Dan. fed), fat. 
Cf. Gk. iriaiv, Skt. pivan, fat. 

Fat (2), a vat ; see Vat. 

Fate, destiny. (F. -L.) M. E. fate. - 
O. F. fat, fate (not common). — L. fatum, 
what is spoken; neut. of pp. oi fart, to 
speak.+Gk. ^ij/ui, I say. Perhaps allied to 
Boon (i). Brugm. i. § 187. (^BHA.) 

Father. (E.) M. E. fader. A. S. 
feeder. The pron. with th is due to dialectal 
inflnences. + Icel. faSir, Du. voder, Dan. 
Swed. fader, Goth, fadar, G. vater, L.' 
pater, Gk. variip, O. Irish athir, Pers. 
pidar, Sky.pitr. Idg. type *pater-. 

Fathom. (E.) M. E. fadme. A. S. 
faUrn, the space reached by the extended 
arms, a grasp, embrace.+Du. vadem, Icel. 
fadmr, a fathom, Dan./aww, Swtd. famn, 
an embrace, G. faden. Allied to Patent. 

Fatigue, sb. (F. - L.) O. F. fatigue ; 
bom fatiguer, to weary. - L. /a/«^a?-e, to 


Fatuous. (L.) L. fahi-us, silly, 
feeble ; with sufSx -ous. Der. in-fattiate, 
from pp. of L. infatuare, to make a 
fool of. 

Fauces. (L.) l,. fauces, pi., the upper 
part of the throat. . 

Faucet, a spigot, vent. (F. - L.?) 
F. fausset, a faucet ; faulset. Cot. 
Origin unknown ; but of. M. F. faidser, 
to falsify, forge ; also faulser un escu, to 
pierce a shield ; hence, to pierce. — L. 
falsare, to falsify. — L./z/j«i, false. 

Fault. (F. - L.) Formerly faut. 
M. 'E./aiUe. - O. Y.fante, a fault. (Span, 
and Ita.l./aiia, a defect.) - Folk-L. *fallUa, 
a defect, fem. of *fallitus, new pp. of 
falUre, to deceive ; cf. F. faillir. See 
Pail, Fallible, False. Hence also O. F. 
fauter. Span, faltar, Ital. faltare, to be 

Faun, a rural (Roman) deity. (L.) L. 
faunus.'-'L.fauere, to be propitious (?) 

Fauteuil, an arm-chair. (F. — Low L. 
-O. H. G.) F. fauteuil, O. F. faulde- 
tueil {Co\..).'-'Lovi'L.faldistdlium, a fald- 
stool ; see' Faldstool. 

Favour, sb. (F. — L.) O.V. favour. 
— "L. fauSrem, ace. of ^wff*-, favour. — L. 
fauere, to befriend, orig. ' to venerate.' 
favourite. (F. - Ital. - L.) M. F. 

favorit; cf. Y.favori, pp. of O. Y.favorir, 
to favour. But the final t is really due to 
borrowing from \\s\..favoriio, pp. and sb. ; 
orig. pp. of favorire, to favour. — Ital. 
favare, iavoui. — L,.faud>'em (above). 

Fawn (i), to cringe to, rejoice servilely 
over. (E.) A. S.faAnian,fagnian, to re- 
joice; variants ai fcegenian, to fawn, from 
fagen, fain, glad.+Icel. fagna, to rejoice, 
welcome one ; allied to feginn, fain. See 

Fawn (2), a young deer. (F.-L.) 
O. F. fan, fcum, earlier feon, a fawn ; 
answering to a Late L. form *fetonem 
Cnot found), ace. of *feto, a young one. — 
1^. fetus, foetus, offspring. See Fetus. 

Fay, a fairy. (F.-L.) Y. fie, O.F. 
fae, a fay. Cf. Port, fada, Ital. fata, a 
fay. — Late L. fata, a fate, goddess of 
destiny, a fay. — L. fata, pi. of L. fatum, 
fate. See Fate. Jiev. fai-ry. 

Fealty, true service. (F.-L.) O.F. 
fealte,feelteit, fidelity. — 'L.fidelitatem, ace. 
of Jidelitas, fidelity. — L. fidelis, faithful ; 
bora fides, faith. 

Fear. (E.) M. E. feer. A. S. far, a 
sudden peril, danger, fear. Orig. used of 



the peril of travelling. -A. S. f&r-, 3rd 
stem of faran, to go, travel.+Icel. far, 
harm, G. gefahr, Du. gevaar, danger. Cf. 
\,^eruulum, danger. 
Feasible, easy to be done. (F.— L.) 
[Also feisable.'] — M. F. faisible, faisable, 
'feasible, doable;' Cot. - O. F. /aw-, as 
xafais-ant, pres. pt. ol faire, to do. — L. 
facere, to do. See Fact. 

Feast. (F. - L.) M. E. feste. - O. F. 
feste (F./A«).-Late l-fesla, fem. sb.-L. 
festa, lit. festivals, pi. of festum. See 
Feat, a deed well done. (F.-L.) M.E. 
feet, fete. -A.F. fet; O.F. fait. - L. fac- 
tum, a deed; see Fact. 

Feather. (E.) M. E. fether. A. S. 
feSer. + Du. veder, Dan. ficeder, Swed. 
fjader, Icel. ffoHr, G. feder; L. penna 
(for *pet-snd), Skt. patra-, Gk. vTfp&ir, a 
wing. See Pen. (^PET.) 

Feature, make, form. (F. — L.) M. E. 
feture. — A. F. fettire; O. F. failure, 
fashion. — L. /2rf«?-o, work, formation.— 
I-,, f actus, pp. oi facere, to make. 
Febrile, relating to fever. (F.-L.) 
F ^ibrile. — 'L. febrilis. — "L.febri-s, fever. 
February. (L.) L. februarius, the 
month of expiation. — L. februa, neut. pi., 
a festival of expiation on Feb. 15. — L. 
februum, purification -tfebrudre, to expiate. 
Of Sabine origin. 

Feckless, ineffective. Also fectless ; 
short for effect-less ; see Fffect. 

Feculent, foul. (F.-l.) F.ficuknt. 

— L. faculentus, full of dregs. — L. feeds', 
dregs. See Feeces. 

Fecundity. (F.-L.) TA.F.feconditS 
(Cot.).— L. &CC. fecunditatem, fruitfulness. 

— L. flcundus, fruitful ; allied to feitts, 
offspring. See Fetus. 

Federal. (F. - L.) F. fidiral. 
Formed, with suffix -al, from L. fader- 
(for *fcedes-), stem of fadus, a treaty. 
Akin to fides, faith. 

Fee, a lordship, a payment. (F. — 
O. H. G. ?) A. F.fee, O. F.fiu ( F. fef), 
a fee, fief. — Late L. fevum, a fief (Du- 
cange). Prob. from O. H. G. fehu, pro- 
perty.+Du. i>ee, Icel. fe, Dan. fa, Swed. 
fa, Goth, faihu, L. pecus ; Skt. pafu-, 
cattle. (VPEK.) So also A. S. feoh, 
cattle, whence M. E. fee, cattle, property. 
now obsolete. % We also find Late L. 
feudum ; see Feudal. 

Feeble. (F.-L.) lli.F.feble.-K.F. 
feble, U.F. foible, O. F.fleble (Godefroy) ; 


cf. Ital. fievole {Kfievole), feeble [since 
Ital. Ji<fi\. — X„ fiebilis, doleful; hence, 
weak. — L. Jlere, to weep. Brugm. ii. 

FeedL to take food, give food. (E.) 
M.E. feden. A. S. fedan; for *fodian; 
with vowel-change from ^ to #. — A. S./oda, 
food.+Du. voeden, lct\. faiiSa, Swed./oda, 
Da.n./bde, O. H. G.fuotan, Goth, fodjan ; 
Teiit. type *fodjan-. See Food. 

Peel. (E.) U.-E.felen. A.S./elan.+ 
Du. voelen, G. fuhleii. Teut. *fdljan-; 
from Teut. base fal- (2nd grade, fol-'), 
whence also Icel. falma, to grope, A. S. 
^/OT,palm of the hand (^. palnia). Allied 
to Palm (i). 

Feeze, Feaze, Fheeze. (E.) Tro- 

" perly ' to put to flight, drive away, chase 
away, harass, worry ' ; often misexplained 
by 'whip.' M..'S..fesen; O. Merc.y?«a», 
A. S. fysian, to drive away quickly, 
■chase. Cf. Norw. foysa ( = Icel. *feysa), 
Swed. fosa, to drive. From Teut. base 
*faus'- (sense unknown). % Distinct from 
A. S.Jysan, to hurry, bomfus, prompt. 

FeigU. (F.-L.) M.E. /«■»£«. -O.F. 
feign-, as infeign-ant, pres. pt. oifeindrc. 
—lu.jingere, to form, feign. See Pigiire. 
Hbt;. feint (from F. ^^. feint). 

TeMsT^ax, a kind of mineral. (G.) 
Corrupted from G. feldspath, lit. field- 

Felicity. (F.-L.) O.'P.felicitS.-'L. 
ace. fellcitStem. — L. filici-, decl. stem of 
felix, happy, fruitful ; allied to Feline. 

Feline. (L.) L. fiUnus, belonging to 
cats. — L. feles, a cat ; perhaps allied to 
Gk. 6r)Kv$, female. 

Fell (i), to cause to fall. (E.) O.Merc. 
fiellan, A. S. fyllan, causal of O. Merc. 
fallan, A. S.feal/an, to fall. So also Du. 
vellen, 'Da.n.falde, Swed.fd//a, lce\. fella, 
G. fallen ; all causal forms. Teut. type 
*falljan-, causal of fallan-, to fall. See 

FeU (2), a skin. (E.) 'M.'E.fel. A. S. 
fel, fell.+T)u. ml, Icel. fell, Goth. -fiU, 
M. H. G. vel; L. pellis, Gk. nkKKa, skin. 
Doublet, /«//; ctfl-m. 

Fell (3), cruel, dire. (F.-Late L.- 
L. ?) M. n.fel. - O. F./e/, cruel (cf. Ital. 
fello, cruel). — Late L. fello, felo, a male- 
factor, felon, traitor. Perhaps from l^.fel, 
gall (N. E. D.) J cf. Du. dial, fel, sharp, 
biting, acrid (Molema). See Felon. 

Fell (4), a hill. (Scand.) M. E./rf.- 
Icel. fjall, fell, a hill j Dan. field, Swed. 


fjall, a fell. Allied to G. fels, a rock 
FeUah., a peasant. (Arab.) Wfellahin. 

— kiTCa. felldli, fallah, a farmer, peasant, 

— Arab, jool falaha, to plough, till. 
Felloe ; see Felly. 

Fellow, a partner. (Scand.) M. E. 
felawe. — Icel. felagi, a partner in a ' felag.' 

— Icel. felag, companionship ; lit. a laying 
together of property. — Icel. fe, property ; 
iag, a laying together, a law; see Iiaw. 
The Icel. fe is cognate with A. S. feeA, 
cattle, property, L. pecus, cattle. 

Felly, Felloe, part of a wheel-rim. 
(E.) M. E. felwe. A. S. felg, felge, a 
felly.+Du. velg, Dan. ft^lge, G. felge. 
Felon, a wicked person. (F.— Late L. 
-L. ?) M.E. /«/««.- O.F. felon, a. 
traitor. — Late L. felonem, ace. of felo, fello, 
a traitor, rebel. See Fell (3). 

Felt. (E.) U.K. felt. A.S.felt.+ 
Du. vilt, Low G., Swed., Dan. ^It, G. 
flz. Teut. type *feltoz, n. ; allied to G. 
falzen, to groove, join together. Der. 
filter, feuter. 

Felucca, a ship. (Ital. — Arab.) Ital. 
feluca. '•Ars.h.fulk, a ship. (See Devic.) 
Female. (F. — L.) For /«»«//, by con- 
fusion with male. M.E. femelle. — 0.¥. 
fpmlle. — 'L. femella, a young woman; 
dimin. oifeinina, a woman (below). 

feminine. (F.-L.) 0.¥. feminin: 

— L. feminlnus, womanly. -. L. femina, a 
woman. Cf. felare, to suckle ; Gk. BtiKvs, 
female, BtiKi], the breast; Skt. dhatri, a 

Femoral, belonging to the thigh. (L.) 
L. femordlis ; adj. from femor-, stem of 
femur, thigh. 

Fen, a bog. (E.) M. E. fen. A. S. 
/«««. + Du. veen, Icel. fen, Goth, fani-, 
mud. Teut. type *fanjom, n. 

Fence ; short for defence ; see Defend. 

Fend ; short for Defend, q. v. 

Fender ; short for defender. 

Fennel, a plant. (L.) M. E. fenel. 
A. ?,. final, finugle. — 'L.faeniculum, fennel ; 
double dimin. oifaemim, hay. 

Fenugreek, a plant. (F.-L.) F. 
fenugrec. — L. faenum Gracum, lit. Greek 

Feoff; see Fief. 

Ferment. (L.) L. fermentum (short 
for *ferui-mentum), leaven. - l..feruere, to 
boil. See Fervent. 

Fern. (E.) A. S. >a>-«.+Du. varen ; 
G. fam{kraut) ; Skt. partta-, a wing, 




feather, leaf, plant, the orig. sense beino- 

•feather." Brugm. i. § 973. Cf. als5 

Lith. fapaHis, Russ. paporot{e), Irish 
raith, W. rhedyn, fern; Gk. wt^/jis, fern,! 
vT(p6v, a wing, feather. 
•PePOcity. (F.-L.) U.T. fercciU.- 
L. ax,c. ferocitdiem, fierceness. — L. /s^-m-, 
ded. stem of /^/-ffji;, fierce. -L. /er«j, 
fierce, wild. Brugm. i. § 319. 

FerreOUS. (L.) t.ferreus, made of 
iron ; with suffix -ous. — 'L.ferrum, iron. 

ferraginOTlS. (L.) h.ferrHgin-ws, 
same as ferrugineus, rusty ; with suffix 
-ous. — 'L.ferrugin-, stem oi ferriigo, rust 
of iron. — L._/e»T»OT, iron. 

Perret(i), an animal. (F.-LowL.- 
L.?) O. Y.furet, a ferret. -Late l^.fure- 
tus,furectus, a ferret. Ako/aSro ; said to 
be the same as Late L. /«rJ, a thief, from 
'L./ilr, a thief. Cf. Gk. <p6ip, a thief; 
from the strong 5-grade of <f>epuv, to bear, 
carry off. 
Ferret (2), a kind of silk tape. (Ital. 
— L.) From Ital. fioretti, ' little flowers, 
flonrishings; also foret or ferret silke,' 
Florio. PI. oi Jioretto, dimin. oijiore, a 

' flower. — L. Jtorem, ace. oi flos, a flower ; 
see Flower. Cf. F. Jleuret, ferret ; from 

Jleur, flower. 
FerrueillOns ; see Ferreous. 
Fermle, a metal ring at the end of a 
stick. (F.— L.) Corrupted spelling (due 
to confusion with ferrum, iron) of the 
older form mn-ol; XVI cent. — O.F. vi7-ol 
(F. virole), a ferrule ; Late L. virola, the 
same. From L. uiriola, a little bracelet ; 
dimin. of *uiria, an armlet, only found in 
pi. uirice. (Diez.) Doubtful. 
Perry, vb. (E.) M. H.ferien. A. S. 

ferian, to convey across ; causal of A. S. 

faran, to go. + Icel. ferj'a, to carry; 
causal of fara, to go ; Goth, far/an, to 
tra%'el by ship. See Fare. (N. E. D.) 
Fertile. (F.-L.) Y.fertile.-'L.fer- 

tilis, fertile. — L. ferre, to bear. See 
Bear (i). 
Ferule, a rod or bat for punishing 

children. (L.) Formerly ferula. — L. 

ferula, a rod ; orig. the plant ' giant- 
Fervent, hot, zealous. (F.-L.) O.F. 

fervent. — 1-,. fenient-, stem of pres. pt. of 

feruere, to boil. Allied to O. Irish berb- 

aim, I boil. Der. fervour, from O. F. 

fervour<X: ace. feruorem, heat; fetvid, 

from y,.feruidus. 
Pess, a horizontal band in heraldry. 

(F. -L.) O. F. fesse (Roquefort) ; mod. 
F.fasce, a iess.-L.fascia, a girth; allied 
to fasds, a bundle; see Fascine. 
Festal. »F.-L.) O.Y. festal. Formed 
(with F. suffix -«/<L. -dlis) from L. fest- 
um, a feast, orig. neut. of festus, festive, 
joyful. Allied to Fair (2) and Fane. 

festival. (F.-Late L.-L.) Pro- 
perly an tLii. — O.'F. festival, festive. - 
Late 'L.J'estTvdlis. — 'L.festluas (below). 

festive. (L.) 'L.fesliaus, belonging 
to a iesst. — 'L.festum, a feast. 
Pester, a sore. (F.-L.) O. Y.festre, 
also spelt fstle, an ulcer ; whence festrir, 
to fester (Godefroy). — X,. fistula, a running 
sore. See Fistula. 

Festival, Festive ; see Festal. 

Festoon. (F.-Ital.-L.) ¥.feston,a. 
garland, festoon. — Ital. festone, a garland. 
Usually derived from \,.festum, a feast. 

Fetch. (E.) M. E. fecchen, pt. t, 
fekte, fcehte. A. S. feccan, to fetch, Gen. 
xviii. 4 ; Luke xii. 20. Prob. fecc{e)an is 
a later form oifetian, to fetch (Anglia, vi. 
177). Allied to A. S. fist, a pace, step, 
journey ; Icel. fei, a step, foot-measure ; 
and to L. pes (gen. ped-ts), a foot. ^ Cf. 
A, S. gefeccan, O. E. T., p. 178. Der. 
fetch, sb., a stratagem. 

PSte. (F.-L.) Mod. F./^/u, the same 
as O. "P.feste ; see Feast. 
Fetich., Fetish, an object of super- 
stitious dread. (F. - Port. - L.) F. 
/i'ftV^^. —Port. ^«V«fO,sorcery, lit. artificial; 
also, a name given by the Port, to the 
roughlymade idols of Africa. — T,. factTtius, 
artificial. — L. fact-us, pp. of facere, to 
Fetid. (F.-L.) 0.7. fetide.-l.. 
fetidus, fcetidus, stinking. — L. felere, to 
Fetlock. (Scand.) As if the ' lock ' 
or tuft of hair behind a horse's pas- 
tern-joint. Cf. Low G. fitlock (Liibben) ; 
M. H. G. vizzelock (Kluge). The syllable 
-l-ock is due to a double suffix, but was 
thought to refer to Icel. lokkr, A. S. locc, 
a lock of hair. Fet- is prob. allied to 
Icel. _;^/, a pace, step,^/«, a pacer (used 
of horses) ; and to Icel. fStr, a foot ; cf. 
G. fessel, pastern ; and see Fetch, Foot. 
(Kluge, s. v. Fuss.") 

Fetter, a shackle. (E.) M. E. fefer, 
A. S. fetor, a shackle for the foot ; from 
*fet-, ^grade oifot, foot.-(-Du. vcter, Icel. 
fjbturr; cf. L. ped-ica and com-pes, Gk. 
irkbx], a fetter. "Dei. fetter, vb. 



Fetus, offspring. (L.) L. fetus, a 
bringing forth, bffspiing. — L. *fuere, an 
obsolete verb, to generate, produce ; 
allied to fu-i, I was ; see Future, Be. 
Brugm. i. $ 361, ii. § 587. 

Feu, a fief; a variant of Fee. 

Feud (i), hatred, perpetual hostility. 
(F.-O. H. G.) U.-K./edeJeid. Modi- 
fied in spelling in some unexplained way, 
perhaps by the influence of foe. — O. F. 
feide, faide, fede, perpetual hostility.— 
O. H. G. fehida (G. fekde), enmity ; 
cognate with A. S. fShS, enmity, from 
A. S.fdA, hostile. See Foe. 

Feud (2), a fief. (LowL. -F. - 
O. H. G.) Low L. feodum, a Latinised 
form allied to O. F. fi-u, also spelt fi:f\ 
see Fee, Fief. (The intrusive d is nn- 
explained.) 'Dev.feud-al, adj. 

Feuter, to lay spear in rest. (F. — 
Teut.) From M. E. feuter, a rest for a 
spenL — O. V. feutre, o\&er feltre, a piece 
of felt, also a rest (prob. at first felted) for 
the lance. Cp. HaLfeltro, felt. Of Teut. 
origin; from Low G. fit, felt. See 

Feuterer, a dog-keeper. (F.— Low L. 
— C.) In Ben Jonson, Every Man out 
of his Humour, ii. i ; see Nares. Older 
spelling vewter, for veittr-er. — O. F. 
veutre, mod. F. vautre, a mongrel between 
a hound and a mastiff. — Low Lat. ace. 
veltruni ; for L. vertagus, vertagra, ver- 
traga, a greyhound. Said to be Celtic. 
Perhaps from Celtic ver-, intensive prefix, 
and trag-, to run ; see Fick, ii. 136, 283. 

Fever, a kind of disease. (L.) M. E. 
feuer {fever). A. ^.fefer,fefor ; see Matt, 
viii. 15 ; A. V.fevre. — h. febris, fever. 

feverfew, a plant. (L.) K.S.fefer- 
fuge ; A. F. feverfue. — Late L. febrifuga, 
for L. febrifugia, 'fever-dispelling.' — L. 
febris, fever ; fugare, to put to flight. 

Few. (E.) M. Tl.feme. A. S. •gX.femve. 
+Icel. far, Dan. faa, Swed. /i ; Goth. 
fawai, pi. ; cf. L. pattctis, Gk. iravpos, 

Fey, doomed to die. (E.) A.S.fcege, 
doomed to die.+Icel. /«^/-, Du. veeg; G. 
feige, cowardly; Swed. feg, Dan. feig, 

Fez, a red Turkish cap, without a brim. 
(F. — Morocco.) F. and Turk.y«z,' a cap ; 
so called because made at Fez, in 

Fiasco, lit. 'a bottle.' (Ital.) Ital. 
far fiasco, to make a bottle, also, to fail, 


break down. See Flask. (Origin of 
phrase unknown.) 

Fiat, a decree. (L.) L. flat, let it be 
done. — L.^o, I become ; used as pass, of 
facere, to do, but really allied X.o fui, I 
was. Cf. A. S. bio, I am. Bmgm. i. 
§ 282. 

Fib. (Low G.) Allied to fob, fub off, 
to delude (Shak.) ; cf. G.foppen, to banter 
(formerly, to lie) ; Westphal. fip-ken, a 
small lie, fib (Woeste). 

Fibre. CF--L-) F- fibre.-l.. fibra, 
a thread. 

Fickle. (E.) yi.'E.fikel. A..S.ficol; 
from *fician, to deceive, in comp. be-fician, 
to deceive ; cf.^c, sb., ix3.T\di,facne, deceit- 
ful ; facen, fraud. 

Fiction. (F.-L.) Y. fiction. — 'L.fic- 
tiontm, ace. offictio, a feigning. — L._/?rf«J, 
pp. oifingere, to feign. See Figure. 

Fiddle, a violin. (L.) M. ^fitM; 
A. S.fidele ; cf. Icel.fiSla, "Dan.fiddel, Du. 
vedel, G.fiedel. Apparently borrowed from 
Late L. uitula, uidula, a viol ; see Viol. 

Fidelity. (F. - L.) M. Y.fidelitl - L. 

fidelitatem, ace. oifidelitds, faithfulness. — 
L. fideli-, stem of fidelis, faithful.— L, 
fides, faith. See Faith. 

Fidget. (Scand.) A dimin. form of 
fidge, to be continually moving up and 
down, Vikefike in North of England, M. E. 
fiken, to fidget, to hasten. Cf. IcA.fika, to 
climb up nimbly, as a spider; Swed._/f/6a, 
to hunt after, "Sorvi.fika, to take trouble, 
fka etter, to hasten after, pursue. 

Fiducial, shewing trust. (L.) From 
Late 'L. fiducidlis, adj.—h. fidHcia, trust. 
— 'L.fldere, to trust. 

Fie. (F.-L.) M.E.^.-F.^.-L./?. 
Cf. Icel. ^, Dan._^, Swed._;5/, G.' pfui, 
Lat. pAu, phy, Skt. phttt, expressions 
of disgust. 

Fief, land held of a superior. (F.— 
O. H. G.) O. F. fief, formerly spelt fiu 
(Roland). See Fee. Tibt. feoff, vb., to 
put in legal possession ; from A. Y.feoffer, 
to endow with afeof or fief. hX^o feoffee, 
A. Y.feoffi, pp. oifeoffer. 

Field. (E.) U.Kfeld. A.S.feid.+ 
Du. veld. G. feld (whence Dan. felt, 
Swed. fait). Allied to A.S. folde, earth, 
land. Teut. type *felthuz. Cf. Russ. poU, 
a field; Skt. prthivi, earth. Brugm. i. 
§ 502. 

fieldfare, a bird. (E.) K.S. felde- 
fare [miswritten feldeware], lit. ' field- 
traveller ; ' see Fore. ' 



Fiend. (E.) M.E./en(i. A.&.fiond, 
feond, lit. ' a hatirig one,' an enemy, the 
enemy; orig. pres. pt. of feog{e)an, to 
hate. + Du. vijand, Dan. ^^e.&. fiende; 
1^.fjdndi, pres. pt. oifja, to hate ; Goth, 
^awrfj, fromy5ra«, to hate ; G.feind. Cf. 
Jikt. pTy, to hate (Fick). See Poe. 

Fierce. (F.-L.) M.E. fers.-O.T. 
fers, Jiers, old nom. of O. F. fer, fier, 
fierce (^.fier, proud). - L./eraj, wild. 

Fife. (F.-O. H.G.-L.) F. fifre.^ 
O. H. G.pfifa, G. ffeife, a pipe. - O. H. G. 
i>fifen, to blow, whisstle. — Late L. /z/Sara, 
to pipe ; L. pipare, to chirp (as a bird). 
See Pipe. 

Fig. (F,_Prov.-L.) F./^/^.-Prov. 
J%3. — Folk-L. *ftca, nsed for L. ficus, a 
fig. (Cf. O. F. Jie, a fig; immediately 

Fight. (E.) 'iS..-E._fihten,/ehten,yh. 
O. 'M.erc. fehtan, to fight ; /(!,4;'«, a fight.+ 
Du. veOiten, G. fechten, to fight (whence 
Dan./eiie, S\rei./akea). Teut. *fehtan-. 
Figment. (L.) X,.Jigtnentum, an in- 
vention.— L.j^-, base oi finger e, to feign 
(pp.yKr-toj, for *fig-tus). 

figure. (F. - L.) F. figure. - L. 
figura, a thing made. — L. fingere (base 
fig-), to make, fashion, feign. + Goth. 
deigan, to knead, Skt. dih, to smear. 
(yDHEIGH.) Brngm. i. § 589. Der. 
dh-figttre, pre- figure, trans-figtcre. 
I4lame&t. (F.-L.) F. filament. - 
Late L. flldmenttim, thin thread. — Late 
L. JtlSre, to wind thread. — L. /Hum, 
thread; see Pile (i). 
FUbert, fruit of hazel. (F.-O. H. G.) 
. Formerly philiberd (Gower) ; short for 
Philiberd or Philibert nut, from the 
proper name Philibert; (S. Philibert's 
day is Aug. 22) ; North F. noix de filbert 
(Moisy). — O. 'R.G.filu-berht, very bright ; 
from filu (G. viel), greatly, berht, bright. 
% Called in Germany Lambertsnuss, i. e. 
nut from Lombardy (Weigand). 

Filcb. (E.) Etym. unknown ; possibly 
related to M. TS..felen, to conceal. Cf. Icel. 
fela, to hide, bury; Goth. ^/.4a», to hide. 
File (i), string, line, order. (F.-L.) 
Partly from O. Y.file, a file, horn filer, to 
thread; from X.ate L. /flare (see Fila- 
meot) ; partly from F. fil, thread, from 
'L./iliim, a thread. 

File (2), a steel lasp. (E.) O.Merc. 
fll; A.S.yfe)/.+Du. vijl, O. W.G./ihala, 
G. feile ; as if from a base */enh-. The 
Icel. form is///, as if from a base *thenh-. 



File (=1), to defile. (E.) A. S. /ylan, 
to make foul; for */"lian. — Pi..S. /til, 
foul. See Defile (i) and Poul. 

Filial. (L.) From L. fili-us, a son, 
/?/?fl, daughter ; orig. infant: cl.'L./Sldre, 
to suck. Cf. Feminine. (^DHE.) 

Filibuster, afreebooter. (Span. -Du.) 
Span, filibuster, a mere corruption of Dn. 
vrij'buiter, u freebooter. — Du. vrijbuiten, 
to rob, plunder. — Du. vrij, free; buit, 
booty, plunder. See Booty. 

Filigree. (F.-Ital.-L.) Formerly 
filigrane ; XVII cent. - Yfiligrane. — Ital. 
filigi-ana, filigree-work, fine wrought work. 
— Ital. filo, a thread or row, filare, to 
spin ; grano, grain or texture ; so called 
because the chief texture of it was wrought 
in silver wire. From L. /ilum, thread ; 
grdnum, grain. % The Spsm. filigrana is 
merely borrowed from Italian (Monlau). 

Fill, vb. <E.) A.S.fyllan; formed 
iiom/ul, i. c. full, by vowel-change from a 
to ^.+Du. vuUen, Icel. fylla, Dan. /ylde, 
SvceA./ylla, Goth, /ulljan, G./iillen. 

FiUet. (F.-L.) M.E. Jf/e^.-O. F. 
filet, dimin. o{fil, a thread. — L. /(/«»«, a 
thread. See Pile (i). 
Fillibeg, FMlibeg, a kilt. (Gaelic.) 
Gael, /eileadh-beag, the modern kilt. — 
Gael, jeileadh, /eile, a kilt, piob. from L. 
uehim, a veil (Macbain) ; and beag, little, 
small. _ Cf. W. irtf/!, little. 

Fillip, to strike with the finger-nail, 
whenjerked from the thumb. (E.) Another 
form oifiip ; see Flippant. 
Fills, used for thills. (E.) See Thill. 
Filly, a female foal. (Scand.) Icel. 
/ylja, a filly, allied to fili, a foal , cf. 
Dan. Swed._/W, G./iilleii. See Poal. 

Film, a thin skin. (E.) A. S. filmen 
{/ylmen), neut., membrane (O. Fries, fil- 
mene, f., skin). For W. Teut. *filmin-jo-, 
from */elmen, -mon-, as in A. S. Sgerfelma, 
skin of an egg. Extended from the base 
/el- in A. S./el, skin, Goth, fill, skin. See 
Pell (2). 

Filter, to strain. (F. - O. Low G.) F. 
filtrer, orig. to strain through felt. — F. 
filtre, a strainer, orig. felt (Littre).— Low 
G. fill, felt; see Pelt. 
Filtb, foul matter. (E.) A. S.JylS.- 
A. S. /HI, foul (by vowel-change of ii io 
y). So also O. Sax. /Ulithd, filth, from 
/al, foul. See Poul. 

Fin. (E.) A. S. fitm, a fin.+Du. vin, 
Swed. /ena, Dan. finne ; L. pinna. See 


Final. (F. - L.) O. F. final. - L. 
flndlis, final. — L./aVj/j, end. 

Finance, revenue. (F. — L.) O. F. 
finance. — Late L. finantia, payment.— 
I.ate L. finare, to pay a fine. — Late L. 
finis, a settled payment, ?i finish or end, 
i. e. final arrangement ; V,. finis, end. 

Finch, a bird. (E.) M. E. finch. 
A. S. ^Kf.+Du. vink, "Dan. finke, Swed. 
and (j. fink. Cf. W. fine, a chaffinch ; 
Gk. aniyyoi, a-ni^a, a finch ; prov. E. 
spiik. Der. chaffinch, q. v., bullfinch, 

Find. (E.) A.?i.findan..\-DvL.vinden, 
Tian. finds, Swed. and Icel._/f»«a ( =finj>a), 
GoXh-finthan, O.finden. Teut. *fenth-an- ; 
Idg. base *pent-, whence O. Irish et-aim, 
I find. Perhaps allied to L. petere, to 
seek after; see Petition. Bragm. ii. 

§ 634- 
Fine (i), exquisite, thin. (F. — L.) 
O. F. fin, witty, perfect. — Late L. fimis, 
fine ; used in place of L. finitus, well 
rounded or ended, said of a sentence 
(Brachet), orig. pp. ol finire, to end. — L. 
finis, end. ^ Finns is a back-formation 

fine (2), a tax. (Law L.) Law L. 
finis, a fine, a final arrangement ; L. 
finis, end. See Finance (above). 

Finger. (E.) A. S. finger.+Viw. 
vinger, Icel. fingr, Dan. Swed. G. finger, 
Goth, figgrs {=fingrs). Teut. type *Jf«- 
^wz ; orig. sense unknown. 

Finial. (L.) A coined word ; from L. 
finis, end. CI. final. 

finical. (F.— L.) A coined word; 
extended from Fine (i) above. 

finish, vb. (F. - L.) M. E. finischen. 
— O. Y.finiss-, base of pres. pt. aifinir, to 
dmsh. — 'L.finiiv, to end. — h. finis, end. 
finite, limited. (L.) "L. finitus, pp. 
oifinire (above). 
Fiord, a sea-loch, deep inlet of the sea. 
(Scand.) Now/. f}'ord, Vl&'a. fiord, fjord; 
lce\. fjoriSr. See Frith. 

Fir, a tree. (Scand.) M.'K.fir; answer- 
ing to a mutated form due to A.S.furh, 
which occurs in furhwudu, a pine-tree ; 
but prob. of Scand. origin. Cf. Icel. 
fyri-skogr, a fir-wood (written fyriskogr) ; 
from JceX.fura, a fir; cf. Vltm.fyr, Swed. 
fiira.+G.fohre, yV.pyr. Cognate with L. 
quercus, an oak ; and O. Lombardic^rMa, 
' sesculus.' 

Fire. (E.) A. S.;5'''-+Du. vuur, Icel. 
fyri, Dan. and Swed.jj'^', G.feiier, M.H.G. 



viur, O. H. G. fuir. Teut. type *fii-tr. 
Cognate with Gk. irSp. Cf. Skt. pavaka- 
(from pa), purifying, also fire. (^PU.) 

Firk, to conduct, drive, beat. (E.) 
A. S.fercian, to conduct, support. Prob. 
from A.S.far, a journey; allied to Fare. 

FirMn, the fourth part of a barreU 
(M. Du.) M. E. ferdekin. From Du. 
vierde, fourth ; with suffix -kin (as in kil- 
der-kin) answering to the M. Du. double 
dimin. suffix -kin (G. -ch-en in madcheri). 

Vierde is from Du. vier, four ; see Four. 

Firm (i), adj. (F. - L.) M. E. ferme. 
-O.F. and F. ferme. — 'L. firmus, stead- 

fivm (2), a partnership. (Span^ — L.) 
The older sense was 'signature' of the 
house or (as we call it) the firm. — Span. 
firma, a signature. — Span, firmar, to 
confirm, %\^. — 'L,. fir mare, to make firm. 
— Y,. firmus, firm (above). 

firmament, celestial sphere. (F.— L.) 
O. F. firmament. — L. firmamentum, a 
support ; also, expanse of the sky (\l-v\- 
gaXe). — ^,. fir?nare, to strengthen; fronl 
firmus, firm. 

Firman, a mandate. (Pers.) Pers. 
ferman, a mandate, order ; O. Pers. fra- 
milna (Horn) ; cf. Skt. pramdna-, a 
decision, from pra, before (Gk. irpd) and 
ma, to measure. 

First. (E.) A. S. fyrst, the superl. of 
fore, with vowel-change of u (A. S. 0) to 
y ..\.\e^ fyrstr \ Dan. firste ; Hviei.forsta. 
Teut. type *furistoz, superl. from the base 
*fur- \ see Fore. 

Firth ; see Frith. 

Fiscal, pertaining to the revenue. 
(F. - L.) O.F. fiscal. - Late L. fiscdlis. - 
\j^scus, a basket of rushes, also a purse. 

Pish. (E.) A.S./ic.+Du.»w<rA,Icel. 
fiskr, Dan. and %^e&.fisk, G.fisch ; Goth. 
fisks. Teut. type *fiskoz. Cognate with 
L. piscis, Irish and Gael, iasg, O. Ir. iasc 
(with loss of initial p). 

Fissure. (F--L) 0.¥. fissure. -'L. 
fissUra. — L. fissus, pp. oV findere, to 
cleave. +Skt. bhid, to cleave; A. S. bitan, 
to bite. (VBHEID.) And see Vent 
(1). Brugm. i. § 567. 

Fist. (E.) M.'Y..fist,fest,fust. A. S. 
fyst.+T)n. vuist, G. faust, O. H. G. fUst. 
Teut. *fustiz. % If the orig. Teut. form 
was *funhstiz, it may be identified with 
Rnss. piaste, fist, O. Slav, pisti; from an 
Idg. base *p3nksti-, which is allied to 


Fistula, a deep, narrow abscess. (L.) 
From the shape ; X.. fistula, a pipe. 

Pit (l), to suit ; as adj., apt. (Scand.) 
M. E. fiiten, to arrange. — Icel. and Norw. 
fitja, to knit together ; Swed. dial, fittja, 
to bind together ; cf. G.fitzen, to bind into 
skeins, bomfitze, a skein. From, 
a hem, also ' web ' of a bird's foot ; cf. 
M. Xiaa-fidde, to knit ; Dan. fid, a skein. 
Perhaps allied to Pit (2). ^ Influenced 
as to sense by M. 'E.feU, well done ; from 
0.^.fiiit,'La.t. foetus; see Feat. 

Pit (2), a part of a poem, attack of ill- 
ness. (E.) M.E.//. A.S.^«, (i)asong, 

(2) a struggle; which perhaps are the 
same word. Cf. Fit (i). 

Pitch, the same as Vetch, q. v. 
Pitchet, Pitchew, a pole-cat. (F. — 
M. Dui) Pitchew is from Vic&xifickeux, 
M. Y.fissau, a polecat ; older foim, fisse/. 
— M.Du.fisse, a polecat ; from the smell. 
Cf. Icel. jisa, to make a smell. 
Pitz, son. (A. F.— L.) Formerly ^z 
(with 2 as ts). — A.F. fiz (with 2 as /s); 
also,fils.^'L.ftiius, a son. 

Five. (E.) M. E. fif; sometimes fiue, 
as a plural. A. S. /^ (for *fimf). + Du. 
irijf, Dan. Swed. fern, Icel. fimm, Goth. 
fimf, G. fiinf; W. pump, O. Ir. coic, L. 
quinque, Lith. penki, Gk. itivTt (MoX. 
■niparf), Skt. paficha. Idg. type *penge. 
X>er.fif-th, A.S._ft/ta; fifteen, K.S.fif- 
tene; fif-ty, A..S.pjtig. 

Fix. (F.-L.) O. F. fix, fixed. - L. 
fixus, fixed ; pp. oifigere, to fix. 

Fizz. (Scand.) Imitative; cf. Icel. 

fisa, Da.n.fise, with the sense of L. pedere. 

Flabby ; weakened form oi floppy ; see 

Flap. Cf. Low G-flabbe, a hanging lip ; 

Jlabbsig, flabby (Danneil). 

Flaccid. (F.-L.) Y. fiaccide.--L. 
Jlaecidus, limp. —"L.fiaccus, flabby. 

Flag (i). to droop, grow weary. (E.) 
Weakened form oi fiack, to hang loosely ; 
M. E. fiakken, to flap about. From the 
hasefiac- of K.S. fiac-or, flying, roving. 
4-Icel. flakka, to rove ; fi^ika, to flap ; 
flokra,ftdgra, Jiaa.fiagre, to flutter; G. 
Jlackern, to flutter. All from the imitative 
base flak-, allied to flap, flicker. And 
partly from O. Y.flaquir, to be limp ; from 
O. 'Y.flaque, limp, i,.flaccus. 

flag (a), an ensign. (Scand.?) Dan. 
flag, Swed. flagg, a flag ; from base of 
l<xl. flogra, to flutter (above). 

flag (3). a reed ; the same word as flag 

(3) ; ffom its waving in the wind. 


Flag (4)> Flagstone, a paving-stone. 
(Scand.) Icel. jfaga, a flag or slab of 
stone. This might give E. &i3\..flaw (see 
Flaw), but cf. Icel. flagna, to flake off, 
Dan. 6ia.l. flag-torv, Sc.fl/ig, a cut turf. 
A weakened form of Fl^ke. 

Flagellate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
flagellare, to scourge. — L. flagellmn, 
dimin. of flagrum, a scourge. See Flail. 

Flageolet, a sort of flute. (F.— Prov.) 
M. ¥. flageolet, dimin. oiflageol, with the 
same sense. — VxcN .flajols ,flaujols, a flage- 
olet; which cannot represent a Late L. 
*flautiolus, a little flute, as suggested by 

Flagitious. (L.) L. flagitiSs-us, 
shametul ; with suffix -ous. — L. flagitiiim, 
a disgraceful act ; cf. L.fldgitdre, to act 
with violence. Perhaps allied to Flagrant- 
Flagon. (F.-Late L.) O.F.flacon, 
another form o( flascon. — 'Late L. flasco- 
nem, ace. of flasco, a flask. — Late L. 
flasca, a flask. See Flask. 

Flagrant, glaring, as a fault. (F. - L.) 
O. F. flagrant, properly burning. — L. 
flagrant; stem of pres. pt. oiflagrare, to 
burn.+Gk. <j>\iyftv, to burn ; Sk. Mrdj. 
(VBHLEG.) Brugm. i. § 539 (2). 

Flail. (L.) U. Z. flijel, fle)l, fleil. 
[La.tei,flayel (from O. ¥.flael>F.fl^au).] 
From L. flagellum, a whip, in Late L. , 
a flail ; dimin. of flagrum, a scourge. See 

Flake, a thin slice. (Scand.) Norw. 
^ak, a slice, an ice-floe; cf. Icel. flakna, 
fiagna, to flake off, Swed. flaga, a flake. 
Perhaps allied to Flay. 

Flambeau. (F.-L.) Y. flambeau, a 
torch ; dimin. of O. F.flambe (below). 

flame, sb. (F. - L.) O. F. fiame, 
flamme; aUo flambe.—'L. flamma {*flag- 
mal), a flame; perhaps from the base 
flag-, to bum. See Flagrant. 

Flamen. (L.) L. flamen, a priest of 
Rome. Prob. for *flag-men, he who 
bums the sacrifice ; cf. flagrare, to bum. 
Or else allied to Goth, blotan, to sacrifice. 

Flamingo. (Span.— Prov. —L.) Span. 
flamenco, a flamingo ; but said to be a 
Proven9al word; the Prov. form is 
flamenc, where the suffix -enc is supposed 
to be an adaptation of the Teut. suffix 
-ing. The F.form \sflamant, lit. ' flaming,' 
but it seems to have been confused with F. 
Flamand, a Fleming, whence the peculiar 
form of the Prov. form may have arisen ; 
Palsgrave has 'Flemmyng, flammant.' 


Still, tlie elymology is certainly from L. 
Jlamma, a flame; from the flame-like 
colour of the bird. 

Flange, a projecting rim. (F. — Teiit.) 
The same as prov. '&.fianch, a projection ; 
cf. flanch in heraldry, an ordinary on each 
side [mJlanK] of the shield. — O. Y.flanche 
(A. Y.JlaiikeS, fem. sb. allied to V.flanc, 
side. See below. 

flank, the side. (F.-Teut.) M. E. 
Jlmic, — F. Jlanc, side. — O. H. G. hlancha, 
lanka, hip, bend, loin ; cf. Mid. Dii. ' de 
Lanche, the flancks ; ' Hexham. Allied 
to A. S. hlanc, slender ; see Lank. (Dis- 
puted ; but probable ; see Klnge, s. v. 

Flannel. (W.) Prov. '^.flannen, a 
better form. — W. gwlaneii, flannel, from 
gmlan, wool. Allied to 'Wool. 

Flap, to beat with the wings. (E.) 
M. E. flapfen, to beat ; not in A. S. 
E. fries. fiafipen. Imitative ; ^ikejlack, to 
beat ; see Flag {i).-{-T>n. Jlappen, to flap.. 
"Dei. flabby (flappy) ; flap, sb. 

Flare ; see below. 

Flash, to blaze. (E.) M. E. flascheit, 
to dash ; cf. Swed. dial, flasa, to bum 
violently ; J.ce\. flasa, to rush, ^as, a swift 

flare. (Scand.) Norweg. flara, to 
blaze ; apparently a variant of Swed. dial. 
flasa (above). 

Flask. (Late L.?) K.^. flasce, flaxe \ 
we also find IzA-flaska, Jiaxi.flaske, Swed. 
flaska, O.flaschg ; but it is hardly a Teut. 
word. — Late L. flasca, a flask ; cf. also 
\i.jfflasg, Gaei. flasg (from E.), Remoter 
origin uncertain. See Flagon. 

Flat. (Scand.) U.'E.flat.-laA.flati', 
SvieA.flat, T)xa.flad. 

Flatter. (F.-Teut.; »^ E.) M.E. 
fiaieren, a frequentative form. Either, 
with suffix -er-, from O. Y.flat-er, mod. F. 
flatter, to flatter; or formed from an E. 
\>ss& flat; of imitative origin ; cf. M. Du. 
flattiren, to flatter (Hexham) from O. F. 
flater, which is from Icel._/f«/->', flat ; from 
the notion of making smooth. Cf. the base 
flah', seen in M. ^fisA. fleckra, to flatter, 
Swed. dial, fleka, to caress ; also M. E. 
flakken, to move to and fro, and G. flach, 
flat ; see Flag (i). The sb. flattery is 
plainly adapted from O. F. flaterie, F, 

Flatulent, windy. (F,--L.) M.F./a- 
tnhnt. — Late 'L. flititlenias. — 1-,. flatus, 
breath.— L._/?o>Vj to blow; see Blow (i). 


Flannt, to display ostentatiously. 
(Scand.) It seems to have been particu- 
larly used of the display of fluttering 
plumes, &c. Norw. flanta, to gad 
about.; Dan. flane, to flirt. Somewhat 
similar is Swed. dial, flankt, flatteringly,' 
loosely, ixom flanka, to waver; perhaps 
allied to flakka, to waver, answering to 
M. E.flakken; see Flag (l). 

Flavour. (F.— L.) The form seems 
to have been influenced by that of the 
word savour. O. Lowl. Sc. flewotire, 
flewer. — O. F. fleur, Jleiur, flaur, smell. . 
Cf. Ital. fiatore, a bad odour ; answering 
to Late L. ace. *fldtorem. — L. flatus^ pp. 
oi flare, to blow. (Korting, § 3316.) 

Flaw, a crack. (Scand.) M. E. flawe. 
— Swed. flaga, a crack, flaw, also a flake ; 
see Flake. Cf. prov. E. flaw, a. flake 
(as of snow) ; also, a gust of wind, like 
Du. vlaag. 

Plawn,akind of custard. (F.^O.H.G.) 
M. ^.flaun. — 7. flan, O. "S.flaon, a flawn ; 
(cf. Span, flaon, Ital. fladone}. — O. H. G. 
flado, a broad flat cake ; G. fladen. 
Allied to Gr. TrKarvs, broad. 

Flax, a plant. (E.) A. S. fleax.+Vlvi. 
vlas, G. flacks. Perhaps allied to Goth. 
flah-ta, a plaiting, Gk. irXtK-tiv, to "weave. 

Flay, to strip off skin. (E.) M.E.' 
flean. A. S. flean, to flay.+Ioel. fla, pt. 
t. flo, pp. fleginn. Tent, type *flahan- 
(pt.'t. *flSK), to strike. Cognate with Lith., 
plakip, I strike ; cf. Lat. plaguy a stroke. 
See Plague. Brngm. i. § 569. 

Flea. (E.) Vl.'£..flee,^\.fleen. A.S." 
fleak, a flea. +Du. vlao, Icel. flo, G. floA. 
Teut. base *flauh-, or perhaps *j!iauh-,' 
allied to the verb to flee. See Flee. 

Fleam, a kind of lancet. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
O. F. flieme, 'F.^apime, a fleam ; Hamil-' 
ton. — Late L. fletoma, a lancet (Vocab. 
400. 11); shortened from Late Xi. flevo-' 
tomum, phhbotomum, a lancet. — Gk. 
<ji\e0oT6,tiBv, a lancet. — Gk. ipKffio-, decl. 
stem of ^\ii/i, a vein ; to/j-, o-grade of 
Tfuvtiv, to cut. Hence also M. H. G, 
fliedeme, G.fliete, Du. vlym, a. fleam. 

Fleck, a spot. (Scand.) M, E. flek.— 
IcA.flekkr, a spot ; flekka, to stain ; Swed. 
flack, a spot.+Du. vlek, G. fleck. 

Flection ; see Flexible. 

Fledge, to be furnished with feathers. 
(E.) The pp. fledged is now used in the 
place of M. E. flegge, adj., ready to fly. 
Flegge is a Kentish form of M. E. flyg^e, 
ready to fly. From A. S. *flycge ; foond 


in the compound tmflycge, as in ' inplumes, 

unfligge,' Academy, 2 June, 1894 (Napier). 

E. Fries, fliigge. + Du. vlug (M. Du. 

vlugge) ; O. H. G. Jlucchi. Teut. type 

*JlugJ0z, adj. ; from "flug-, weak grade of 

*Jleugan-, to fly. See My. 
Plee, to escape. (E.) M.E._/7^««,pt. t. 
Jleh,fleih. [The M. E. pt. t. also appears 

as jfledde, whence mod. E. fled, of Scand. 

origin.] A.S.fleon (pt. t._/«z/4).+0. Sax. 
fliohan, G. fliehen ; also Icel. Jlyja (pt. t. 
flo, also y^/to) ; Swed. fly (pt. t. y^j/aWe) ; 

Goth, thliuhan. Teut. type *thleuhan- 

(pt. t. thlauK) ; so that^ was orig. M/, and 

there was no orig. connexion with the 

verb to fly, which has from an early date 

been confused with it. 
Fleece. (E.) M.E.y?«j. K.%.fleos, 

earlieryfr«j ; alsoyfyj. +Dn. vlies, M.H.G. 

vlius ; cf. G.fliess ; also G. flans, a woollen 

coat, M. H. G. vlils, a sheep-skin. Tent. 

stems *fleusi-, *fleuso; flitso-; possibly 

allied to 'L.plu-ma. See Plume. 

Fleer, to mock. (Scand.) M. E. 
fletien. — Norw. flira, to titter, giggle; 

also spelt flisa ; Dan. dial, flire, to jeer ; 

%yieA. flissa, to titter. 
Fleet (i), a number of ships. (E.) 

M.'E. flete, fleote. AS. fleet, a. ship; or 

(eollectively) a number of ships. — A. S. 
jleotan, to float. + O. Sax. fliotan, Du. 
vlieten, to flow ; O. H. G. fliozzan, to 
float, flow, G. fliessen, to flow; Icel. 
fljola, Swed. flyta, Dan. flyde. Teut. 
*fleutan- (pt. t. flaut, pp. flutancz) ; Idg. 
base *pkud, as in Lith. pliidts, a float of 
a fishing-net. (V^LEU.) Cf. Gk. TrXt'eii', 
to sail, Skt. plu, fni, to swim, float, 

fleet (2), a creek. (E.) k..%. fleot, a 
creek, a place where water flows ; fleote, 
a stream. — A. S. fleotan, to float, swim ; 
see Fleet (i). Cf. O. Fries. _/?^/, stream. 
fleet (•}), swift. (E.) Cf. A. S.fleotig, 
swift ; Icei.fljotr, swift. From the verb; 
see Fleet (i). 

fleet (4), vb., to move swiftly. (E.) 
From A. S. fleotan; see Fleet (i). 

Flesh. (E.) U.'E.flesch. A.S.flssc, 
flesh. + Icel. flesk, bacon ; Dan. flesk, 
Swed. flask, . bacon ; Du. vleesch ; G. 
fleisch. Teut. type *flaiskoz, n. 

Fleur-de-lis, flower of the lily. 
(F.-L.) O.Y.fleur de lis. Heie iis = 
Late L. lilius, corrupt form of L. lllium, 
a lily ; see Flower and Iiily. 

Flexible. (F.-U) liL,Y.fltxU,U.-l.. 


flexibilis, easily bent. - L. flexus, pp. of 
flectere, to bend. Der. inflexible. 

flection, a bending. (L.) Better 
flexion ; from L. ace flexionem, a bend- 
ing. — L. ^."jraj, pp. oi flectere. So also 
fle,x-or,flex-we. (Cf. V. flexion.) 
Flick, a light blow. (E.) Imitative; 

ci.flip. E. Fries. flik, a flidc ; flikflakken, 

to strike lightly. 
Flicker, to flutter. (E.) M. 'E.flikerenl 

— A. S.flicorian, to flutter. Imitative ; a 

weakened form oiflacker, frequent, of M. E. 
flakken, to flap about. Cf. A. S. flacor, 

adj., flying; G.flackern, to flutter. See 

Flag (I). 
Flight, act of flying. (E.) A. S.flyht, 

allied to flyge, flight.-^Swed. flykt, G. 
flucht, Du. vUicht. Teut. *fluhii- ; from 
flug-, weak grade of *fleugan-, to fly. See 

Flimsy, weak, slight. (E.) Modern ; 

first recorded in 1702 (Kersey). Prob. 

imitative, and suggested hyfllm ; note E. 

Fries. flem,fltm, a film; Dan. &is.\. flems, 
flints, a skim on milk. ' For the ending, 

cf. tipsy, bumpsy; also limpsy, given by 

Webster as a U. S. synonym of flimsy ' ; 

Flinch. (F.-Teut.?) XVI cent- 
O. F. flenchir, flainchir, flechir, to turn 
aside, bend. Of unknown origin ; perhaps 
from O. H. G. *hlencan, answering to G. 
hnken, to tum, bend. The G. lenken is 
from O. H. G. hlanea, the side (Kluge) ; 
see Flank, Flange. ^ The initial fl 
would then be accounted for precisely as 
in the case oi flank, viz. from O. H. G. hi. 
Cf. Link (I). 

Fling. (Scand.) Cf. Swed. fldnga, to 
use violent action, romp, race about; i 
fldng, at full speed (taking one's fling) ; 
M. Swed. ^^«^a, to strike; loel. flengja, 
to whip; Dtca. flenge, to slash; i fleng, 
indiscriminately. These forms presuppose 
a strong verb *flinga, which the E. form 
perhaps represents. 

Flint. (E.) A.S.flint.+Bm. flint; 
Swed. flinta. Perhaps cognate with Gk. 
Ti\iv9m, a brick. Brugm. i. §§ 575, 704. 

Flip (i), vb., to fillip, jerk lightly. (E.) 
Of imitative origin, like_^2V^. Cf, Flap. 

Flip (2), a mixture of beer and spirit 
with sugar, heated. (E.) Prob. Iroraflip, 
to beat up. Moisy (Diet, of Norman 
patois) spells it phiippe, as if from F. 
Philippe ; but wrongly. 

FlQ>pant. (Scand.) Flippant is for 


Jlippand, the North. M. E. pres. pt. ; flip- 
pand= prattling, saucy. Or else, the suffix 
-ant imitates the French (heraldic) suffix 
in ramp-ant, &c. Cf. prov. 'K.flip, nimble, 
flippant ; from the base flip-, as in Icel. 
fleipa, to prattle; Swed. dial, flepa, to 
talk nonsense ; cf. Swed. &zS..flip, the lip. 

Plirt. (E.) Often written^ar^, mean- 
ing to mock, gibe, scorn ; the oldest sense 
of flirt was to jerk lightly away. Of 
imitative origin ; cf. flip, flick. So also 
E. Y Ties, flirr, flirt, a light blow ; flirtje, 
a giddy girl. 

flit, to remove from place to place. 
(Scand.) M. E. flitlen. - Icel. flytja, to 
cause to flit ; Swed. flytta, to flit, remove ; 
Dan. flytte ; causal of Icel. fljota, Swed. 
flyta, Daxiflyde, to float. See Fleet (i), 

Flitch, side of bacon. (E.) M. E. 
flicche. A. S.^/c^.+Icel. flikki,a. flitch; 
flik, a flap, tatter. Perhaps allied to G. 
flick-, a patch ; and to E. Fleck. 

Float, to swim on a liquid surface. 
(E.) M. E. floten, flatten. A. S. flotian. 
■i-lcel. flota, Du. vloiten. Teut. *flutdjan-, 
wk. vb. ; from *flut-, weak grade of *fleu- 
ian-, to float, whence mod. E. fleet. See 
Fleet (i). % Confused with F. flatter 
(O. F. flate-r), to float, from the same 
Teut. base *flut-. 

Flock (i), a company of sheep, &c. 
(E.) M. E.j?o,5. h.S.flocc.-\-\zei.flakkr, 
tia.'n.flak, Swed. flack. 

Flock (2), a lock of wool. (F. — L.) 
O. F . floe. — ii. flaecus, a lock of wool. 

Floe, a flake of ice. (Dan.) Dan. 
flag'e ; as in iis-flage, an ice-floe, lit. ' ice- 
flake.' Cf. Norw. isflak, isflok, the same. 
See Flake. 

Fl<^, to beat. (L. ?) A late word ; and 
(in 1670) a cant term. Ci. flack; or pro- 
bably suggested by flagellate, q. v. Cf. 
Low G.flogger, a flail, variant of G.flegel, 
a flail, from Late Yj. flagellum, a flail; see 

Flood. (E.) A. S. flod, a flood ; from 
floivan, to flow.+Du. vloed, Icel. flag, 
Swed. Dan. flod, Goth, flodus, a river, G. 
fluth. Teut. *flo-iSuz, act of flowing, also 
a flood ; from Tent, base *flo- ; see Flow. 

Floor. (E.) A. S. /(7r.+Du. vloer, G. 
flur. Teut. *florue ; cognate with W. 
llawr, Bret, leur, Irish lar. Idg. *pldrus, 
a floor ; from *pla-, to spread out, whence 
also L. pld-nus, plain. See Plain. 

Floralf pertaining to flowers. (L.) L. 


flordlis, belonging to Flora, goddess of 
flowers. — L. flsr-, as the stem of flos, 
a flower ; cf. florere, to flourish, allied to 
Blow (2) and Bloom. 

florid. (L.) 'L.floridus, lit. abound- 
ing with flowers; hence, rosy.- L.^»«-, 
decl. stem of flos, a flower (above). 

florin, a coin. (F.-Ital.-L.) M. E. 
floren (about A.D. 1303). -O. F. florin, a 
florin.— Ital.^o««o {-florino), a coin of 
Florence, so called because it bore a lily, 
the symbol of that town. — Ital. flare, a 
flower. — 'L.florem, ace. oiflos, a flower. 

floscnle. (L.) L. flosculas, a little 
flower ; double dimin. oiflos. 

Floss, rough silk; as in floss-silk. 
(F.-L.) From M.Y.flosche; Cot. has: 
' soye flosche, sleave silke.' [So also Ilal. 
flascio, Venetian ^losso, soft, weak ; floscia 
seta, floss-silk.] An adj. formation from 
O. Y.flocher, to form into ' flocks ' or tufts. 
— Y.floc; see Flock (2). 

Flotilla. (Span. -Teut.) Span. 7?o- 
tilla, a little fleet ; dimin. oiflota, a fleet, 
cognate with O. F. flote, a fleet of ships,, 
a crowd of people. This O. Y. flote (fem.), 
Y.flolte (whence G.flotte) is from a Teut. 
source ; cf Du. vloot, Icel. floti, a fleet, 
A. S.flota, a ship. From the base *flut- ; 
see Float. Cf M. Y. flote, a fleet. (Ktir- 
ting, § 3349-) 

flotsam, goods lost in shipwreck, and 
floating on the waves. (Law F. — E.) An 
A. F. law-term, {ormeily floison (Bloimt). 
A. F. floteson ; O. F. flotaison, a flooding 
of fields (Godefroy). - Low L. type *flot- 
tationem, from *flottdre, to float, to flood 
{Y. flatter). From the Teut. base *flut- (as 
above). Cf Jetsam. 

Flounce (i), to plunge about. (E.) 
Cf. Swed. dial, and M. Swed. flunsa, to 
plunge. Of imitative origin. 

Flonnce (2), a plaited border on a 
dress. (F.-L.?) Changed from M.E. 
frounce, a plait. — O. Y.fronser,froncer, to 
gather, plait, wrinkle ; fronser le front, to 
knit or wrinkle the forehead. Prob. from 
Late L. *frontiare, not found, but regu- 
larly formed from fronti-, decl. stem of 
frons, forehead ; see Front. (Kiirting, 

§ .^477-) 

Flounder (i), to flounce about. (E 
or Scand.) XVI cent. Imitative. Perhaps 
irom Norw. flundra, to sprawl, Cf. 
Du. flodderen, to dangle, nap, splash 
through mire ; Swed. fladdra, to flutter. 

Flounder (2), a fish. (F.-Scand.) 



A.Y. fiouhdre.-O.Y. Jlondre (in Nor- 
mandy^. -Swed. Jltindra, Dan. flynder, 

lce\._fySra ; E. Fries. _/?K»rf«n 
Flour, finer part of meal. (F. — L.) 

Short for ' flower of wheat.' — F. ^eur, 

short iatfleur defarine, flour; see Flower 

below (which is a doublet). 
flourisll, vb. (F.-L.) U.'E.Jloris- 

j/w«. — O. ¥. Jleriss-, stem of pres. pt. of 
Jlorir, to flourish. — Folk-L. Jldrire, for 

L. JlSrere, to blossom ; cf. L. Jlorescere, 

inceptive form oiflsrere. See Floral. 

Flout, to mock. (F.) Prob. from M. E. 
Jlouten, to play the flute. Similarly, M. Du. 
Jluyten (Du. fluiten), to play the flute, 

also had once the meaning ' to mock, jeer ' ; 

Oudemans. See Flute. 
Flow, to stream. (E.) M. E. flowen ; 

A. %.flSwan, pt. \..fleow; cf. Du. vloeijen, 

to flow; Icel.^Ja, to flood. Tent, base 

*flo' ; cognate with Gk. -iihjiKiv, to float. 

See Flood. 
Flower, sb. (F.-L.) yi.Y.. flour. - 

O. F. flour (F. fleiir'). — L. florem, ace. of 
^ar,. a flower. See Floral. 
Fluctuate, to waver. (L.) From pp. 

oi flttciudre, to float about. — L.y?»rf»j, a 
yia.we. — 'L. flttctus, old pp. oifluere, to 

Fine (i), a chimney-pipe. (F.-L.?) 

Of doubtful origin. [^Flue, in Phaer's 

Virgil, X. 209, is prob. a misprint for 
flute-l Prob. from M. E. fluen, to flow, 
as the pipe conducts the flow of the smoke; 
'To flue, y?^^?^,' Cath. Aagh — F. fluer, 
'to flow, glide;' Cot. — L..fluere, to flow. 

Fine (2), light, floating down. (E. ?) 
Cf. prov. E. fluj^, flue. Perhaps a deri- 
vative of the verb Fly (cf. A. S. pt. t. pi. 
flug-on). We find Low G.flog, E. Fries. 
flug,flog, flue ; cf. G.flug, flight. 

Fluent. (L.) From stem of pres. pt. 
of L. fluere, to flow. 

fluid. (F. - L.) O. F. fluiJe. - L. 
Jluidus, flowing. — X,. fluere, to flow. 

Fluke (i), a fish. (E.) M. E. floke, 
fluke. A.S. floe, a kind of plaice. +Icel. 
flokt, a kind of halibut. Lit. ' flat ' fish. 
The base *flffc- is the strong grade of Tent. 
*flae-, as seen in G. flack, flat. 

Fluke (2) , part of an anchor. (E. ?) 
Also speXiflook. Perhaps ' the flat ' end ; 
and the same word a.i fluke (1). Appa- 
rently distinct from G.flunke, the hook of 
an anchor. 

Flummery, a light food. (W.) W. 
Uymru, llymruivd,' flummery, sour oat- 


meal boiled and jellied. Cf. W. Uymus, 
sharp, tart. 

Flunkey, a footman. (F. - O. H. G.) 
Modem. Lowl. Sc. flunkie, a servant in 
livery. Apparently from F. flanqueur, a 
scout (see Flanker in N. E. D.). — F. flan- 
quer, ' to flank, to be at one's elbow for 
a help at need ; ' Cot. — F. flanc, side ; 
see Flank. 
Fluor, Fluor-spar, a mineral. (L.) 
The L. fluor (lit. a flowing) was foimerly 
in use as a term in alchemy and chemisti y. 
— 'L,. fluere, to flow. 

Flurry, hurry. (E.) Swift h&s flurry, 
a gust of wind. From flurr, to whirr 
(N. E. D.). Imitative ; cf. Swed. dial. 
flurig, disordered (as hair) ; flur, dis- 
ordered hair, whim ; Norweg. flui~utt, 
shaggy, disordered. And cf. "E.. flutter. 

Flush (i), to inundate. (E.) Appa- 
rently of imitative origin ; ci. flush, to fly 
up quickly (N. E. D.). Perhaps influenced 
by Y.flux, ' a flowing, a flux ; also, s. flush 
at cards ; ' Cot. See Flux. Ctflusck, a 
pool of water (G. Douglas) ; M. ilu.fluy- 
sen, to gush or break out violently (Hex- 
ham) ; Dan. dial, fluse, to gush out. 

Flusll (2), to blush, to redden. (E.) 
XVIII cent. Perhaps thesameasFlusli(i), 
but much influenced by Flash. Cf. Swed. 
dial, flossa, to bum, flare ; Norweg. _^o.ya, 
passion, vehemence. And see Fluster. 
Flush (3), level. (E.?) This is a 
derived sense; it meant in full flow, 
abundantly full ; hence, level. From 
Flush (i). 

Fluster, to heat with drinking, con- 
fuse. (Scand.) Icel. flaustra, to be flus- 
tered ; flaustr, fluster, hurry ; cf. E. Fries. 
flSstern, flustem, to mstle (as wind). Cf. 
Flush (2) and Flash. 

Flute, a musical pipe. (F.) M. E. 
flaivte, floite. — O. F.flaute,fleuie,flaAute, 
flehute, a flute (mod. F. fl-&te). Prov. 
flauta. Of uncertain origin. The_/? may 
have been suggested by 1^. flare, to blow. 
Flutter, to flap the wings. (E.) M. E. 
floteren, to fluctuate. A. S. flotorian, to 
float about ; cf. A. S. flat, the sea ; flota, 
a ship. — A. S. flot-, stem offlot-en, pp. of 
fleotan, to float. Cf. E. Ynes. fluttern. 

Flux. (F.-L.) 0.7. flux, a flux.- 
L. fliixum, ace. of fliixus, a flowing ; 
from the pp. oifluere, to flow. 
Fly (i), to float in air. (E.) M. E. 
fle^en-tflijen. A. S.fleogan ; pt. i.fleah ; 
pp.flogen.-\-T>u, vliegen, IztX.fljiiga, Dan. 



Jlyve, Swed. flyga, G. Jliegen. Teut. type 
*Jleugan-. Cf. L, pliima, a feather. 
(VPLEUGH.) Not allied to Plee. Der. 
Jly, an Insect, A. S. fleoge,Jlyge ; G.Jliege. 

Ply (2), a vehicle. (E.) A name given 
to a kind of four-wheeled vehicle drawn 
by men at Brighton, in 181S. C&WeiJly- 
coach in 1818 (Scott, Heart Midi. ch. i). 
Yioxajly, vb. See above. 

Poal. (E.) M. £./»/«, A. S./tf&.+Du. 
veulen, Icel. foli, Dan. fole, Swed. fale, 
Goth, fula, G. fo/ilen. Tent. *fulon: 
Cognate with L. pullus, young of an 
animal ; Gk. -nSiKoi. 

Foam. (E.) M. E. fame. A. S. fam. 
+Prov. G. faim ; O. H. G. feint. Teut. 
*faimo: Cognate with Russ. piena, foam ; 
Skt. phena, foam ; and prob. with Lat. 
spuma (for *spoima), foam, and Lat. /»- 
mex, pumice. Allied to Spume. 

Fob, watch-pockef. (O. LowG.) An 
O. Low G. word, only preserved in the 
cognate H. G. (Prussian) _^j*/«, a pocket; 
for which see Bremen Wort. i. 4J7. 

Focus, a point where light-rays meet. 
(L.) L. focus, a hearth ; hence, a centre 
of fire; 

Fodder, food for cattle. (E). M. E. 
fodder. A. S. fodor, foddor ; extended 
form oifoda, food.+Du. voeder, \ct\.faSr, 
Dan.. Swed. foder, G.futter. Teut type 
*fodrom, neut. Allied to Pood, q. v. 

Foe. (E.) M. E. foo. A. S. fdh, adj. 
hostile^ Teut. type *faihoz ; Idg. *poiqos 
(whence Irish oech, a foe, with loss of 
pi). From the weak grade *piq- we have 
Gk. viKpds, bitter, Lith. pikt'as, unkind. 
Brugm. i. § 646. 

Foetus ; see Fetus. 

Fog. (E.) In several senses ; M. E. 
fogge is ' coarse grass ' ; hence foggy, 
mossy, boggy, murky (whence perhaps 
the sb. fog, a mist). Cf. Norw. figg, 
long-strawed, weak, scattered grass in a 
moist hollow (Ross). Perhaps allied to 
A. S.Juht, damp, moist. 

Foible, a weak point in character. 
(F.-L.) O.Y. foible, Y. faible, weak, 
feeble ; see Feeble. 

Foil (I), to defeat. (F.-L.) M.E. 
foylen, to trample under foot. -O. F. 
fouler, to trample on, also to oppress, 
foil, over-charge extremely (Cot.). — Late 
1-.. fulldre, foldre, to full cloth; see Full 
(3). "Der. foil, a blunt sword, for practice 
ia foiling, i.e. psxrying ; foil, a defeat. 

Foil (2), a set-off, as in setting a gem. 

19 a 


(F.— L.) M. F. feiiille, a leaf, 'also the 
foyle of precious stones,' Cot. ; Norman 
foille, fern. ; cf. Ital. foglia, Span. AojW, 
a leaf. - L. /o//a, pi. of folium, a leaf; 
afterwards used as a fem. sing. See 
Foliage. Also O.F.fueil, foil, m. ; from 
L,. folium. 

Foin, to thrust with a sword^ (F. — L.) 
Obsolete. Lit. 'to thrust witli an eel- 
spear or tiident' — O.F. foine, foisiie, an 
eel-spear. — L. fuscina, a trident, the 
weapon used by a retidrius, or gladiator 
with a net. 

Foisou, plenty. (F. — L.) O. Y.foison^ 
abundance. — Folk-L. fUnionem, for L. 
fusioiiem, ace. of fUsio, a pouring out, 
hence profusion. — L.ySja.;, pp. oifundefej 
to pour. See Fuse. 

Foist, to palm or put off, to intrude 
surreptitiously. (Du.) XVI cent. — Du. 
vuisten, to take in the fist or hand; see 
N. E. D. (Low G. vilsten, to take in the 
hand) ; hence, to ' palm ' a die, to cheat. 
— Du. vuist, fist ; see Fist. 

Fold (I), to double together. (E.) M. E. 
folden, O. Mete, faldan, A, S.fea'lda« (pt. 
t.feold), to fold.+Dan./fl/afe, SwBd../a7,'* 
( ^faldd),, Icel. falia, Goth, falthcm, G. 
falUii. Teut. type *falthan-. Allied toGk. 
Si-ii\aaios, doubled; vhMaa^tv, to form, 
mould. See Plaster. De*. fold, sb.f 
a plait ; -fold, sufiix, as in twofold, &c. 

Fald (2), a pen for sheep. (E.) A.S.. 
fald, also falod, falnd. Not connected' 
■wi.iQ.fold (i), but with X)sa. fold, a sheep- 
pen ; Du. taalt, a dung-pit ; Low G.faai. 

Foliage, a cluster of leaves. (F. — L.) 
Modified from M. Y.fueillagf, from M. F< 
fueille, a Xea.i. — 'L. folia, pi. ot folium, a 
leaf; used as fem. sing. -|- Gk. <pi\hov, 
leaf. Cf. Foil (2). 

folio. (L.) From the L. phr. in folio, 
Vfhere folio is the abl. of /«/«««, a leaf, 

Folk, a crowd of people. (E.) A. .S. 
falc.+Icel. foli, Dan. Svred.falk; Du. G. 
velk. Teut. type *>/'&'»?, aeut. ^Lithuani , 
pulkas, a crowd, Russ. poW, an army,, 
were probably borrowed (at an early date) 
from Teutonic. 

Follicle, seed-vessel. (F. — L.) F. 
>//«»/«, little hs.g.-'L.felUculus, double 
dimin. oifollis, a bag. 

Follow. (E.) M.E. folwen. A.S. 
folgian, 3\.sofylgan, weak verb, to follow. 
+0. Fries, folgia, fnlia, O. Sax. folgon. 
Du. mlgen ; IctLfylgja^ T)a.n.fdlgf, Swed. 


folja ; G. folgen. We also find A. S./;«/- 
gangan, (pt. t. ful-eode), with the same 
sense, but derived from A. S.ful, full, and 
gqngan, to go; and, in like manner, 
O. H. G. foUegdn. Hence the orig. sense 
was, perhaps, ' to go in full numbers,' to 
go in a crowd, to accompany ; and it is a 
derivative of Teut. *fulloz, full. See Pull. 
Cf. A.S. fylstan, to sissht, /u/tum, assis- 
tance ; also from A. S.full. 

Folly. (F.-L.) M.E. folye.-0.¥. 
folic, folly. - O.Y.fol, foolish. See Fool (i ). 

Foment. (F.— L.) VL.Y.fomenter.— 
L. fomentdre. — 'L. fomentum, short for 
*fouimeniufn, a warm application, lotion. 
— 'L.fouere, to warm. 

Fond, foolish. (E.) M. E. fond, more 
commonly /i7««-ei/, pp. ol fonnen, to be 
weak, to act as a fool ; from the M. E. sb. 
fon, fonne, a fool. The sb. answers to 
O. Fries, famne, fomne, Fries, forte (see 
Hettema), E. ¥nss.fone,fon, a maid, girl, 
weakling, simpleton (see Koolman). All 
allied to A. S. fSmne, u. virgin. Der. 
fdnd-le, vb. 

Font (i), basin of water. (L.) A.S. 
font. — 'L. fontem, ace. oi fons, a fount. 
See Fount. 

Font (2),Foant,an assortment oftjrpes, 
(F. — L.) Y.fonte, a casting of metals. — 
F.yi«i//-«, to melt. See Found (2). 

Food. (E.) M.E. fade. A.S. foda, 
what one eats. The A. S. fod- is the 
strong grade of the base *fad, corresponding 
to Gk. TTOT- in vaT-tiaBai, to feed. From 
the Idg. root pa-, to feed, whence L. pd- 
nis, bread, pd-bulum, food, and pd-scere, 
to feed. See Pasture. Tiet. fodder ; feed. 

Fool (i), a jester. (F.-L.) M.E./»/, 
sb. and adj. O.Y.fol(Yzfou), afooI.-L. 
foUem, of fol/is, a. wind-bag; ■^.folles, 
puffed cheeks, whence the term was easily 
transferred to a vain or foolish person ; as 
in Late \j.follis, a fool. Der. be-fool. 

fool (2)1 a dish of crushed fruit, &c. 
(F.— L.) • From Fool (i) ; named like 
trifle. Florio has : ' MantigUa, a kind 
of clouted creame, called afoole or a trifle 
in English.' 

fools-cap, paper so called from the 
water-mark on it. 

Foot. (E.) M..'E. fot, foot, ■pl.fet, feet. 
A. S. fot, pi. .fet. + Dn. met, Icel. fstr, 
Dan. fod, Swed. fot, Goth, fotus, G.fuss. 
Teut. type *fot (consonant-stem), corre- 
sponding to Idg. type *pdd, with the 
variants *ped, *pod. Cf. L. pes, foot (gen. 



ped-is) ; Gk. jrous (^olic iris), foot (gen. 
voZ-6i), m{6i ( = ireSj/<>s), on foot; Skt. 
pdd, a foot (gen. pad-as). Cf. Fetter, 
Fetlock, Fetch. Brugm. i. § 578. 

Footy, paltry, mean. (E.) A variant 
oifoughty, musty (N. E. D.). Orig. ' damp ; ' 
from A. S. faht, damp, with suffix -y. -f-Du. 
vochtig, damp; SwtA.fuktigj'Da.n.fugtig. 
Cf. G.feucht, O. H. Q.fiihti,fakt. From 
a Teut. type *fuhtuz, damp; from Teut. 
base *feuk, as in Icel. fjUka, to drift as 
snow or dust, whence also Norw. fitk, 
vapour (Franck). 

Fop, a coxcomb. (E.) M.E. fop, a. 
fool. Cf. Du. foppen, to prate, cheat; 
fopper, a wag; fopperij, cheating ( = E. 
fo^ery). CI. fob off, to delude (Johnson). 

For (i), piep. and conj. (E.) Orig. 
a prep. A. S. for, fore, before, for ; see 
Fore.+Du. voor, Icel. fyrir, Dan. for, 
Swed. for, G.fiir. Cf L. pro, for; Gk. 
TTp6, before, napa, near. 

For- (2),preflx. (E.) For- has usually 
an intensive force, or preserves something 
of the sense of from, to which it is related. 
(Quite distinct from fore-, though ulti- 
mately allied to it.) A. S.for- ; Icel. for-, 
Dan. for-, Swed. Jor-, Du. zier-, G. ver-, 
Goth, fra-, fair-, Skt. /am-. The Skt. 
para is an old instrumental sing, of para-, 
far ; perhaps the orig. sense was ' away' 
or ' forth.' Der. for-bear, for-bid, for- 
fend,for-go {miss^eXt fore-go), for-get, for- 
give, for-lom, forsake, forswear; see 
Bear, Bid, &c. 

T0V-{%), prefix. (F.-L.) Only in /pr- 
close (misspelt foreclose), for-feit, which 

Forage, fodder, chiefly obtained by pil- 
lage. (F. — Low L. — Teut.) M..^.forage, 
fourage. — O. F. fourage. — O. F. forrer, to 
forage. — O. Y.forre (P.feurre), fodder. — 
Low L. fodrum, fodder. — Teut. type 
*fddrom, fodder ; see Fodder. 

Foraminated, perforated. (L.) From 
L. fordmin-, stem of foramen, a small 
hole. — 'L.fordre, to bore ; see Bore, 

Foray, Forray, a raid for foraging. 
(F. — Low L. — Teut.) Foray, forray are 
old Lowl. Scotch spellings, with the sense 
of ' foraging expedition.' Apparently 
coined from the M. E. forrier, forreyer, 
a forager. — O. F. forrier, a forager ; 
from O. 'S. forrer, to forage ; see Forage. 

Forbear (i), vb. (E.) From For- (2) 
and Bear. A. S.forberan, 

Forbear (2)) sb., an ancestor. (E.) 


M. E. forbear (Wallace). For fore-le-er, 
one who is before. See Fore and Be. 

Forbid. (E.) From For- (2) and 
Bid (2). A. S./erieoc/a/t.+Da. verbieden, 
Goih.. faiirbiudan, G. verbieten. 
Force (1). strength. (F.-L.) M.E. 
force, fors. — O. F. force. — Late L. fortia, 
strength. — L./o>-//-, decl. stem oifortis, 
strong; O.'L.forctis. Allied to Borough. 
Bmgtn. i. §§ 566, 756. Cf. Fort. 

Force (2), to stuff fowls ; see Faroe. 

Force (3I, FOSS, waterfall. (Scand.) 
Dan. fos, Swed. fors, Icel. fors, foss, a 

Forceps, pincers. (L.) L. forceps, 
orig. used for holding hot iron ; for *for- 
miceps (Vanicek). — L. formus, hot ; 
capere, to hold. 

'Ford. (E.) M.E. ford; also forlh. 
A. S.y»r(/, aford,passage.+G._/ar/. Teut. 
type '"furduz. From Idg. *p3r, weak grade 
of .y'PER, to go; see Fare. Allied to L. 
partus, a harbour, O. Welsh {fjrit, Welsh 
rhyd, a ford, and to frith ; see Frith and 
!Pore. Brugm. ii. § 108. 

Fore, in front, coming first. (E.) A. S. 
fore, for, before, prep. ; fore,foran, before, 
adv. + I)u. voor, G. vor, Goth. fcMra ; cf. 
Icel. fyrir, Dan. for, Swed. for. Allied 
to Gk. Trapos, before ; Skt. puras, before, 
in front, Skt. purd, formerly. Also to 
For- (l), prefix, q. v. Der. fore-arm, 
-bode, -cast, -castle, -date, -father, -finger, 
-foot, -front, -go (in the sense ' to go 
before ' only), -ground, -hand, -head, 
-judge, -know, -land, -lock, -man, -noon, 
-ordain, -part, -rank, -run, -see, -ship, 
-shorten, -show, -sight, -stall (A. S. fore- 
steall, sb. lit. ' a position in front '), -taste, 
-tell, -thought, -token, -tooth, -top, -warn ; 
all easily understood. 

Foreclose, to preclude, exclude. (F. — 
L.) Better spelt forclose. — O. F. forclos, 
pp. of forclorre, to exclude, shut out. — 
O. F. for-, from L. foris, outside ; and 
clotTe. to shut, from L. clauders. See 
Forfeit and Close. 

Forego, to relinquish ; see Forgo. 

Foreign.. (F. — L.) The ^ is wrongly 
inserted. M. E. foraine, foreyne.—O.Y. 
forain, alien, strange. — Folk-L. *fordnus ; 
for Late L. fordneus, adj., from X,. fords, 
out of doors, adv. with ace. pi. form, allied 
to 'L,. fores, doors ; cf. 'L. forum, a market- 
place, and E. door. 

Forejudge (i), to prejudge. From 
Fore and Judge. 


Foregtldge (») ; see Forjudge. 
Foremost, most in front. (E.) A 
double superl., the old superl. form being 
misunderstood. For M.E.formest, through 
secondary influence ol most. — A.S-fonnest, 
by-form of the regular fyrmest {<*fur- 
tnistoz), through the influence of A. S. 

forma, which is cognate with Goth. 

fruma, first, Gk. irpa/ios, vpoiios, first. 
Further allied to Gk. wpo, before. Brugm. 

i. § 518- 

Forensic, belonging to law-courts. 
(L.) Coined from L. forens-is, belonging' 
to the forum. — L. forum, market-place, 
meeting-place ; orig. a vestibule or door- 
way. Allied to L. fores, doors, and E. 

forest. (F.-L.) 0.¥. forest. -'Late 
'L.forestis, free space of hunting-ground ; 
foresta, a wood (medieval writers oppose 
the foreslis, open hunting-ground, to the 
parens, enclosed park). — L. /on j, out of 
doors ; adv. allied to L. fores, doors. 
T>et. forest-er, 2\%aforster, foster. 

Forfeit, a thing forfeited or lost by 
misdeed. (F. — L.) M. E.yB)|7^/e; whence 
forfeten, \h.-A.F. forfeit, O.F.forfait, 
a crime punishable by fine, a fine ; also a 
pp. of O. ¥.forfaire,forsf aire, io trespass. 
— Late L. f or isf actum, a trespass, fine ; orig. 
pp. (neut.) oi forisfacere, to trespass, lit. 
' to do beyond.' — L. foris facere, to do or 
act beyond or abroad; from foris^ out 
of doors ; and facere, to do. See Fore- 

Forfeud, Forefend, to avert. (Hy- 
brid; E. a«i/F.) yi.Y.. forfenden. An 
extraordinary compound ol'E.for-, prefix, 
with fend, a familiar abbreviation of de- 
fend. See For- (2) and Defend; also 
Fend, Fence. 

Forge. (F. — L.) O. F. forge, a work- 
shop. — Folk-L. *faurga, for *favrega 
(Schwan) ; for L. fabrica, a workshop^ 
See Fabric. Ttei. forge, vb. 

Forget. (E.) From For- (2) and 
Get. A.S.forgetan (E. E. T.)^ forgitan. 
+Du. vergeten, G. vergessen. 

Forgive. (E.) From For (z) and 
Give. A. S. forgefan.-\-Ti\x. vergeven, G. 
vergeben; Goth, fragiban, to grant. 

Forgo, Forego, to give up. (E.) 
Better forgo. A. S. f organ, to pass over. 
From For- (2) and Go. 

Forjudge, to deprive of by a judge- 
ment. (F.— L.) O.¥.forjugier. — \jo\th. 
forisjudicdrt. — Tu. foris, outside : and iiiJi- 


care, lo judge. See Forfeit and 

Fork. (L.) K.S. forca.-'L.furca,ti 
fork. Der. bi-furcated. 

Forlorn, quite lost. (E.) M. E. for- 
lorn. A.S. forloren, lip. oi forieosan, \.o 
lose utterly ; from /or-, prefix, and leosan, 
to lose ; see Por- (2) and I<ose. So also 
Dan. forloren. Da. and G. verloren, simi- 
larly derived. 

Form. (F.-L.) O.Y . forme. - 'L. 
forma, %] Brugm.ii.§ 72. (^DHER.) 
% O. F. forme also means ' a bench,' like 
%form. Tiei.foi-m-ttla. 

Former, more in front. (E.) Not 
early ; XII cent. ; a false formation, to 
suit M. E. firmest, i. c. foremost ; see 
Foremost. Formed by adding -er to the 
base form- of A. S. forma, first, really a 
superl. form, where -m- is an Idg. superl. 
suffix. Cf. L. pri-mus, first. 

Formic, pertaining to ants. (L.) For 
formic-ic ; from Ij. formica, an ant. 

Formidable, causing fear. (F.-L.) 
F. formidable. — L. formtdabilis, terrible. 

— l^.formiddre, to dread ; foi-mldo, fear. 
Formula, a prescribed form. (L.) L. 

formula, dimin. oi forma, a form. See 
Fornicate. (L.) From pp. of L./i/-- 
nicdri, to commit lewdness, seek a brothel. 

— 'L.fornic-, base oi fornix, a vault, arch, 
brothel. Hardly allied to Furnace; cf. 
rather L. for-tis, strong, and Skt. dhr, to 
bear, carry, support 

Forsake. (E.) 'SA.'E. forsaken. A. S. 
forsacaii, to neglect, orig. to contend 
against, or oppose; from for-, prefix, and 
sacan, to contend, whence the E. sb. sake. 
See For- (2) and Sake. So also Swed. 
fdrsaka, Visca. for sage, Du. verzaken. 

Forsooth,. (E.) M. E. for sothe, for 
a truth. K.S.for sbde ; where for^ioi, 
and soSe is dat. of soS, truth ; see Sooth. 

Forswear. (E.) From For- (2) and 
Swear. A. S.forszverian. 

Fort. (F.-L.) O. F.>r/, sb., a fort ; 
a peculiar use of F. fort, adj., strong. — L. 
ace. fort-em, from nom. fortis, strong. 
See Force. 

fortalice, small fort. (F.-L.) O. F. 
fortelesce ; Late L. fortalitia ; see For- 
tress (below). 

forte, loud. (Ital.-L.) \X?X.forte.- 
L. &CZ. fort-em, strong (above). 

fortify. (F.-L.) O.Y. fortifier, Xo 
make strong. — L, fortificdre. — L.. forti-. 


decl. stem oi fortis, strong; -ficare, for 
facere, to make. 

fortitude. (F.-L.) Y . fortitude.-' 
'L.fortitudo, strength. — L. forti-s, strong ; 
with suffix -tiido. 

Forth, forward. (E.) M. E. forth. 
A. S. fo7-p, adv. ; related to fore, be- 
fore; see Fore. -|-Du. voort, from voor; 
G. fort, M. H. G. vort, from vor; cf. 
Goth, faurthis, further, from faur-a, be- 
fore. Teut. type *fur-}o- \ Idg. type *p3r- 
to-. See Further. 

Fortify, Fortitude ; see Fort. 

Fortnight, two weeks. (E.) M. E. 
fourtenight ; also fourten night, — M. E. 
fourten, i. e. fourteen ; night, old pi., i. e. 
nights. A. S. feowertyne niht. So also 
sennight = seven night. 

Fortress. (F.— L.) M.'E.fortresse. 
— O. F. forteresce, fortelesce. — Late L. for- 
talitia, a small fort. — Late L. fortis 
{domus), a fort; \j. fortis, strong. See 
Fort, Fortalice. 

Fortune. (F L.) O.V. fortune. -1.. 

fortHna, chance. — "L.fortii-, allied io forti-, 
decl. stem of fors, chance ; orig. ' that 
which is brought,' or ' an event ' ; from 
ferre, to bring ; see Fertile. 

fortuitous. (L.) L. fortuit-us, 
casual ; with suffix -ous. — L. fortU- (as 

Forty; see Four. 

Forward. (E.) yi.'E,. forward. A. S. 
foreweard, a.d.]. — A..S.fore, before; -weard, 
suffix ; see Toward. Der. forwards, 
M. E. formardes, where -es is the suffix of 
gen. case, used adverbially. And see 

Fosse. (F.-L.) "S. fosse.— 1^. fossa, a. 
ditch. — L. fossa, fem. of fossus, pp. of 
fodere, to dig. Brugm. i. § 166. 

fossil, petrified remains obtained by 
digging. (F.— L.) M.F. fossile, 'that 
may be digged ; ' Cot. — L. fossilis, dug 
wp.—l^.foss-us, pp. oi fodere (above). 

FoSSet, a spigot ; see Faucet. 

Foster, to nourish. (E.) A. S.fostrian, 
vh. — A.S.fostor, nourishment; Teut. type 
*fostrom, for *fod-trom, neut. ; allied to 
foda, food.+Icel. fostr, nursing, whence 
fostra, to nurse ; Syiei.fostra, 'Da.n.fosire, 
to rear, bring up. 

Fother, a load, heavy mass. (E.) A.S. 
foSer.-{-M.. Du. voeder, Du. voer; O. H. G. 
fuodar, G.fuiler. Teut. Vy'pe*fo}-rom,n. 
From *fo}-, strong grade of *faj>-\ see 



Poul. (E.) M.'E./aul. A.S./«/.+ 
Du. vui/, lcel./«//, 'Da.a.fiiul, Swed./a/, 
Goth, fills, G. faul. Teut. type *fa-loz j 
cf. Icel. fu-inn, rotten. Akin to Putrid. 
(y'PU.) Brugm. 1. § 113. 

foumart, a polecat. (E.) lA.'E. fill- 
mart, fiilmard; comp. of M.K. ful, foul 
(as above), and A. S. mearS, a marten. 
See Marten. 

Found (i), to lay the foundation of. 
(F. -L.) M. E. founden. - O. F. fonder. 
— E. fuhdare, to found. — L. fundus, a 
bottom, foundation. See Fund. Eer. 

_ Found (2), to cast metals. (F. — L.) 
0.¥. fond)-e. — 'L. fimdere, to pour, cast 
metals., {■^GU.KV.) See Fusa (i). 
Dev. found-ry , Y.fotid-erie. 

Founder, to go to the bottom. (F.— 
L.) M. '^..foutidren, said of a horse fall- 
ing. — O. F. fondrer, chiefly in comp. 
afondrer (obsolete), effondrer, to fall in 
(still in use); orig. to sinlc in. — F. fond, 
bottom.- L. fundus, bottom. See Found 


Foundling, a deserted child. (E.) 
M. E. fundling ; formed with suffix -l-ing 
from A. S. fund-, weak grade of findan, 
to find.+Da. vondelitig. See Find. 

Fount (1), a spring. (F. — L.) Formed, 
by analogy with mount, from F. font. — L. 
fontem, ace. of fons, a fountain. Der. 
fount-ain, O. F. fontaine, Late L. fon- 

Fount (2), Font, an assortment of 
types. (F. — L.) O. F. fonte, a casting of 
metals. — O.F. fondre, to cast. — L. fun- 
dere, to pour, cast metals. See Found (2). 

Four. (E.) 'M..¥,.feowur,fojuer,four. 
A, S. flower. + Icel. fjorir, Dan. fire, 
Sviei.' fyra, Du. vier, Goth, fidwor, G. 
vicr; also W. fedwar, Gael, ceithir, O. 
Irish cethir, L. quatuor, Gk. TfTrapcs, 
Ttaaapes, iriavpes, Russ. chetvero, Lith. 
k'etui:i, Pers. ckekar, Skt. chalvdras. Idg. 
type, *qelwer-. Jiev.four-ih, A. S.feorpa ; 
four-teen, A. S. feowertene ; for-ty, A. S. 

Fowl. (E.) M. E. /»!</, A. S. fugol, a 
bird.+Du. vogel, Icel. /«,?■/, Dan. y)'^/, 
SvfeA. fogel, Goth, fugls, G. Wfi?/. Teut. 
type *f ugloz, masc. ; prob. for "fltiglox, by 
dissimilation ; the form fluglas, pi. occurs 
in Matt. xiii. 32 (Rushworth gloss), and 
cf. the adj. flugol, flying. From *flug-, 
weak grade of Teut. *fleug-an-, to fly. 
See Fugleman and Fly. Biugm.i. § 491. 


Fox. (E.) A. S. fox. + Dn. vos, G. 
futAs. Teut. type *fu/t-s-, masc. We also 
find Icel. foa, Goth, fauho, fem. a vixen ; 
Teut. type *fuha. A connexion with Skt. 
puchchha-, ' tail,' is doubtful. Der. vix-en. 
q. V. 

foxglove. (E.) K.S. foxes gldfa,i.<:. 
fox's glove ; a fanciful name. Cf. Norw. 
revbjolla, a foxglove ; lit. ' fox-bell.' 

Foy, a parting entertainment, by or to 
a wayfarer. (Du. - F.) From Dn. fooi 
(in Hexham, /iy/, 'a banquet given by one 
at parting from his friends'). — F._/o«, lit. 
faith, from L. ace. fidem ; cf. Late L. 
fides, in the sense of 'payment.' (So 
Franck.) But rather from F. voie, a way ; 
L. uia. Cf. Voyage. 

Fracas. (F. — Ital.— L.) Y. fracas, a 
crash. — F. fracasser, to shatter. — Ital. 
fracassare, to break in pieces. — Ital. fra, 
prep., among, and eassdre, to break: (imi- 
tated from L. interrttmpere). Ital. fra is 
from L. infra, below. Cassare = L. quas-. 
sdre, to shatter ; see Quash. 

Fraction. (F.— L.) F. fraction. — "L. 

ace. fractiSnem, a breaking. — L. fractus; 

pp. ai frangere, 10 break. Cognate with 

break ; see Break. 

fracture. (F. — L.) O.V. fracture^ 

— L. fractura, a breach. — L. fractus, pp. 

oi frangere, to break. 
Fractious, peevish. (E. ; a»(/F.— L.) 

A prov. E. word, as if from North. E./ra/f/i, 

to squabble, chide ; the same as M. E. 
fracchen, to creak as a cart. But it also 

occurs ;in 1705) in the sense oi refractory^^. 

being formed from fraction, in the sensfe'. 

of ' dissension,' a sense now obsolete ; see 

N. E. D. See Fraction. 

Fragile. (F. - L.) F. fragile. - L. 
fragilis, easily broken. — L. frag-, base of, 
frangere, to break. See Fraction. 

Doublet, frail. 
fragment. (F.-L.) Y. fragment.— ■ 

'L. fraginentum, a broken piece. — L./ra.f-.," 

base oi frangere ; with suffix -mentum. ' 
Fragrant. (F.-L.) F. fragrant.- 

'L. fragrantem, ace. oi frdgrans, pres. pt.- 

oifragrdre, to emit an odour. 
Frail. (F.-L.) U.-E-.f-eehfreyl.-- 

O. F. fraile, brittle. - L. fragilem, ace. of 

fragilis ; see Fragile., 
Frame, to construct. (E.) M. E. fra- 

mien ; also fremien. A. S. frainian, to 

be profitable, avail; cf. also fremien f 

fremman, to promote, effect, do, lit. to 

fuither. - A. S. /row, strong, good, lit. 


forward; cf.^awi, prep., from, away; see 
'S'Tora.-\-lce\..frama,fremja, to further, 
from framr, adj., forward, fram, adv., 
forward, allied to/ra, from. Cf. G.fromm, 
good. Jier. frame, sb. 

Frampold, qnaixelsome. (Low G.) 
Obsolete. h\soframpald,from^aU. Allied 
to prov. E. rantipole, a romping child. Cf. 
E. Fries, frante-pot, wrante-pot, a peevish 
man ; M. Du. wranten, to chide, Dan. 
vranfe, to be peevish, ■vranten, peevish. 
Cf. also Dan. vrampet, warped ; Low G. 
■wrampachtigh, morose (Liibben); E. Fries. 
franten, wranten, to be cross. Note also 
Sc. frample, to disorder, and E. frump. 
The second element is prob. from E. poll, 

Franc, a French coin. ( F. - G.) M. E. 
frank. — 0.¥. franc; said to be short for 
Francorum A'ex (on a coin of 1360). See 

fraucllise. (F. — G.) Vi.'E.. fran- 
chise.— O.Y. franchise, privileged liberty. 
— O. F. franchis-, stem of pres. pt. of 
franchir, to free. — O.F. franc, free; see 
iFrank. Der. dis-franchise, en-franchise. 

Frangible. (L.) I^aitl.. frangibilis, 
breakable ; a coined word. — L. frangere, 
to break. See Praotion. 

Frauion, a dissolute person. (F.— L.) 
O.F. fraignant, one who infringes (law) ; 
pres. pt. oi fraindre, to break, hence to 
infringe. — L. frangere, to break. See 

. Frank, free. (F.-Low L.-0. H. G.) 
O. F. franc. — Low L. francus, free ; 
orig. a Frank. — O. H. G. franko, a Frank ; 
perhaps named from a weapon ; cf. A. S. 
franca, a javelin. The Franks were a 
Germanic people. 

firankalmoign, the name of the 
tenure by which most church-lands are 
held. (F.-O. H. G. o»(/L.-Gk.) Lit. 
'free alms.' — F. franc, free; Anglo-F. 
almoine = O. F. almosne, alms. See Frank 
and Almoner. 

firanMncense. (F. — G. and L.) 
O. F. franc encens, pure incense ; see 
Frank (above) and Incense. 

firanklin, a freeholder. (F. — G.) 
M. E. frankelein. — A. F. fraunkelayn, 
Langtoft', ii. 212; Low L. francaldmis, 
franchildnus. — Low L. francus, free ; see 
Frank (above). The suffix is possibly 
from O. H. G. -line ( = E. -l-ing as in 
dar-ling) ; precisely as in chamberlain. 

Frantic. (F.-L.-Gk.) U.l^.frene- 


tik, shortei" iovcd frentik. — Q.'F. frena- 
tiqtie. — 'L. phreneticus, phrenlticus, mad. 

— Gk. (ppfviTiKus, mad, suffering from 
ippeviris, frenzy. See Frenzy. 

Fraternal. (F.-L.) O.F. fralemel. 

— Late L. frdterndlis, the same as L. 
frdternus, brotherly. — L. frdter, cognate 

with E. Brother. 

fraternity. (F.-L.) O.F. frater- 
nilee. — h. ace. frdlernildtem, hrotheihooA. 

— L. frdternus, brotherly. — L. frdter, 
brother. Der. eon-fraternity. 

fratricide (1), murderer of a brother. 
(F. — L.) O. F.frati icide. — l^.frdtricTda, 
a brother-slayer. — L. frdtri-, stem of 
frdter, brother; -cula, a slayer, from 
ccedere, to kill ; see Caesura. 

fratricide (2), murder of a brother. 
(F.-L.) O. F. fratrecide (Littre). - L. 
fratrictdium, the killing of a brother. — L. 
frdtri-, stem oi frdter, hjoihtx; -cTdium, 
a slaying, from cadere, to kill. 

Fraud. (F.-L.) O.F. fraude.-l.. 
fraudem, ace. oifraus, deceit, guile. 

Fraught, to lade a ship. (Low G. or 
Friesic. ) We now ■ase fraught only as a 
pp. M.F,. frahten, fragten, only in the 
■p^. fraught. C{.Sv/ed.frahta,to fraughtor 
freight, from frakt, a cargo ; Dan. fragte, 
from fragt, a cargo ; E. Fries, fracht, 
fragt, (i) a cargo, (2) charge for trans- 
port ; also Du. bevrachten, from vracht; 
G. frachten, from fracht. See further 
under Freight. 

Fray (i), an affray. (F.-L.) Short 
for affray, or effray, orig. 'terror,' as 
shewn by the use oi fray in the sense of 
terror, Bruce, xv. 255. See Affray. 

fray (2), to terrify. (F.-L.) Short 
for affray ; see AfCray. 

Fray (3), to wear away by rubbing. 
(F.— L.) O.F. freier (also froier), to 
rub (Godefroy). — L.yr/Vdr«, to rub. 

Freak (i), a whim, caprice. (E.) A 
quick movement ; from M. E. frek, quick, 
vigorous. — A. S. free, bold, rash ; whence 
frician, to move briskly. + Icel. frekr, 
voracious ; Swed. frack, impudent, Dan. 
yns^, audacious; 0.frech,saVLCj, O. H.G. 
freh, greedy ; Goth, faihu-friks, covetous. 

Freak (2), to streak. (E.) A coined 
word ; to streak capriciously (Milton) ; 
from Freak (i). 

Freckle, a small spot. (Scand.) We 
find both frehell aDdfreien ox fr akin.— 
\(x\. freknur, pi., freckles ; ^vieA. frdkne , 
Daa.fregne, a freckle. Cf. Fleck, 



Free. (E.) M. E./>-^. 
Du. vnj; Goth, /feis; G. frei. Teiit. 
type *frijoz; allied to Skt.^«j/o-, beloved, 
agreeable; also to E. Friend. Orig. sense 
' dear, beloved ' ; hence applied to those 
of the household who were children, not 
slaves ; cf. L. liberi, free, also ' children.' 
Der. freedom, A. S. freodom ; free-stone, 
transl. of F. pierrefranche. 

Free-booter, a rover, pirate. (Dn.) 
Borrowed from Du. vrijbttiler, a free- 
booter, robber. — Du. urijbidten, to rob; 
urijbuit, plnnder, lit. ' free booty.' Dn. 
vrij = '£,. free. And see Booty, p. 56. 

Freeee. (E.) M. E. fresen. A. S. 
freosan ; pp. froren.-^-lcA. frjosa, Swed. 
frysa, jyaxi. fryse, Du. vriezen, G.frieren. 
Tent, type *freusan-. L. prilrire, to itch, 
originally to bum (ef. pruTna, hoarfrost), 
Skt.//ar^ffl-, a burning. Brugm. i. | 562 ; 
ii. § 657. (VPREU.) 

Freieht, a cargo. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. 
freyte ;" ater freyght ; an altered spelling 
of F. fret, the freight of a ship, the gh 
being inserted by (a true) connexion with 
fraught, q. v. — F. fret, ' the fraught or 
freight of a ship, also, the hire that's paid 
for a ship;' Cot. — O. H. G.freht, 'earn- 
ings,' hire. This O. H. G.freht is thought 
to be the same as G.fracht, a cargo ; and 
freht has been supposed to represent a 
Teut. type *fra-aihtiti ; from fra-, prefix 
(see Pret), and *aihtiz>K.S. mht, ac- 
quisition (from agan, to own). See Own. 

Frenzy. (F.— L.— Gk.) ili.'^.frenesye. 
-> O. F. frenisie. — L. phrerieds. — Late 
Gk.t^pefj/ffiSjfor Gk. ^pevVris, inflammation 
of the brain. — Gk. <ppiv-, base of fpiiv, 
midriff, heart, senses. See Frantie. 

Fre4lieut. (F.^L.) IA.Y. frequent. 

— Ij.frequenlem, ace. oifrequens, crowded, 
frequent; pres. part, of a lostverb *frequere, 
to cram, allied to farcTre, to cram ; see 
Faroe. Brugm. ii. I 713. 

Fresco. (Ital.-O.H.G.) A painting 
an fresh plaster. — Ital. ^'«J<r(7, cool, fresh. 

- O. H. G.frisc {G.frisch). See below. 
fresh. (E. ; mid Y. -Teut.) M. E. 

fresh; a\so fersh, representing A. S.fersc. 
The form fresh is from O. F. fres, freis 
(f&ra. fresche) ; cf mod. Y.frais, fresh.— 
O. II. G. frisc (G. frisch), fresh. Teut. 
type *friskos. Allied to Lith. preskas, 
sweet, nnsoured, 1. e. unleavened (applied 
to bread) ; Russ. priesniiii, fresh. 

Fret (i), to eat away. (E.) A. S. 
fretmif for Teut. *fra-etan, to devour 


entiriBly. + Goth, fra-itan, to devour 
entirely, from fra-, entirely, and itaa, to 
eat; Du. vreten, G.fressen {^ver-essen). 
See For- (2) and Bat. 

Fret (3), to ornament, variegate. 
(F. — L. ; and E.) M. E. fretten, to adorn 
with interlaced work.-O. F. freter, to 
strengthen (as with iron), also to adorn ; 
also spelt ferter. — O. F. frete, a ferrule 
(Cot.), also 3. fret (in heraldry) ; see Fret 
(3). ■[ Not influenced by M. 'E.freiien, 
A. S. fr<Btwan, to adorn ; from frceiwe, 

Fret (3), a kind of grating. (F. — L.) 
Common in heraldry. — O. F. frete, a 
ferrule ; frettes, pU an iron grating (Diez) ; 
fretter, to hoop ; frett^, fretty (in heraldry). 
[Cf. Span, fretes, frets (in heraldry).; allied 
to \tsX.ferriata, an iron grating.] — F./«r, 
iron. — 1j. ferrum, iron. 

£ret (4), a stop on a musical instru» 
ment. (F. — L.) Frets are bars across the 
neck of the instrument ; probably the same 
word 3.^ fret (3). See N. E. D. 

Friable, easily crumbled. (F. — L.) 
M. F. friable. — L. friabilis. — L. fridre, to 
rub, crumble. 

Friar. (E.-L.) M. E. frere.-O.Y. 
frere, freire, lit. a brother. — L. frdtrem, 
ace. oifrdter, a brother. See Brother. 

Fribble, to trifle. (W. Flem.-Dn.) 
From W. Flem. fribbelen, Tvribbele?!, to rub 
(as a thread) between finger and thumb.— 
Du. wrijven, to rub, rub away. 

Fricassee, a dish of fowls cut up. 
(F.) Y.fricassh, a fricassee; fern, of pp. 
oifricasser, to fricassee, also, to squander 
money. A fricassee is made of chickens, 
&c. cut up into small pieces. Of unknown 
origin. Some have suggested L. frlgere, 
to roast, or 'L.fHcdre, to mb (Korting). 

Friction. (F.-L.) Y. friction. -l.. 
ace. frictiSnem, a rubbing. — L. frictus, 
contr. pp. of fricdre, to rub ; allied to 
fridre, to rub ; see Friable. 

Friday. (E.) h.S. frige-dag, trans- 
lating L. dies Veneris ; v/htrsfrige is gen. 
of Frig, the wife of Woden. Teut. type 
*frijd, fem. of *frijoz, dear, beloved, also 
'free ' ; Skt. priyd, wife, loved one. See 
Free, Friend. 

Friend. (E.) M.E. frend. A. S. 
freond, orig. ' loving,' pr«s. pt. oifreogan, 
to love.+Icel./r^Wa, Dan.}9-«»(/e, Swed. 
frdnde, only in the sense of 'kinsman'; 
also Du. vriend, Gfreund; GoXh.friJSnds, 
a friend, pres. pt. of frifon, to love. Cf. 


Skt. pri, to love. Allied to Free. 

Biugm. i. 5 567. Der. friendship, A. S. 


Frieze (i), a coarse woollen cloth. (F. 

- Dti. ?) M. F. frize, frise, ' frise ; ' Cot. 

Perhaps due to lirap de frise, i. e. cloth of 

Friesland ; with which Cotgrave identifies 

it. — Du. Vriesland, Friesland, Vries, a 

Frieslander, belonging to Friesland. So 

also cheval de Frise, a horse of Friesland ; 

whence chevaux de Prise, spikes to resist 

cavalry, a jesting term. ^ Hence O. F. 

friser, to cover with a nap, to cnrl hair, 

io frizz. See Korting. 

Frieze (2), part of the entablature of a 
column. (F.) M. F. /rz2«, ' the broad and 
flat band that's next below the cornish 
[cornice], or between it and the architrave ;' 
Cot. Span, friso, a frieze ; allied to Ital. 
fregio, a fringe, lace, border, ornament. 
The Ital. fregio represents L. Phrygium 
(epits), Phrygian work. 

Frigate. (F.-Ital.) M. F. fregate, 
' a frigate ; ' Cot. - Ital. /;v^a/a, a frigate. 
Origin uncertain. 

Fright. (E.) U.'K.fiyght. O. North- 
umb. fryhto, A. S. fyrhto, fyrhlu, fright, 
allied tojorkt, timid.+O. Sa^.foi-hta, Dan. 
frygt, Swed. fruktan, G. furcht, Goth. 
faurhiei, fright ; allied to 0. Sax. forht, 
O. H. G.foracht, Goth, faurhts, fearful. 
Frigid, (L.) 'L.frtgidus, cold, adj. - 
l^.frigere, to be cold. — L.yr§«j, cold, sb. 
+Gk. liTios, cold. Brogm. i. § 875. 
Frill, a ruffle on a skirt. (Low G.) 
\Frill, vb., was a term in hawking ; a hawk 
that shivered, from feeling chilly, was said 
to frill. — O. F. friller, to shiver with 
cold. Hence some have deduced the 
sense of a hawk ruffling his feathers ; but 
for this there is no authority.] The sb. 
answers to W. Flem. frul, frulle, a 
wrinkled plait ; De Bo cites frullen as 
being round the bottom of a dress. Cf. 
also Swed. &\a\. frail, a wrinkled or curled 
strip, as on a woman's cap, Vihencefryllig, 
wrinkled. De Bo also gives W. Flem. 
frullen, vb., to hang in pleats ; htillen en 
frullen, ribbons and trimmings. Hence 
perhaps a verbal form *fryllan. 
Fringe, a border of loose threads. (F. 
— L.) M. E. fringe. - O. F. frenge (PaJs- 
grave), oldest form of F. frange, fringe ; 
the Wallachian form is frimbie, for *fim- 
brie Qyj metathesis).— 'L.fvjbria, fringe ; 
allied iofibra, a fibre ; see Piljre. 
Frippery, wom-out clothes, trash. 


(F. - L.) Stuff sold by a fripier. - M. F. 
fripier, 'a fripier, or broker, trimmer up 
of old garments, and a seller of them so 
mended ; ' ' Cot. - O. F. frepe (also ferpe, 
felpe), frayed out fringe, old clothes. 
Prob. from h.flira, fibre (Korting). 
Frisk, fo skip about. (F.-Teut.) 
From the ^6.]. frisk, brisk. - M. ¥.frisque, 
' friske, blithe, briskej' Cot. ; O.F. frique. 
— O.H.G, frise, G. frisch, fresh, brisk, 
lively; see Fresh. Cf. Norm. dial. /nV- 
quei, frisky. 
Frith. (1), an enclosure, forest, wood, 
(E.) Obsolescent ; M, E filh, peace, also 
enclosure, park. Cf. W.ffridd, park, forest, 
which is borrowed from M. E. - A. S.friS, 
peace ; friSu, peace, security, asylum. 
Cf. Icel. frier, Dan. Swed. fred, Du. 
vrede, G. friede, peace. Teut. type 
*frithuz ; from *fri-, base of *fri-joz, free. 
See Free. % The M. E. frith is also 
' wooded country.' This is prob. a different 
word ; A. S. gefyrhSe (Birch, iii. 120). 

Frith (2), Firth, an estuary. (Scand.) 
M. E. firth. — Icel. fjorir, a firth, bay ; 
ban. _/&>?•</, %-<stA.fjard, the same. Allied 
to Ford. Brugtn. ii. 108. 

FritiUary, a plant. (L.) So named 
because the chequered markings on the 
corolla were in some way associated with 
a.fritillus.rr'L.fritillus, a dice-box. 

Fritter (i\ a kind of pancake. (F.— 
L.) M. E. frytowre, fritoure. [Cf. F. 
fritem, 'a fritter,' Cot.] — O. F. _/>-»/?<«?, 
a flying, dish of fried fish. — O. F. frit, 
ixxti^.-'tj.f rictus, pp. oifrigere, to fry. 

Fritter(2),afragment; Shak. (F.-L.) 
O. F. freture. — L. fractiira, a fracture. 
See Fracture. 

fritter away, to diminish, waste. 
(F. -tL.) a derivative irom fritter {2), 
a fragment ; whence fritter, vb., tp cut 
up into fragments. Se^ above. 

Frivolous, trifling. (L.) From L. 
friuel-us, silly ; with suffix -ous. The orig. 
sense seems to have been ' rubbed away ' j 
hence friuolif meant broken potsherds, 
&c. — L. friare, fricare, to rub ; see 
Friz, FrizSS, to curl, lender rough. 
(F. T- Du. ?) M. F.frizer, ' to frizle, crispe, 
curie;' Cot. [Cf. Span, frtsar, to fnzzle,' 
raise the pap on frieze, from frisa, frieze.] 
Siinilarly the F, friser is from frife, frize, 
frieze ; see Frieze (i). Der.frizz-le, fre- 
quenj. form, in commoner use ; cf. 0. Fries. 
frisle,freilf, A lock of Ixfiir, 



The Scand. form of 
Dan, fra, from. See 

■ Pro. (Scand.) 
_/h;»«. — Icel. fra, 

■ Prock. (F.-Low L.) M. E. frok. - 
O. Y.froc ; Low "L./roccus, a monk's frock, 
also spelt floccus (Ducange). Prob. so 
called because woollen ; see Plook (2). 
Cf. Port, froco, a snow-flake, from L. 

floccus. ^ So Diez ; but Brachet derives 
it from O. H. G. hroch (G. rocU), a coat, 
in which the initial h is unoriginal. 

Prog (i), an animal. (E.) M.'E.frogge. 
A. S. frogga, frocga. Also A. S. frox, 
a frog. + Icel. froskr, Du. vorsch, G. 

"Eica^ (2), a substance in a horse's foot. 
(L. ?) It is shaped like a fork ; perhaps 
a corruption oifork, q. v. ; the F. name is 
fourchette. In any case, it has been con- 
formed to Prog (i). 

Frolic, adj., sportive. (Du.) XVI cent. 
Orig. an adj. — Du. vroKjk, frolic, merry. 
+G.frdhlich, merry. P'ormed with sufiSx 
-lijk (=E. like, -ly) from the O. Sax. 
/r?- (as in fro-liko, adv.), O. Fries, fro 
(= G. froh), merry. Der. frolic, sb. and 

Prom, away, forth. (E.) A. S. from, 
froim. + Icel. frd, from ; O. H. G. from, 
forth ; Goth, fram, from. Cf. also Icel, 
from, adv. forward (Swed. fram, Dan. 
freni) ; Oo'ih..framis, adv., further. Allied 
to Frame. 

Proud, a branch. (L.) 'h. frond-, stem 
offrons, a leafy branch. 

Front. (F.-L.) M.E. front, fore- 
head. — O. F. front, forehead, brow. — L. 
frontem, ace. oifrons, forehead, brow. 

frontal, a band worn on the forehead. 
(F. — L.) O. F. frontel. — L. frontdle, an 
ornament for a horse's forehead. — "L. front-, 
stem oifrons, forehead. 

frontier. (F.-L.) O.T.frontiere, 
fern. — Late X,.fronteria,frontaria, border- 
land. — L. front-, stem of frons, front 
(hence, border). 

frontispiece. (F.— L.) Vorfrontis- 
fice; through the influence oi piece. — Y. 
froniispice, 'the frontispiece or fore-front 
of a house ; ' Cot. — Late X.. frontispicium , 
a front view. — L. fronti-, decl. stem of 
frons ; specere, to see ; see Species. 

firontlet. (F.-L.) O. F. frontel-et, 
dimin. of O. F. frontel; see frontal 

Frore, frozen. (E.) A. S. frorcn, pp. 
oifriosan, to freeze. See Freeze. 



frost. (£.) M. E. frost, font ; A. S. 
forst (for /rwO.+Du. vorst, Icel. Dan. 
Swed. G. frost. Teut. types *frustoz, m. ; 
*frustom, n. From *frus-, weak grade of 
*freusan-, to freeze. See Freeze. 

Froth. (Scand.) yi.Y.. frothe.-\z<t\. 
froSa, fraud, Ttm.fraade [Swed. fradga], 
froth, foam on liquids. From the Teut. 
verb *freuthan-, to froth up ; as in A. S. 

Frounce, to wrinkle, curl, plait. 
(F.-L.) The older form oi flounce; see 
Flounce (2). 

Froward, perverse. (Scand. and E.) 
M. E. froward, commonly ■ fraward 
(Northern). From Icel. frd, fro; and 
ward. Cf. A. S. fromweard, only in the 
sense ' about to depart ' ; but we still 
keep the orig. sense of frora-ward, i. c. 
averse, perverse. (Cf. wayward, i. e. 
away-ward.) And see Toward. 

Frown. (F.— Teut.) m.'E.frounen.— 
O. F. frongnier, whence F. refrogner, 
to frown, look sullen. Cf. Ital. in- 
frigno, frowning, Ital. dial. (Lombardic) 
frigtiare, to whimper, make a wry face. 
Of Teut. origin. From Teut. *frunjan-, 
as in Swed. dial, fryna, Norw. froyna, to 
make a wry face. (Korting, § 3324.) 

Fructiftr. (F.-L.) Y.fructifier. — l.. 

fructificdre, to make frmlful. —1^. friicti-, 

for friictus, fruit ; -flcdre, for facere, to 

make. See fruit. 

frtWfal, thrifty. (F.-L.) Y. frugal. 

— \j. friigdlis, economical; lit. belonging 
to fruits. — L.^«^-f, frugal; orig. dat. of 

frux (pi. frfiges), fruit of the earth. 
Allied to fruit. 

fruit. (F. - L.) M. E. fruit. - O. F. 
fruit. — L. fructum, ace. of fructus, fmit. 

- L. frfictus, pp. of frui, to enjoy'; 
allied to Brook (i). (VBHREUG.) 
Brugm. i. § III ; ii. I 532. 

fruition. (F. - L.) O. F. frMtion, 
enjoyment. — Late L. fruitionem, ace. of 
fruitio, enjoyment. — 'L.fruit-tes, the same 
as friictus, pp. oifritt, to enjoy. 

frumenty, furmety, wheat boiled 
in milk. (F.-L.) O.F. fromentee, f.; 
' furmenty, sodden wheat ; ' Cot. Lit. 
made with wheat; the suffix ■Je = 'L. -ata, 
made with. — O.F./y-o»2^«/, wheat. —Late 
'L.frAmentum ; 'L.friimentum, com ; allied 
to h.friiges, fruit. 
Frump, an ill-tempered person. (E.) 
Of doubtful origin ; but cf. frampold. A 
f}-ump formerly meant a 'sneer,' or 


expression of contempt. Cf. Low. Sc. 
/rumple, to AiiOT&a ; f rumple, to crease; 
frump, an imseemly fold : Dan. vrampet, 

Frustrate, to render vain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. frusirdrt, to render vain.' — 
\^.frustra, in vain ; orig. abl. fem. of obso- 
lete ad]./riisiros {==*fi-ii{il-iros), deceitful 
Allied to Fraud. 

FmstuiU, a piece of a cone or cylinder. 
(L.) 'L. frustum, a piece cut cff. Cf. Gk. 
9pavafi.a, a fragment, from Bpavetv, to break 
in pieces. Prellwitz ; Brngm. i. § 853. 

Fry (i), to dress food. (F.-L.) M. E. 
frien.^O.V. frire. — 'L. frlgere, to roast. 
Cf. Glc. <l>piy€iv, to parch; Sltt. bhrajj, to 

Pry (2), spawn of fislies. (F.— L.) 
A. F. fry ; M. E. fri, also used in the 
sense of ' offspring.' - O. F. *fri, variant 
oi froi {"P. fray), spawn; see Supp. to 
Godefroy ; cf. O. ¥.frier,froier, to spawn. 
•^h.fricare, to rub. 

Fuchsia, a flower. (G.) Named after 
Z. Fucks, German botanist, ab. 1542. 

Fudge. (F.) Picard fuche ! feuche ! 
an interjection of contempt (Corblet). 

Fuel. (F.-L.) M.E./«OT«// (Barbour). 
A. F. fewaile, O. F. fouailU (Low L. 
foallid), fuel. — Late L. focdlia, pi. of 
focdle, fuel. — L. focus, a hearth. See 

Fugitive. (F.-L.) o.P. fugitif- 

L. fugitiuus, fleeing away. ■- L. fugit-um, 
supine of fugere, to flee. + Gk. i^eii^eii', 
td flee; Skt. bhuj, to bend, turn aside. 
Allied to Bow (i). Der. cetitrifugal, 
q. V. ; febrifuge f fever-few. 

Fueleman, the leader of a 61e. (G.) 
foxflugleman. •- G. fiiigelmann, the leader 
of a wing or file of men. — O.fliigel, a wing, 
from flug, flight, from fliegen, to fly; 
mann, a man. See Ply. 

Fugue, a musical composition. (F. — 
Ital. — L.) 'P. fugue. — Itnl.fuga, a fugue, 
lit. a flight. — L. fuga, flight. See Fugi- 

Fulcmm, a point of support. (L.) 
L.fu/crum, a support. — 'L.ftifctre, to prop. 

Fulfil. (E.) M. E. fulfillen. A. S. 
fulfyllan, to fill full, fulfil. - A. S. ful, 
full ; fyUan, to fill. See Full, Fill. 

Fulgent, shining. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of L. fiilgere, to shine. + Gk. 
<pKiyuv, to burn; Slct. bhrdj, to shine. 
Der. ef 'fulgent (e^ = L. ex) ; re-fulgent. 

Fuliginous, sooty. (L.) 'L.fiilTgind- 



sUs, sooty. — h. fiilTgm-, stem of fiiltgB, 
soot. Cf. Skt. ilM-li-, dust. Allied to 
Fume. Brugm. i. § 481. 

Full (1), complete. (E.) A. S. /«</.+ 
Du. ml, Icel. fiillr, Dan. field (for full), 
Swed. full, Goth, fulls, G. voll. Tent, 
type *fulloz ; Idg. type *p)lnos. Cf. Lith, 
filnas, full, filled ; Russ. polnuii, full ; 
O. Irish Idn {<*plan), full; W. llawn; 
Skt. piima-, Pers. pur; cf. Gk. vKripris, L. 
pienus. Idg. root */»/, *;>/i?, to fill. Brugm. 
•• §§ 393» 461. J)er. fill, fulfil, fulsome. 

Full (2), to full cloth, felt. (F.-L.) 
O. F. filler, F. fouler, ' to full, or thicken 
cloath in a mill ; ' Cot. Also ' to trample 
on.' •- Late L. fulldre, (i) to cleanse 
clothes, (2) to ivi&. — 'L.fMo, a fuller. 

fuller, a bleacher of cloth. (L.) 
A, S. fullere, a bleacher. — L. fullo, a 
fuller, bleacher. (See above.) 

Fulminate, to thunder, hiirl lightning. 
(L.) Fiom pp. of Ti.fUlmindre, to thun- 
der. —L. /«/;«/»-, ior fuhnen, a thunder- 
bolt { = *fulgmen).~-'\-,. fulgere, to shine. 

Fulsome, cloying. (E.) M. B,. fulsum, 
from M. ^.ful, full ; with suflix -st!7n ( = E. 
-some as in winsome). See Full (i). 

Fulvous, Fulvid, tawny. (L.) From 
\j fuluus, tawny; Late L.y«/«!V/«j, some- 
what lawny. Cf. Yellow ; Brugm. i. 

§ 363- 

Fumble, to grope about. (Du.) Xyi 
cent. — Du. fonimelen, to fumble, -f- Swed. 
fumla (also famla) ; Dan. famle. Ap- 
parently ml is for Im ; cf. Icel. fdltha, to 
grope about, from the sb. appearing as 
A. S. folm, the palm of the hand, allied 
to L. palma ; see Palm. 
Fume. (F. - L.) O. F. fum. - L. 
fumum, ace. of fumus, smoke. + Skt. 
dhilma-, smoke ; Gk. 6vii6s, spiritj anger. 
(VDHEU.) Allied to Fuliginous. 

fumigate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
fumigdre, to fumigate. — L. fum-, for 
fumus, vapour; -igSire, for agere, to drive 

fumitory, a plant. (F.-L.) Formerly 
ftimiter. — F. fumeterre, fumitory (for 
fume de terre). — Late L. fumus terra, 
smoke of the earth ; so named from its 
abundance (and perhaps its curly appear- 
ance). Cf. G. erdrauch, fumitory, lit. 
' earth-smoke ' ; W. cwd y mtug, lit. ' bag 
of smoke.' 
Fun, merriment. (E.) XVTIl cert. It 
orig. meant ' a trick ' ; from an obs. vb. 
fun, to ch^at, hoax ; prob. from M. E. 



fon, fonne, a foolish person. See Fond, 
Cf. Irish fonn, delight, pleasure, song; 
CizA.fonn ; prob. borrowed from E. 
Funambulist, a rope-dancer. (Span. 

— L.) Formerly funambulo. — Span, fun- 
ainbulo, a funambulist. — "L.ffm-is, a rope ; 
ambul-are, to walk ; see Amble. 

Function, performance, office. (F. — 
L.) M. ?. function (T.fonction). — L. ace. 
funUionem, ■^xiorvaxaz^. — \,. functus, pp. 
ai fungi, to perform, orig. to use. + Skt. 
bhunj, to enjoy. Brugm. ii. 5 628. 

Fund, a store. (F.-L.) U.F.fond, 
' a bottom, a merchant's stock ;' Cot. — 
L. fundus, bottom; cognate with E. 

fundament, base. (F.-L.) M. E. 

ftimiement.-'O. i' . fondement, foundation. 

— 'L.funddmentum, foundation. — 1^. fund- 
are ; see Found (i). 

Funeral, relating to a burial. (F. - L.) 
OF. funeral. — Late L. funerdlis, adj., 
from 'L.funer- (for *funes-), stem oifunus, 
a burial. Hecfunere-al, fiomh fiinere-us, 

FungfUS, a spongy plant. (L.) L. 
fungus. + Gk. ffv6yyos, a sponge ; see 

Funnel. (Prov.— L.) M. E. fonel. 
Due to the Bourdeaux wine-trade. — Prov. 
founil, enfomiilh. — Late L. fmtdibulum 
(Lewis and Short) ; L. infundibulum, a 
funnel. — L. infundere, to pour in. — L. in, 
in ; fundere, to pour. Hence also Span. 
fonil, Foit. funit, and even Btet. founil. 

Fur. (F. - O. Low G.) M. E.forre. - 
O. F. forre,fuerre, a sheath, case, whence 
the vb. forrer, to line with fur ; Chaucer 
translates forree by ' furred,' R. R. 408. 
[Cf. Span, forro, lining for clothes, Ital. 
fodero, lining, fur, scabbard.] — Goth. /oi^?', 
scabbard, orig. 'protection;' \cA. foSr, 
lining ; allied to G. futter, a case, lining, 
fur.+Skt. pdtra{m), a receptacle ; cf. Gk. 
vwim, a cover. Brugm. i. § 1 74. 

Furbelow, a flounce. (F.) Prov. F. 
farbala, a flounce, in the dialect of 
Hainault (Diez) ; the usual form is F. 
Span. Ital. VoA.falbala, a flounce. Origin 

Furbish, to polish, trim. (F.-O.H.G.) 
O. F. forbiss-, inceptive stem of forbir, 
to furbish, polish. — O. H. G. *furbjan, 
M. H. G. f Urban, to purify, clean, rub 

Furl, to roll up a sail. (F.-Arab.) 
Formerly spelt furdle, farthel, to roll up 


in a bxmdie. From fardel, a bundle ; see 
Fardel. Cf. F. fardeler, 'to truss, to 
make into fardles;' Cot. \Y.ferler,Xo 
furl, is from E.] 

Furlong, ith of a mile. (E.) A. S. 
furlang, orig. a furrow-long, or the length 
of a furrow. -A. S. furh, a furrow ; lang, 

Furlough, leave of absence. (Du.— 
Scand.) Orig. vorloffe. — Du. verlof, 
leave, furlough ; the same as Dan. forlov, 
Swed. forlof, leave. Cf. G. urlaub, fur- 
lough; Dan. orlov. p. As to the prefix, 
Du. ver-, Dan. for-, Swed. for-, are the 
same as E.for- ; whilst Dan. or-, G. ur- = 
Goth, us, out. The syllable lof, leave, is 
shortened from -lof-, the equivalent of G. 
-laub; as seen in G. er-laub-en, to permit, 
and in A. S. leaf permission. See JJeave 
(2) ; also Believe, Lief. 

Furmety ; see Frumenty. 

Furnace, an oven. (F.— L.) M. E. 
forneis. — O. F. fomaise. — L. fomdcem, 
ace. of fornax, an oven. — L. fomus, an 
oven ; allied to formus, warm. Cf. Skt. 
gharma-, warmth, glow. See "Warm. 
Brugm. i. | 146. 

Furnish, to fit tip, equip. (F.— O.H.G.) 
O.V.fourniss-, inceptive stem oi fournir, 
to furnish, of which an older spelling is, 
fornir, the same word as Prov. fonnir, 
fromir. — O. H. G. frumjan, to provide, 
furnish; cf. O. H. G.fruma, utility, profit, 
gain ; G.fromm, good. Allied to Former, 
Frame. And see Veneer. 

Furrow. (E.) M. E. forwe. A. S. 
furh, a furrow.+Du. voor, Icel. for, Dan. 
fure, Swed. fare; G. furche, a furrow. 
Teut. type *furk-, f. Cf. W. rkych, a 
furrow; L. porca, a ridge between two 
furrows. Her. fur-long. 

Further. (E.) Probably the comp. 
of fore, but also explained as comp. of 
forth. M. E. furHer. A. S. furHra, adj. 
m. ; furSor, further, adv.+Du. vorders, 
adv., further ; O. Fries, fordera, adj. ; 
O. Sax. forthora, adj. ; O. H. G. fordar, 

G. vorder, adj. Teut. type *furt!iero- (i. e. 
*fur-ther-o-) answering to Gk. npo-rtp-os,. 

comp. of irpS. ^ In this view the comp. 

suffix is 'iher (Gk. -rep-). Der. further, 

vb., A. S. ^rSran, formed from furSor 

by vowel-change of u to y. 
furthest, a late form, made as the 

superl. of forth, and due to regarding 
further as the comp. of the same. The 

true superl. oi fore H first. 


Furtive. (F.-L.) M. Y.furtif, fern. 
furtive. — L. furtmus, stolen, secret. — L. 
furtum, theft. — L. fiirari, to steal. — L. 
filr, a thief. +Gk. ^lOp, a thief, allied to 
tptpfiv, to bear, carry (away). (y'BHER.) 
Brugm. ii. § 160 (3). 

Fury. (F.-L.) F. furie.-'L. furia, — h./urere, to rage. 

Furze. (E.) M.E./w. A.S./yrs; 
older ioimjyres. 

Fuscous, brown. ' (L.) L. fmc-tis, 
brown ; with suffix -ous. 

Fuse (1)1 t° ™elt by heat. (L.) A late 
word. Due to fiis-ible (in Chaucer), 
fus-ion, in Sir T. Browne. — L. fiisus, pp. 
oifundere, to ponr, melt. Allied to Gk. 
X"'" (for *xff-f"'), Goth, giutan, to pour. 
(VGHEU.) Der. fus-ible (from O. F. 
fusible) \ fus-ion. See Gush. 
, Fuse (2) ; see Fusee (i). 

Fusee (I) Fuse. (F.-L.; arital.- 

L.) ' Fuse, fusee, a pipe filled with wild- 
fire, and put into the touch-hole of a 
bomb;' Kersey (1715). i. Ftise '\%ixova 
Ital.yi/ja, a spindle, a shaft (of a column") ; 
also, a fuse. — Ij. fiisus, a spindle. 2 . Fusee 
is from F. fusie, a fusee, i. e. a spindle- 
shaped pipe ; see below. 

Aisee (2), H spindle in a watch. (F. — 
L.) O. F. fusee, orig. a spindleful of 
thread. — Late L. fusata, the same ; fem. 
of pp. of fUsare, to use a spindle. — L. 
fiisus, a spindle. 

FusU (i), a light musket. (F.-L.) 
Orig. not the musket itself, but the steel 
against which the flint struck. From F. 
fusil, ' a fire-steele for a tinder-box; ' Cot. 
Also in mod. F., a fusil. [Cf. Span, fusil, 
a. fusil.] — L. facile, a steel for kindling fire. 
— L,. focus, a hearth; see Poous. Der. 
fusil- eer, fusillade. 

Fusil (2), a spindle, in heraldry. (L.) 
A. F. fusel (see O. F. fuisel in Godefroy). 
Dimin. of 'L.fusus, a spindle. 

Fusil (3), easily molten. (L.) 'L.fiisilis, 
easily molten.— L.,^^?^, pp. oifundere, 
to pour. See Fuse (1). 

Fuss, haste, flurry. (E.) Probably of 
imitative origin, descriptive of spluttering 
and puffing. Ci. fuff, i.e. to puff, and 
hiss. ^ It cannot be connected with 
M. E. fas, adj., eager ; A. S. fus, eager, 

Fust (i), to become mouldy. (F. — L.) 
In Hamlet, iv. 4. 39. Coined from fusty 
(a. D. 1398), answering to O.F. fustS, 
' fusty, .tasting of the cask,' Cot. - O. F. 



fust, a cask ; orig. a stock, tnmk, log. — 
L.fustem, ace. olfustis, a cudgel. 

fust (2), the shaft of a column. (F.— 
L.) In Kersey (i7i5).-0. F. fust, a 
^mx^. — 'L. fustem, ace. oifustis, a cudgel, 
thick stick. 

Fustian, a kind of coarse cloth. (F. — 
Ital. — Low L. — Egypt. ) M. E. fiistane ; 
also fustian ; A. F. fustiane, fustain ; 
O. F. fuslaine. — Ital. fustagno ; Low L. 
fustdneum. — Arab, fustat, a suburb of 
Cairo, in Egypt, whence the stuff firet 
came. ^ Introduced through Genoese 

Fustigate, to cudgel. (L.) From 
pp. of L. fustigdre, to cudgel. — L. fust-, 
stem oifustis, a cudgel ; -igdre, for agere, 
to drive, wield. 

Fusty; see Fust (1). 

Futile, vain. (F.-L.) Y. futile. -l.. 
fat His, futtilis, that which easily pours 
forth, also vain, empty, futile. From L. 
*fii-, allied \o fundere, to pour; cf. Gk. 
X6«>'. See Fuse (i). 

Futtocks, certain timbers in a ship. 
(E.) ' Futtocks, the compassing timbers 
in a ship, that make the breadth of it ; ' 
Kersey (1715). Called foot-stocks in 
Florio, s. V. stamine. The first syllable 
is for foot ; futtocks is thought to be for 
foot-hooks, and was so explained in 1644 ; 
hooh referring to the bent shape of the 
timbers. Bailey gives the iorra. foot-hooks. 

Future, about to be. (F.-L.) O.F. 
futur, iem. future. — 'L. futHrus, about to 
be ; fut. part, from fu-i, I was ; allied to 
Be. (VBHEU.) 

Fuzsball, a spongy fungus. (E.) Cf 
prov. E. fuzzy, fozy, light and spongy ; 
Low G. fussig, loose, weak ; Du. voos, 

FyUbt, a peculiarly formed cross. (E.) 
Modern; and due to a mistake. MS.Lansd. 
874, leaf 190, has fylfot, meaning a space 
in a painted window at the bottom, that 
flls the foot. Erroneously connected with 
the ' gammadioQ.' 

Gabardine, Gaberdine. (Span.- 
Teut.) Span, gabardina, a coarse frock.. 
We also find M. E. gawbardyne ; which is 
from O.F. galvardine, guahiardine, a 
loose frock. Perhaps a ' pilgrim's' frock ; 
from M.H.O. walfart (G, ■wallfahrt). 


pilgrimage; — M. H.G. wa/Im, to ■wander ; 
fart, travel, ftomfaian, to go {J&,fare). 

Gabble, to prattle. (E.) Frequent, of 
gab, to prattle. Of imitative origin ; of. 
jabber, ^ The M. E. gabben, to mock, is 
from O. F. gaber, to mock, which is also 
perhaps of imitative origin, or is allied to 

Gabion. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. gabion, 
a gabion, large basket filled with earth. — 
Ital. gabbione, a gabion; augment, of 
gabbia, a cage, also spelt ^n^M, and allied 
to Span, gavia, a cage (for madmen). 

— L. cauea, a hollow place, cage, den, 
coop ; see Cage. 

Gable, a peak of a house-top. (F.— 
Scand.) M. E. gable. - O. F. gable. — Icel. 
ga^, Dan. gavl, Swed. gafvel, a gable.+ 
A. S. geafel, a fork ; Du. gaffel, a fork ; 
G. gabel, a fork. Further allied to O. Irish 
gabul, a fork, gallows ; W. gajl, the fork 
of the thighs. With a different gradation, 
we find Goth, gibla, pinnacle, G. giebel, 
Dn. gevel, gable; O. H. G. gebal, head, 
Gk. Kti^aA?;, head (root-form *ghebh-). See 

Gaby, a simpleton. (Scand.) M. Dan. 
gabe, a fool ; Dan. dial, gabenar, a sim- 
pleton, allied to Dan. gabe, to gape (Dan. 
nar means 'fool'). Cf. Icel. gapi, a 
heedless man ; gapamttSr (lit. gape- 
mouthed), the same ; Icel. gapa, to gape ; 
Norw. gapa, stupid. 

Gad (i), a wedge of steel, goad. (Scand.) 
M. £. gad, a goad. — Icel. gaddr, a goad, 
spike, sting; cognate with Goth, gazds, 
a rod, Irish gath, L. hdsta, a spear. 

gad (2), to ramble idly. (Scand.) In 
Levins. The org. sense was to run about. 

— Icel. gadda, to goad. — Icel. gaddr 
(above). Cf. ore //5« ^aii?, on the move. 

Gaff, a light fishing-spear, a sort of 
boom. (F.— Teut.) A ship's ^a^is named 
from ihe forked end against the mast ; the 
fishing-spear is hooked. — O. F. gajfe, a 
gaff, iron hook. — Low G. gaffel, a two- 
pronged hay-fork ; E. Fries, gaffel, a fork, 
a ship's gaff; Du. gaffel, a pitchfork, 
ship's gaff. Allied to G. gabel, a fork. See 

Gaffer, an old man, grandfather. (F. — 
L. ; and E.) From gramfer. West E. 
form oi grand-father. See Gammer. 

Gagi (E.) M. E. gaggen, to suffocate. 
Apparently of imitative origin ; cf. gaggle, 
guggle. Also, W. cegio, to choke; ceg, 
the mouth. 


Gage (i), a pledge. (F. -Teut.) M.E. 
gage. — Y.gage, a pledge (Low L. uadium). 
- Tent. *wadjom, n., a pledge; as in Goth. 
u:adi, A. S. wed, a pledge. See Wed ; 
and see Wage. From the same source 
are Ital. gaggio. Span, and Poit. gage, 
a pledge. 

Gage (2), to gauge ; see Gauge. 

Gaggle, to cackle as geese, (E.) A 
frequent, form from the imitative base ^ffl^. 
Cf. cackle, gabble; also Icel. gagl, a vvild 
goose ; gagg, the cry of a fox ; Lith. 
gageti, to gaggle. 

Gaiety. (F.-Teut.) F. gaiet^.-Y. 
puif gay. See Gay. 

Gain (i), profit. (F.-Teut.) O.F. 
gain, F. gagne, from the verb below. [It 
partly displaced the M. E. gain, advantage, 
which was of Scand. origin ; from Icel. 
gngn, gain, advantage ; Swed.^^«, profit, 
Dan. gavn^. 

gain (2), to win. (F.-Teut.) 'Yea, 
though he gaine and cram his purse with 
crunes ; ' and again, ' To get a game by 
any trade or kinde ; ' Gascoigne, Fruits 
of War, St. 69 and st. 66. — O.F. gaigner, 
F. gagner, to gain. This F. gagner, O. F. 
gaagnier (Ital. giiadagnare), is from 
O. H. G. weidenon > weidenen, to pas- 
ture, which was the orig. sense of the F. 
word ; from O. H. G. weida (G. weide") , 
pasture-ground. Cognate with G. weide are 
A. S. wdS, Icel. veiSr, hunting, the chase. 
Cf. L. ue-nari, to bunt. Der. regain. 

Gainly ; see Ungainly, 

Gainsay, to speak against. (Scand. and 
, E.) The prefix is Icel. ^is^«, against; cf. 
A. S. gegn, geati ; see Against. 

Gait, manner of walking. (Scand.) A 
particular use of M, E. gate, a way ; see 
Gate (2). See also Gantlet (2). 

Gaiter, u covering for the ankle. (F.- 
Teut.) F. gtiHre, ioiraeily guestre (Cot.). 
The spelling with ^< shews the word to 
be Teutonic (gu<,G. w). Origin doubt- 
ful; possibly allied to M. H. G. westery 
a child's chrisom-cloth, lit. a covering ; 
Goth, wasti, clothing; see Vest. 

Gala. (F.-Ital.-M.H. G.) F. gala^ 
borrowed from Ital. gala, festive attire ; 
whence di gala, merrily ; cf. galante, gay, 
lively. See Gallant. 

Galaxy, the milky way. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M.E. galaxie. — 0.¥. galaxie. — 'L. ga- 
laxiam, ace. oi galaxias. — CV. -^aXa^m, 
milky way. — Gk. 70^0*1-, for 7oA.a«T-, 
stem of 7ii^a, milk. See Lacteal. 


Gale (i), a strong wind. (Scand.) 
XVI cent. Of doubtful origin; but cf. 
Dan. gal, furious; Norweg. ein gakn 
itomi, n. furious storm, eit galet veer, 
stormy weather, Cf. Icel. galinn, furious, 
from gala, to cry out. See Yell. Note 
F. galerne, a north-west wind. 
Gale (2), tlie bog-myrtle. (E.) A. S. 
gagel.-^Tlsi.. gagel. 
Galeated, helmeted. (L.) 'L.galeatus. 
— L. galea, a helmet. 

. Galingale, the pungent root of a 
plant. (K - Span. - Arab. - Peis.) M. E. 
galingale. — O. F. galingal, garingal. — 
.Span, galanga, galingale. — Arab, kha- 
lanjan, galingale. — Pers. hhulanjan, galin- 
gale ; said to be of Chinese origin. 
Galiot ; see Galliot. 
Gall(i),bile. (E.) U.'E.galle. O.Merc. 
galla. + Du. gal, Icel. gall, Swed. galla, 
Dan. galde (for galle), G. galle; 'L. fel, 
Gk. xo^i?- Allied to Yellow. Cf. Russ. 
jelch{e), gall {j=:zh) ; jelluii, yellow. 

Gall (2), to rub a sore place. (F- — L-) 
M.F.galler ; M. F. galle, a galling, itching. 
Cf. Ital. galla, gala, ' a disease called a 
windgalle ; ' Florio. Also Late L. galla, 
a soft tumour ; app. the same word as L. 
galla, a gall-nut ; see below. % But also 
partly E. ; cf. A. S. gealla, (i) gall, bile, 
(2) a gall on a horse. So also Du. gal. 
See above. 
Gall (3), a gall-nut. (F.-L.) O. F. 
galle. — 'L. galla, a gall-nut, oak-apple. 

Gallant, gay, splendid, brave. (F.— 
M. H.G.) O. F. gallant, better galant, 
with one /. Orig. pres. part, of O. F. 
galer, to rejoice. — O. F. gale, shows, mirth, 
festivity. (Cf. Ital. Span. Port, gala, 
festive attire.) Perhaps from M. H. G. 
wallen, O. H. G. ivallon, to go on pilgrim- 
Galleon, a large galley. (Span.) Span. 
^galeon, a galleon. — Late L. galea, a galley. 
See Galley. 

Gallery. (F.) 'ili.Y.gaUerie,galerie, 
a gallery to walk in. — Late L. galena, a 
long portico, gallery. Of unknown origin ; 
possibly from Gk. kSKov, wood, timber 
(Korting). See below. 
Galley, a low-built ship. (F.-Late L. 
-Gk.?J U.'E.galeie.-O.T.galie; Late 
1.. galea, a galley ; Late Gk. yaXia, ya\aia. 
Orig. unknown. Korting suggests Gk. 
uaKov, wood, also sometimes a ship. 

GaUiard, a lively dance. (Span. — C?) 
Span, gallarda (with // as ly), a kind of 


lively Spanish dance ; perhaps through 
F. ; cf. galop gaillard, ' the galliard ; ' 
Cot. — Span, gallardo, gay, lively. M, F. 
gaillard meant valiant or bold; perhaps 
of Celtic origin ; cf. Bret, galloud, power, 
W. gallad, able, gallu, to be able; O. 
Irish gal, boldness (Thurneysen). 

Gallias, a sort of galley. (F. - Ital. - 
Late L.) O. F. galeace.—Jtal. galeazza, a 
heavy galley. — Ital. aud Late L. galea ; 
see Galley. 

Galligaskins, large hose or trousers. 
(F. — Ital. — L.) Corruption of F. gar- 
guesques, gregiiesques, ' slops, gregs, gallo- 
gascoins, Venitians;' Cot, — Ital. Grechesco, 
Greekish. — Ital. Greco, a Greek. — L. 
Grscus, Greek. The name was given 
to a particular kind of hose worn at 

Gallinaceous. (L.) L. gallmsce-tis, 

belonging to poultry ; with .suffix -ous. — 
L. gallina, a hen.— L. gallus, a cock. 

Galliot, small galley. (F,— Late L.) 
O. Y.galiote; Late L galeota, small galley; 
dimin. oi galea ; see Galley. 

Gallipot, a small glazed earthen pot. 
(F.) From galley and pot, as being 
brought over in galleys. So also galley- 
tile ; cf. galy-halfpeny, a galley-halfpenny, 
coin brought over by galley-men, who 
landed wines at a place called Galley-key 
(Thames Street). 

Gallon, (F.) M. E. galon, galun. - 
O. F. gallon, jalon, a gallon ; orig. ' a large 
bowl;' augmentative form of the word 
which appears as mod. F. jale, a bowl. 
Orig. unknown. 

Galloon. (F.— M. H. G.) F. galon, 
' galoon-lace,' Cot. ; cf. O. F. galoner, to 
adorn the head (with ribbons, &c.). [Also 
Span, galon, galloon.] — O.F. gale, Span. 
gala, festivity ; see Gallant. 

Gallop. (F.-Teut.) M.-'E. galopen; 
also spelt walopen. — O. F. galoper, vb. ; 
galop, ivalop (Bartsch), sb. [Hence was 
borrowed O. H. G. walopieren, to gallop ; 
so that it is not of O. H. G. origin.] 
The sb. seems to have been due to Low G. 
elements; and meant 'Celtic running.'— 
O. Sa.x. Walk, a Celt ; and hWpan, to run, 
to leap. See further under Walnut and 
Xieap, ^ The Norw. vallhopp, a gallop, 
is only a modem adaptation ; as if ' field- 

Gallow, to terrify. (E.) King Lear, 
iii. 2. 44. M. E. gttlwen. A. S. 
to terrify ; in comp. agcelwan. 



Galloway, a nag, pony! (Scotland.) 
Named from Galloway, Scotland. 

Gallowglas, Galloglas, a heavy- 
armed foot-soldier. (Irish.) Irish gallo- 
glach, a servant, a galloglas. — Irish gall, 
a foreigner, an Englishman; .oglach, a 
youth, servant, soldier (from- og, young, 
O. Ir. Sac, oc, cognate with E. young). 
It meant ' an English servitor,' as explained 
by Spenser, View of the State of Ireland, 
Globe ed. p. 640. (See N. and Q. 6 S. x. 


Gallows. (E.) M. E..f«/zy«j, pi. A.S. 
galga, gealga, cross, gibbet ; whence mod. 
E. gallmv, the s being the pi. termina- 
tion. +Icel. gdlgi, Dan. Swed. galge, Du. 
galg, Goth, galga, a cross, G. galgen. 
Teut. type *galgon- ; cf. Lith. ialga, a 
pole {i = zlC). 

Galoche, a kind of shoe. (F. — Late L. 

— Gk.) F. galoche, answering to a 
Romance type *galopia, *calopia ; formed 
from *calopus, sing, of Late L. calopodes, 
wooden shoes ; we also find Late L. 
calopedia (see Brachet), a clog, wooden 
shoe, and calopodium. — Gk. aaAoTroSioi', 
dimin. of KoKh-novs, ica\6.irovSj a shoemaker's 
last. — Gk. naKo-v, wood; jrou's, a foot. 

Galore, in plenty. (C.) Irish goleor, 
Gael, gti leor, gu leoir, sufficiently. Formed 
from Irish and Gael, leor, sufficient, by 
prefixing go or gu, lit. ' to,' but used to 
turn an adj. into an adverb. 

Gait (i), Gault, clay and marl. 
(Scand.) Norweg. gald, hard ground, 
a place where ground is trodden hard ; 
Icel. gald, hard-trodden snow. 

Gait (2), a boar-pig. (Scand.) M.E. 
gait. — Icel. gbltr, galti ; Swed. Dan. gait, 
a hog. Cf O. H. G. galza, a sow. 

Galvanism. (Ital.) Named from 
Galvani of Bologna, Italy ; about A. D. 

Gambado, an E. substitution for F. 
gambade ; see Gambol. 

Gambit, an opening at chess. (F.— 
Ital. — L.) F. gainbii. — \ta\. gambetto, a 
tripping up. — Ital. gamba, the leg ; see 

Gam.ble. (E.) A late word, put for 
gammle ot gam-le, a frequent, form which 
has taken the place of M. E. gamenen, to 
play at games. — A. S. gamenian, to play at 
games ; from gamen, a game. See Game. 

Gam.boge. (Asiatic.) A corruption of 
Cambodia, in the Annamese territory, 
whence it was brought after A. D. 1600. 



Gambol, a frisk, caper. (F.-Ital.-L.) 
Formerly gambold, gambauld, gambaud. — 
M. F. gambade, 'a garaboll;' Cot. — Ital. 
gambata, a kick. - Ital. gamba, the leg ; 
the same as F. jambe, O. F. gambe. Late 
L. gamba, a joint cf the leg. Cf. Gael, 
and W. cam, crooked, answering to O. 
Celt. *kambos (fem. *kambd), crooked; 
Stokes-Fick, 78. 

Game. (E.) M. E. game, also gamen. 
A. S. gamen, sport. + Icel. gaman, Dan. 
gammen, M. Swed. gamman, O. H. G. 
gatnan, joy, mirth. See Gammon (2). 

Gammer, an old lady, grandmother. 
(F. — L. ; and E.) For grammer, West. 
E. form oi grand-mother. 

Gammon (i), the preserved thigh of a 
hog. (F. — L.) M.E. gambon. A. F. 
gambon (F. jamboii), a gammon; from 
O. F. gambe, leg. See Gambol. 

Gammon (2), nonsense; orig. a jest. 
(E.) M. E. gamen, a game ; see Game. 
And see Backgammon. 

Gamut. (F. — Gk. ; flK(/ L.) Corap. 
of O. F. game, gamme, and ut. Here 
gamme represents the Gk. yafifia (7), 
because the musical scale was represented 
by a, b, c, d, e, f, g, the last being ^=7. 
Ut is the old name (or do, the 1st note in 
singing, because it began an old hymn to 
St. John, ' Ut queant laxis,' &c., used in 
learning singing. Gamut is the scale, 
from 7 (,?•) to ttt {a). 

Gander. (E.) M. E. gandre. A. S. 
gandra, also spelt ganra (the d being, in 
fact, excrescent). ■4- Du. gander. Cf. also 
Low G. gante, a gander (see ganta in 
Pliny). Teut. type *ganron-, m. Allied 
to Gannet and Goose. 

Gang (i), a crew of persons. (E.) 
A. S. ga7ig, a going, progression ; but the 
sense was affected by the related word 
genge, a gang. 

gang (2), to go. (Scand.) IcA. ganga,, 
to go ; cf. A. S. gattg, a going, path, 
course (whence E. gang-way) ; see Go. 

Ganglion, a tumour on a tendon. (L. 
— Gk.) L. ganglion. — G^. yayyKiov. 

Gangrene, a mortification of the flesh. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) M. F. gangrene. — L. gan- 
grtena. — Gk. yayypaiva, an eating sore. 
Allied to yep-av, an old man, from 
Vy^P> to grow old; cf. Skt. jaras, old 
age. jaraya, to consume (see Prellwitz). 

Gannet, solan goose, a sea-fowl. (E.) 
A. S. ganot.+Lovf G. gante, Du. gent, a 
gander ; M. H. G. ganze, O. H. G. ganazo, 


a gander. From a base ^a«-'; see 

Gantlet (i) ; see Gauntlet. 

Gantlet (2), Gantlope, a military 
pnnishment. (Swed.) ¥oxma\y gantlope ; 
corrupted by confusion with gauntlet. 
Again, gantlope is a corruption of Swed. 
gatlopp, lit. ' a running down a lane ; ' to 
' run the gantlope ' is to run between two 
files of soldiers, who strike the offender as 
he passes. — Swed. g(Ua, a lane, street (see 
Gate (2)); and lopp, a running, from lopa, 
to run, cognate with E. Ijeap. 

Gaol, Jail, a cage, prison. (F.-L.) 
A. F. gaole, geiole (F. gedle), a prison, 
birdcage. — Late L. gabiola, caveola, a 
cage, dimin. of L. cauea, a den, cave, 
cage. — L. cauus, hollow ; see Cage. 

Gap. (Scand.) M. E. ^n//^. — Icel. and 
Swed. gap, a gap, abyss. — Icel. and Swed. 
gapa, lo gape (below). 

gape. (Scand.) M. E. ^a/e«. — Icel. 
and Swed. gapa, Dan. gabe.-\-Y.. Fries, and 
Dn. gapen, G. gaffen, Cf. Skt. Jabh, 
jambh, to gape. 

Gar (i), Garfish, a fish. (E.) A fish 
with slender body and pointed head. 
From A. S. gar, a. spear ; cf. Garlic. So 
also pike, ged. 

Gar (2), to cause. (Scand.) YctX.g^rua 
(Noreen), Swed. gbra, Dan. gjore, to 
make, cause ; lit. to make ready. — Icel. 
g6rr,gorr, ready; see Yare. 

garb (1), dress. (F.-O. H. G.) In 
Shak. — O. F. garbe, a garb, good fashion. 
— O. H. G. garawT, garwl, dress, prepara- 
tion ; cf. O. H. G. garawen, M. H. G: 
ganven, to get ready. — O. H. G. garo, 
ready ; cognate with E. yare ; see Gear. 

Garb (2), a wheatsheaf, in heraldry. 
(F.— O. H. G.) A. F. and Picard garbe, 
F. gerbe, a sheaf. — O. H. G. garba (G. 
garbe), a sheaf Lit. ' what is grabbed ' 
or caught up into a bundle by grasping. 
Cf. E. grab, Swed. grabba, to grasp ; Skt. 
grah, Vedic grabh, to seize. Brugm. i. 

§ 531- 

garbage, refuse. (F. - O. H. G.) 
M. E. garbage, entrails of fowls. This 
agrees in form with O. F. garbage, gerbage, 
a tax paid in garbs or sheaves. Prob. 
similarly formed from O. F. garbe, in the 
sense of ' handful,' small bundle, a sense 
which occurs for Low L. garba. 

Garble, to select for a purpose ; hence, 
to corrupt an account. (F. — Span. — Arab.) 
Orig. to pick out, sort, sift out.-O. Y.gar- 


beller (see N. E. D.), the same zsgrabeller, 
to garble or sort out spices, orig. to sift. 
The same as Span, garbillar, Ital. garbel- 
lare, to garble or sift wares. — Span, gar- 
billo, a coarse sieve. — Pers. gharbil, Arab. 
ghirbdl, a sieve ; Arab, gharbalat, sifting, 
searching. Rich. Diet. p. 1046. 

Garboil, a commotion. (F.) M. F. 
garbouil, 'a garboil, hurliburly;' Cot. 
Cf. Span, garbullo, a crowd ; Ital. gar- 
buglio, a garboil, disorder. Of unknown 
origin. Prob. imitative. Florio has Ital. 
garabullare, to rave. 

Garden. (F. - O. Prankish.) M. E. 
gardin. - A. F., O. North F. and Picard 
gardin, F. jardin. — O. Frank, gardin 
(O. H. G. gartin), gen. and dat. of gardo, 
a yard, cognate with E. Yard, q. v. Cf. 
O. H. G. gartin-dri, a gardener. 

Garfish; see Gar (i). 

Gargle. (F. -Late L.-Gk.) Modified 
from F. gargouiller, ' to gargle ; ' Cot. — 
F. gargouille, the weasand of the throat, 
also a gargoyle, or mouth of a spout. So 
also Span, gargola, a gargoyle ; Ital. gar- 
gosza, the gullet. From an imitative base 
garg-, as seen in L. garg-ariznre, to gargle, 
from Gk. ya/iy-api^eLV, to gargle ; cf. Gk. 
yapyapdiv, the uvula. Hence also Ital. 
gargagliare, to murmur, gargatta, the 
throat. The parallel L. base is gurg- ; 
see Gorge, Gurgle. 

gargoyle, a spout. (F.-L.) F. gar- 
goidlle (above). 

Garish, staring, showy. (E.) Also 
formerly spelt gaitrisk. Allied to M. E. 
gauren, to stare (Chaucer). Cf. M. E. 
gawen, to stare ; Icel. ga, to heed, mark. 

Garland. (F.-Teut.?) M.'E. gerlond. 

— O. F. garlande. Cf Span, guirnalda, 
Ital. ghirlanda (whence Mod. F. guir- 
lande), a garland. Prob. formed, with 
suffix -ande, from M. H. G. *wierelen, 
frequentative of wieren, to adorn, from 
O. H. G. wiara, M. H. G. wiere, refined 
gold, fine ornament, crown. Cf 'Wire. 

Garlic, a plant. (E.) A. S. garleac, 
lit. ' spear- leek.' — A. S. gar, a spear ; leac, 
a leek, plant. See Gore (3) and Leek. 

Garment. (F.-O. Low G.) M.E. 
garnement. — O. F. garnement, garniment, 
a robe (defence). — O. F. garnir, to pro- 
tect ; see Garnish. 

Garner. (F.-L.) M.E. gamer. - 

O. Y.gernier, variant oigrenier, a granary. 

— L. grdndrium, a granary. — L. granum, 
corn ; see Grain. 



garnet, (F.— L.) 11.%. game/, also 
spelt granat. — O. F. granate ; M. F. 
grenat, ' a. precious stone called a granat 
or garnet,' Cot.j Late L. grdnSttis. So 
Galled from its resemblance to the seeds of 
the pojnegranate, or malum grandtum, 
lit. seeded apple. — L. grdnum, a grain, 

Garnish.. (F. — O.LowG.) AXsowar- 
nish. — O. F. garnis-, wamis-, stem of 
pres. pt. o{ garnir, warnir, to defend one- 
self, fortify, garnish. — O. Frank. *ivam- 
jan \ cf. O. H. G. warnon, M. H. G. 
warnen, to guard against, provide one- 
self with ; cf. O. H. G. warna, foresight, 
care. See Warn. 

garniture. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 
garniture, garnishment. — Low L. gaml- 
tura. — Low L. garmtus, orig. pp. of 
garmre, to adorn, which is merely a 
Latinised form of O. F. garnir (above). 

Garret. (F. — G.) M. E. garite. — 
O. F. garite (F. guirit^, place of refuge, 
watch-tower. — O. F. garir, warir, to 
preserve. — O. H. G. warjan, to defend. 
Allied to 'Weir. 

Garrison. (F.— O.LowG.) Confused 
with M. E. garisoun, laarisoun, a reward ; 
but the true form is M. E. garuison, war- 
nison, defence, stores, supply. — O. F. 
gamison, store, supply. — O. Y.gamis-ant, 
pres. pt. of garnir, to supply, garnish ; 
see Grarnish. And see Warison. 

Ga-rrote, Garrotte. (Span. — C.) 

^'gaa.garrote, a cudgel, tying a rope tight, 
strangling by means of an iron collar. 
Formed, with dimin. suiifix -ote, from Span. 
garra, a claw, talon, clutch, grasp. — 
Bret., W., and Corn, gar, the shank of 
the leg (Diez). See Garter. 

Garrulons. (L.) L. gamilus, talk- 
ative. —L. garrire, to chatter. Brugm. i, 

Garter. (F.-C.) A.¥. garter; O.F. 
gartier (North of France, Hecart), spelt 
jartier in Cotgrave (^ . jarretih-e'). — . F. 
and Haxva. garel {?. jarret), the ham of 
the leg ; a dimin. form. — Bret, gar, W. 
gar, shank of the leg ; Celt, type *garris. 

Gas. (Du.) The Belgian chemist Van 
Helmont (died A. D. 1644) invented two 
terms, gas and bias; the latter did not 
come into use. He tells us that gas was 
suggested by the Gk. xaos. See N. E. D. 

6asC0I).ade, boasting. (Gasoony.) F. 
gasconnade, boasting ; said to be a vice of 
Gascons ; at any rate named from them. 


Gash, to hack, cut deeply. (F. — Late L. 

— Gk.) Formerly garsh, garse. — O. F. 
garser, to scarify, pierce with a laocet. — 
Late L. caraxare, short for incaraxdre, 
incharaxare, to pierce, incise. Cf. Late L. 
garsa, scarification, by making incisions 
in the skin, called in Gk. eyxo-P^i" i 
whence the Late L. vb. was formed. See 

Gasp. (E.) M. E. gasfen, gaispen. 
The latter answers to leel. geispa, Swed. 
gaspa, to yawn (cf. Dan. gispe). The 
former represents the cognate A. S. *gdS' 
pan (not found). Icel. geispa is for *geip- 
sa ; cf. Du. gijpen, tp gasp; A. S. gipung, 
a gaping. 

Gastric, belonging to the belly. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. ycuXTpi^, from yaarrip, 
the belly. 

Gate (i), a door, hole, opening. (E.) 
M.E. gate, yate. A.S.gtel, geat, a gate, 
opening (whence M. E. yate) ; pi. gatn 
(whence M. E. gate). + Du. gai, a hole, 
opening, gap ; O. Fries., O. Sax., Icel. 
gat, an opening. 

Gate (2), a street. (Scand.) Common 
in tlie North ; it also means ' a way." -m 
Icel. gata, Swed. gata, a way, path, street, 
lane ; Dan. gade ; cf. Goth. gaiwS, G. 
gasse. Perhaps allied to Gate (i), and 
also to the vb. Go. j3. Gate (i) answers 
to Teut, type *gatom, n., but gate (2) to 
Teut. type *gatiadn-, f. See Gait and 
Gantlet (2). 

Gather. (E.) M. E. gaderen. A. S. 
gaderian, gmdrian, to collect, get together. 

— A. S. gader-, together; also gador--, 
geador. + Du. gaderen, to collect, from 
{ie)gader, together. Cf. A. S. gied, a com- 
pany, society (whence also A. S. giede- 
ling, a comrade ; ge-gada, a companion) ; 
Du. gade, a spouse, G. gatte, a husband ; 
Goth. gadiliggs, a cousin. Perhaps allied 
to Good. 

Gand, a show, ornament. (L.) M. E. 
gatide. — l,. gauditim, g[si.iness,]oy ; hence, 
an ornament. — L. gaudere, to rejoice (base 
gauid-, as in gdulstis sum, used as pt. t.). 
+Gk. frfiUiv, to rejoice ; allied to yaUai 
( = yaF'^eiv), to rejoice ; yavpos, proud. 
Brugm. i. § 589 ; ii. § 694. Der. gaud-y, 

Gauge, Gage, to measure the conteni 
of a vessel. (F,-Low L.) Spelt gage in 
Shak. - O. North F. ganger, F. jauger, ' to 
gage,' Cot, - O. North F. gauge, F. 
jauge, ' a gage, instrument wh?rewith a 



cask is measured,' Cot. ; Low L. gaugia 
(a.d. 1446). Of unknown origin. 

Gaunt, thin, lean. (Scand.?) An East- 
Anglian word ; perhaps Scand. Also spelt 
gani (1691). Cf. Norweg. gand, a thin 
stick, a tall and thin man, an overgrown 
stripling (Aasen) ; Swed. dial, gank, a lean, 
half-starved horse (Rietz). Doubtful. 

Gauntlet. (F.- Scand.) O.Y.gante- 
let, a double dimin. of gant, a glove. — O. 
Swed. wante, a glove ; Dan. vante, a 
mitten, Icel. voitr (stem vanla-), a glove. 
Cf. Dli. ivanl, a mitten (prob. borrowed 
from Scand). Prob. from "Wmd, verb 
(Noreen) ; cf. G.gewand, a garment ; Low 
G. want, cloth (Liibben). 

Gauntlet ; see Gantlet (2). 

Gauze, a thin silken fabric. (F.— 
Palestine.) M .V . gnsse ; Span, ^ara. Cf. 
Low L. gazzatum, gauze ; gazeium, wine 
from Gaza. Said to be from Gaza, in 
Palestine, whence it v/as first brought. 

Gavelidnd, a sort of tenure. (E.) 
M. E. gauelkynde ; answering to an A. S. 
form *gafol-cynd. — A. S. gafol, tribute, 
payment ; and cynd, kind, sort, condition. 
TJie A. S. ^1^-0/ (whence Low L. gahthwi) 
is from Teut. *gab, 2nd grade of Give, q. v. 

Gavial, the crocodile of the Ganges. 
(F. — Hind.) Y. gavial {3. corrupt form). 

— l^KxA. ghariydl, a crocodile. 
Gavotte, a dance. (F.) M. F. gavote, 

orig. a dance of the Gavots. Gavot is a 
sobriquet, in Provence, of the moun- 
taineers of the Alps (see Hatzfeld) . 

Gawk, Gawky, awkward. (F.— 
Scand.) From E. dial, gawk-handed, 
gaalick-AandedjleA-handeA; gawk, clumsy. 
Here gawk is short for gaul-ick, where 
-ick is a suffix. Of F. origin ; cf. Burgund. 
gSk, numb- with cold, said of the fingers. 

— Swed. Dan. valen, benumbed; whence 
Swed. dial, val-hdndt, Norw. val-hendt, 
having numbed hands. *[f Prob. not from 
V.gaucke (N. E. D.). 

Oa.y. (F. - O. H. G.) 0. F. gai. - 
O. ri. G. wahi, fine, beautiful. 

Gaze. (Scand,) M. E. gasen. — Swed. 
dial, gasa, to gaze, stare at. 

Gazelle, an animal. (F. — Span. — 
Arab.) Formerly gazel. — O. F. gazel, 
gazelU. — Span, gacela. — Atab. ghazdl, a 
wild goat, gazelle. 

Gazette. (F. — Ital.) O.V.gazet/e,an 
abstract of news, issued at Venice. — Ital.. 
gazzetta, a gazette ; the orig. sense is 
either (i) a magpie, from Ital. gazzetta, 



a magpie, dimin. of gazza, a magpie, 
whence it may have meant ' tittle-tattle ' ; 
or (2) a very small coin (perhaps paid for 
the privilege of reading the news), from 
Ital. gazzetta, a coin less than a farthing, 
probably from Gk. 7afa, a treasury. 

Gear, dress, harness, tackle. (Scand.) 
M. E. gere. — Icel. gervi, gorvi, gear, 
apparel. Cf. girr, geyrr, skilled, dressed, 
pp. of gora, to make.+A. S. geaiive, fern. 
pi., preparation, dress, ornament; A. S. 
gearo, ready; see Tare. And see Gar 
(2), Garb (i). 

Geek, a dupe. (Du.) In Tw. Nt. v. 
351. — Du. gek, formerly geek, a fool, sot; 
cf. G. geek, the same ; Dan. gjek, fool ; 
Icel. gikkr, a pert, rude person. ^ Not 
to be confused with A. S. geae, cuckoo ; 
nor with gowk ; nor with gawky. 

Gecko, a nocturnal lizard. (Malay.) 
Also F. gecko. — Malay gekoq, a gecko ; 
so named from an imitation of its cry. 

Ged, the fish called a pike. (Scand.) 
Icel. gedda, Swed. gddda, Dan. giedde, a 
ged; allied to ^3(iij'/-, a goad; see Gad (i). 
Named from the sharp, thin head ; hence 
also caWeA fike. 

Gelatine. (F. — Ital.-L.) i\ gelatine, 
Icind of jelly. — Ital. gelatina. — L. gelatiis, 
pp. of gelare, to freeze. — L. gelu, frost ; 
see Gelid. 

Geld, to emasculate. (Scand.) M.E. 
gelddn. — Icel. gelda, Dan. gilde, Swed. 
gdlla (for gdlda) ; cf. Icel. geldr, Swed. 
gall, barren. Perhaps related to Goth. 
giltha, a sickle. Cf. Gait (a). Der. 
geld-ing, from Icel. gelding, the same. 

Gelid, cool. (L.) L. gelidus. — L. gehi, 
frost. Allied to Cool. Brugm. i. § 481. 

Gem. (F. — L.) M. E. gemme. - F. 
gemme, — L. gemma, a bud ; also a gem, 
jewel. Brugm. i. § 413 (4). 

Gemini. (L.) L. gemini, twins; pi. 
oi geminns, double. 

Gender (i), kind. (F.-L.) M.E. 

gendre (with excrescent d). — O. F. genre, 
kind. — L. genere, abl. case of genus, kind, 
kin. ^ The unusual deriv. from the abl. 
case is due to the common phrases genere 
natus, hoc genere, omni genere ; so also 
Ital. genere, kind. 

Slender (2), to produce. (F. — L.) 
M. E. gendren. — O. F. gendrer (Gode- 
hof). — \^. generdre, to beget. — L. gener-, 
for *genes, stem of genus (above). And 
see Eagender. 
Genealogy. (F.-L. -Gk.) M.E. 


geiuaJogie. — O. F. genealogie. — L. gened- 
/ogia. — Gk. ycvcaXoyia, an account of a 
family, pedigree (i Tim. i. 4). — Gk. yevci, 
birth (allied to 7e'i'os, see genus) j and 
Xo7ia, an account, allied to \6yos (see 
General, relating to a genus, common. 
(F. — L.) O. F. general. — L. generalis, 
belonging to a genus (stem gener-, for 
*genes) ; see genus. Hence general, sb., 
a leader ; general-issimo, from ii:^. general- 
issimo, a supreme commander, with snperl. 
suffix -issimo. 

generate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

generare, to produce. — L. gener-, decl. 
stem oi genus. 

generic, pertaining to a genus. (L.) 
Coined from L. gener-, decl. stem of 

generous. (F.-L.) O.Y.genereus, 
later ginireux. — L. generosus, (properly) 
of noble birth. — L. gener-, as above. 

Genesis, creation. (L. — Gk.) L. 
genesis. — Gk. fevecris, origin, source; 
related to vctos, race ; see genus. 

Genet, an animal. (F. — Span. — Arab.) 
F. genette, ' a kind of weesell ; ' Cot. — 
Span, gineta. — Kmb. Jarneit (Dozy). 

Genial. (F. — L.) O-Y. genial. — 1,. 
genidlis, pleasant ; adj. from genius ; see 

Genicnlate, jointed. (L. ) In botany. 
From L. geniculum, a little knee, joint in 
a plant; double dimin. of genii, a knee. 
Allied to Knee. 

Genie, a demon ; see Jinn. 

Genital. (F. - L.) O. F. genital. - L. 
genitalis, generative. — L. genit-um, supine 
oigignere, to beget. 

genitive. (F.-L.) 0.¥. genitif.— 
L. genetiuus, belonging to birth, applied 
in grammar to a certain case of nouns. — 
L. genitum (above). 

genius, inborn faculty. (L.) L. 
genius, the tutelar spirit of any one ; also 
wit, lit. ' inborn nature.' Allied to genus. 

Gennet ; see Jennet. 

Genteel. (F.-L.) XVI cent.; F. 
gentil. — L. gentllis, belonging to the same 
clan, a gentile (afterwards applied to mean 
well-bred, &c.). — L. genti-, decl. stem of 
gens, a clan, tribe. Allied to genus. 

Gentian, a plant. (F. — L.) O.F.gen- 
iiane, —h.gentidna; named after Gentius, 
an lUyrian king, abt. B.C. 180. 

Gentile. (F.-L.) O.F. gentil.-T.. 
gentTlis, gentile; see Genteel. 


gentle. (F.-L.) O.F.^«»/«7(above). 
gentry. (F.—L.) M. E.gentrie, high. 
birth ; shortened from M. E. gentrise, the 
same. — O. F. genterise, another form of 
gentilise, rank ( = Late L. *gentilitid).— 
L. gentllis ; see Q-enteel. 

Genuflection, Genuflexion, a 
bending of the knee. (F.—L.) "U-.Y. genu- 
flexion. — Late L. ace. geniiflexionem. — L. 
genu, knee ; flex-us, pp. of flectere, to 

Genuine. (L.) L- genulnus, of the 
true genus or stock ; allied to L. genus 

genus, kin. (L.) L. genus (gen. 
generis, for *geneses), kin, race. + Gk. 
-jivos, race ; A. S. cyn, kin. See Kin. 
(VGEN.) Brugm. i. § 604. 

Geography. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. F. 

geographic. — L. geografhia. — Gk. 7c<u- 
7paifi'a, lit. earth-description. — Gk. 7etu- = 
yi]o-, a combining form of 7?, earth; 
-ypaipta, description, from ypatpetv, to 

geometry, (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 

geometrie. — L. geometria. — Gk. yeaitcTpla, 
land-measurement. — Gk. 7e<u- (as above) ; 
-/ierpia, measurement, from iifTpia, I 
measure, /tirpov, a measure ; see Metre. 

georgic. (L — Gk.) L. geSrgicus, 
relating to husbandry. — Gk. yeiopytK6s, 
the same.— Gk. yecapyia, tillage. — Gk. 7ecu- 
(as above) ; *ipyuv';^ipS(iv, to work. See 

Geranium, a plant. (L — Gk.) L. 

geranium, Latinised from Gk. yepaviov, a 
geranium or crane's bill (from the shape 
of the seed-pod), — Gk. yepavos, a crane; 
allied to Crane. 

Gerfalcon ; see Oyrfalcon. 

Germ, a seed. (F.-L.) F.germe.— 
L. germen (stem germin-), a sprout, germ. 
Der. germin-ate (from the stera).- 
german, germane, akin. (F.-L.) 

Cousins-german are cousins having the 
same grandfather. Formerly spelt germain. 
— M. F. germain. — L,. germdnum, ace. of 
germdnus, closely akin. Allied to Germ. 

Germander. (F.-L.-Gk.) F.ger- 
mantir^e, germander; O.F. germandree, 
gemaniiree (Godefroy, Supp.) ; cf. G. ga- 
mander. — XaX&'L. gamandria, a popular 
alteratiou of Late Gk. xa;««''8/)"a, ger- 
mander. -Gk. xo/«"'5pi's, germander; lit. 
'ground-tree,' i.e. low tree.-Gk. X"/"*^- 
on the ground ; 8pCs, tree. 

Gerund, a part of a Latin verb. (L.) 


L. geriindmm, a gertind. — L. geriindus, 
that which is to be done or carried on ; 
a verbal adj. from gerere (pp. ges-tus), to 
carry on, perform, bring. (^GES.) 

gestation, the carrying of the young 
in the womb. (F. — L.) M. F. gestation. — 
L. ace. gestationem, a carrying. — L. gestd- 
tus, pp. oi gesture, to carry, frequent, form 
Qi gerere^ (pp. gesi-us), to bring. 

gesticiilate, to make gestures. (L.) 
From pp. of gesiiculdn, to make mimic 
gestures. — L. gesticulus, a gesture, double 
dimiu. oi gestus, a gesture. — L. ^j/«j, pp. 
oi gerere. 

gestTire. (L.) Late L. gestura, a 
mode of action. •- L. ^«/«j, pp. oi gerere. 

Get. (Scand.) M. E. geten, pt. t. gat, 
pp. geten. — Icel. geta, pt. t. gat, pp. getinn. 
+A. S. -getan, pt. t. -gmt, pp. -geten, to 
get, obtain ; Goth, -gitan ; cognate with 
L. -hendere (base Ae5), in prehendere, to 
seize; Gk. x^^ySdvcic (base X**^)j ^^ seize; 
Russ. gadate, to conjecture. (VGHwED.) 
Der. be-get,for-get. Bmgm. i. § 632. 

Gewga'W, a plaything, specious trifle. 
(F.) Formerly ^^aw, (perhaps) answering 
to M.E. giuegoue, Ancren Riwle, p. 196. 
The pron. of M. E. giuegoue is uncertain. 
Origin unknown; prob. F. One sense of 
'E.gewgaw is a Jew's harp ; cf. Burgundian 
gawe, a Jew's harp (Mignard). Cf. Swed. 
dial, gwva, to blow ; Norw. guva, gyva 
(pt. t. gauv). 

Geysir. (Icel.) Icel.^j/jzV, lit.'gusher.' 
—lct\. geysa, to gush; allied to gjdsa (pt. 
t.gatis), to gush. See Gush. 

Ghastly, terrible. (E.) M.^.. gastly. 
Formed from M. E. gasten, A. S. gcestan, 
to terrify ; allied to Goth, usgaisjan, to 
terrify. See Aghast. Allied words are 
gasted, terrified, K. Lear, ii. 1. 57; gast- 
ness, Oth. v. I. 106. See Ghost. 

Gliant, a landing-place, quay, way 
, down to a river ; mountain-pass. (Hind.) 
Hind, gkdt, Bengali gkdt. See Wilson. 

Ghee, boiled or clarified butter. (Hind. 
- Skt.) Hind. gki. - Skt. ghrta, clarified 
butter ; orig. pp. oighr, to sprinkle. 

Gherkill, small cucumber. (Du. — 
Slav. -Low L.-Gk.-Pers.) Short for 
*agherkin. — Du. agurkje, a gherkin (of 
which an older form was doubtless 
*agurken {=agurk-ken), because M. Du. 
used the dimin. suffix -ken where mod. 
Du. uses -Je ; in fact, the form augurken 
is preserved in E. Friesic). Without the 
final n, we have Du. agorke (Sewel).- 



Pol. ogurek, ogorek, ogorka, a cucumber ;. 
Boheni. okurka. — M. Ital. anguria, a 
cucumber (Florio) ; Low L. angurius, a 
water-melon. — Byzantine Gk. dyyovpiov; 
a water-melon. - Pers. o«^fl>-a^, a melon, 
a cucumber; Rich. Diet., p. 194. 

Ghost, a spirit. (E.) M. E. gost,goost. 
A. S. gdst. + Du. geest, G. geist. Teut. 
tjpe*gizisloz. Ofuncertainorigin; perhaps 
allied to Icel. geisa, to rage (like fire), 
and to Goth, us-gais-jan, to terrify. 
Brugm. i. § 816 (2). 

Ghoul, a kind of demon. (Arab.) Pers. 
ghSl, an imaginary sylvan demon; Arab. 
ghuvial, a demon of the woods; from Arab. 
ghawl, attacking suddenly. 

Giant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. giant, 
geant, geaunt. — K.^. and O. F. giant, 
geant. — 'L. gigantem, ace. oi gigas. — GV. 
71705 (stem -yi-iavT-), a giant. Der. 
gigant-ic, from "L.gigant-, stem oi gigas. 

Giaour, an infidel. (Pers.) Giaour is 
an Ital. spelling usual among the Franks 
of the Levant (Byron). Pers. gawr, an 
infidel, a fire-worshipper ; variant of Pers. 
gabr, a Gueber ; see Gueber. 

Gibberish, unmeaning talk. (E.) The 
hard g separates it from the verb gibber, 
to gabble, which is the frequentative of 
jibe, and allied to jabber. Fuller has 
Geberish, and Camden Gebrish; apparently 
in allusion to Gebir, an Arabian alchemist 
of the 8th century, and to the jargon of 
alchemy. But the word is imitative ; like 
gibble-gabbk. See N. E. D. 

Gibbet. (F.) M.E. gibbet, gibet.- 
O. F. gibbet (F. gibet), a gibbet. Prob. 
allied to O. F. gibet, a large stick, perhaps 
a dimin. of O. F. gibe, gibbe, a sort of 
stick shod with iron, an implement for 
stirring up earth. Or is gib-et a dimin. 
from M. Du. wippe, ' a gibbet,' in Hexham ? 

Gibbon, a kind of ape. (F.) F. gibbon, 
in BufFon ; of unknown origin. 

Gibbons, humped, swelling. (L.) 
From L. gibbosiis, humped (whence also 
gibbose). — \j,gibbus,gibba, ahump, hunch; 
cf gibbus, bent. 

Gibe, Jibe, to mock. (E.) Of imitative 
origin ; cf. E. Fries, glbeln, to mock, Du. 
gijbehn, to sneer. Note also Icel. geipa, 
to talk nonsense, Icel. geip, idle talk ; 
Norw. geipa, to make grimaces. 

Giblets, the internal eatable parts of 
a fowl, removed before cooking. (F.) 
M.E. gibelet. — O.F. gibelet, which, ac- 
cording to Littr^ answers to mod. F. 


.gibehtte, stewed rabbit. Of unknown 
origin ; perhaps related to F. gibier, game. 

Gidd^. (E.) M. E. ^di, gedy, adj. ; 
late A. 'a.gldig, insane, answering to earlier 
*gydig, which would mean ' possessed by 
a god ' ; cf. A. S, gyden, a goddess. From 
A. S. god. 

Crier'eagle, a kind of eagle. (Du. a7id 
F.) The first syllable is from Du. gier, 
a vulture ; cf. G. geier, 'M. H. G. gir, a 
vulture. Allied to G. gier-ig, greedy, and 
to E ^"sSiPn 

Gift. (E.)',, 
a gift (rare) ; common in the pi. gifta, 
nuptials ; E. Fries, gift. — A. S. gifan, to 
give. +Icel. ^2]^/, Du. gift, G. -gift (in viit- 
gift, a dowry). % The hard g is due to 
Scand. influence. See Give. Der. gift-ed. 

Gig, a light carriage, light boat. (Scand.) 
In Shak., a gig is a boy's top. M. E. gigge, 
apparently a whirling thing, Ch. Ho. 
Fame, iii. 852 (whence E. whirligig). 
Prob. of Scand. origin ; cf Icel. geiga, to 
take a wrong direction, to rove at random. 
Cf. Jig. Prob. of imitative origin. 

Gigantic ; see Giant. 

Giggle, to titter. (E.) Of imitative 
origin ; cf gaggle. Cf. E. Fries, gicheln, 
Low G. giggeln (Danneil), G. kichem, to 

Giglet, Giglot, a wanton woman. 
(E. ?) Dimin. of gigle, a flirt, used by 
Cotgrave (s. v. gadrottillette) ; from M.E. 
gigge, the same, Plowm. Tale, 759. Per- 
haps allied to Gig or Giggle. 

Gild, to overlay with gold. (E.) M. E. 
gildeii. A. S. gyldan, to gild ; cf A. S. 
gylden, golden. Formed (with vowel- 
mutation from Tent, u (>A. S. 0) to j/) 
from gold, gold. See Gold. 

Gill (l), organ of respiration in fishes. 
(Scand.) M. E. gille. — l)an. gialle, Swed. 
gdl, a gill ; M. Dan. g(slle, M. Swed. gel. 

Gill (2), a ravine, chasm. (Scand.) Also 
ghyll. — Icel. gil, ravine ; Norw. gil. 

Gill (3\ with g soft, a quarter of a pint. 
(F. - Late L.) M. 'E. gille. - O. F. gelle, a 
sort of wine-measure. Late 'L.gella ; cf Late 
L. gillo, a wine-vessel. 

Gill (4)1 with ^ soft, a woman's name, 
a pitcher, ground-ivy. (L.) Short for 

Giliian, from L. lulidna, a fem. name 
due to L. Julius ; see July. Der. fliii- 
gill or gill flirt, jilt. 

Gillie, a boy, page. (C.) Gael, gille, 
giolla, Irish giolla, boy, lad; O. Irish 
gilla, a servant. 


Gillyflower, a flower. (F.— L. — Gk.) 
Formerly gilofer, geraflour. Formed (by 
confusion •nx'Csi flower) from M. F. giroflee, 
' a gilloflovver ; ' Cot. From F. clou de 
girofle, the same. - Late L. caryophyllum, 
Latinised from Gk. Kapv6<j«iK\ov, a clove 
tree, lit. ' nut-leaf.' - Gk. Kapvo-v, a nut ; 
ipvWov, leaf. 

Gimbals, a contrivance for suspending 
a ship's compass, to keep it horizontal. 
(F. -L.) Formerly gimmals ; also called 
gemmow or gemmow-ring, a double ring, 
with two or more links. The forms gem- 
mow and gitnmal correspond to M. F. 
geineau, and O. F. gemel, a twin. — L. gemel- 
lus, a twin, a dimin. form of 'L.geminus, 

Gimlet, Gimblet. (F.-Teut.) M.F. 
gimbelet, ' a gimlet or piercer ; ' Cot. ; 
guimbelet, Godefroy (F. gibelet) ; Norman 
dial, giiinblet. Of M. H. G. origin ; 
formed from a base wind-, to turn or 
wind ; cf mod. G. wendel-bohrer, a 
wimble. Note also Icel. vindla, to wind 
up, vindill, a wisp. See "Wimble, of 
which gimlet is the dimin. 

Gimmal-ring ; see Gimbals, 

Gimp, a kind of trimming, made of 
twistedsilk, cotton, or wool. (F.— O.H.G.) 
See Bailey's Diet. vol. ii., ed. 1731. Named 
from a resemblance to some kind of 
wimple. — M.F. guiptfe, a nun's wimple ; 
a\so guimfle (see index to Cotgrave, s. v. 
wimple). -'O. H. G. wimpal, a light robe, 
afiUet for the head; G.wivipel,s. streamer; 
see 'Wimple. ^ Prob. confused with F. 
guipure, a thread or silk lace. See Gui- 

Gin (1), to begin. (E.) Obsolete; often 
needlessly written 'gin, as though be- were 
omitted. M. E. ginnen. A. S. ginnan, 
to begin, commonly on-ginnan (pt. t. 
ongann, pp. ongttnnen).Ji-Gol\i. ginnan, 
in the comp. du-ginnan, to begin. Brugm. 
i. § 376. 

Gin (2), a trap, snare. (F. — L.) M,E. 
gin, short for M. E. engin, a contrivance. 
See Sngine. 

Gin (3), a kind of spirit. (F.-L.) Short 
for geneva, corruption of M. F. genevre, 
juniper. — L. ace. iHniperum; see Juni- 

Ginger, the root of a certain plant. 
(F. — L. — Gk. — Skt.) M.E. ginger, gin- 
geuere {=gingevere).—O.Y. gengibre (F. 
gingembre). — hate h.gingiier; L.zingiber. 

— Gk. (lyyiPepii. — Skt. ft-flgavera, ginger ; 


lit. 'horn-shaped,' from the horns on it.— 
Skt. frHga, a horn ; vera, a body. 

Gingerly, with soft steps. (F.-L.) 
From the adj. *ginger, soft, delicate (with 
soft g). Apparently adapted from O. F. 
genzor, gensor, more delicate, comp. of 
gent, fine, delicate, noble ; orig. ' well- 
born." — Folk-L. *gentum, L. gentium, 
ace. oi genitus, born (well-bom), pp. of 
gignere, to beget. (N.E.D.) 

Gmgham, a kind of cotton cloth. 
(F. — Malay.) F. guingan. — Malay ging- 
gang, striped cloth, gingham. -Malay and 
Javanese ginggang, striped (C. P. G. Scott). 

Gingle ; the same as Jingle. 

Gipsy ; the same as Gypsy. 

Giraffe, a long-legged animal. (F.— 
Span. — Arab.) M'. F. giraffe (F. 

girafe). — Span, girafa. — Arab, zaraf, 

Gird (i), to enclose, bind round. (E.) 
M. E. gurden, girden. A. S. gyrdan, to 
gird.+O. Sax. gurdian, Du. garden, Icel. 
^rSa, to gird, Dan. giorde, G. gurten. 
Tent, type *gurdjan- ; from *gurd-, weak 
grade of Teut. *gerdan- (pt. t. *gard), to 
enclose ; cf. Goth, bigairdan, to begird. 
Allied to Garth, Garden, and Xard. 

Gird(2), tojestat,jibe. (E.) Apeculiar 
use of M. E. girden, gurden, to strike, cut. 
To gird at=to strike at, jest at; a gird 
is a cut, sarcasm ; Tam. Shrew, v. 2. 58. 

Girdle. (E.) A. S. gyidel, that which 
girds. — A.S.^j-i/aK, to gird ; see Gird(l). 
+Du. gordel, Icel. gyr^ill, Swed. gordel, 
G. gilrtel. 

-Girl. (E.) M.E. girle, gerle, gurle, 
often used to mean ' a boy ' ; a child. 
Answering to an A. S. form *gyrel-, Teut. 
*guril-, a dimin. form from Teut. base 
*gttr-. Allied to N. Fries, giir, a girl; 
Low G. giir, gare, a child. Cf. Swiss 
guri-e, gitrrli, a depreciatory term for a 
girl (Sanders, Ger, Diet.). 

Giron, Gyrou, in heraldry, the eighth 
part of a shield, made by drawing a dia- 
gonal line from the top comer to the centre, 
and from the centre horizontally towards 
the same side ; a right-angled triangle. 
(F. — O. H. G.) "S. giron, agiron (Liltre). 
— O. H. G. gerun, ace. of gero, a lance, 
spear ; M. H. G. gere, a gore or gusset in 
a garment, a triangular piece. — O. H. G. 
ger, a spear, cognate with A. S. gar, a 
spear. See Gore (2). (Diez, Schade.) 

Girth. (Scand.) M.E. ^^rM.-Icel. 
gjirlS, a girdle, girth; gefS, girth round 


the waist; Dan. ^Vaf.+Golh. gairda, a 
girdle. Tewi. tyy^ *gerda. See Gird (i). 

Gist, the pith of a matter. (F.— L.) 
The gist is the point wherein the msitter 
lieS.-0. F. gist (mod. F. gtt), it lies; 
whence the proverb 'c'est U que git le 
li^vre,' that is where the difficulty is, lit. 
' that's where the hare lies.' From the F. 
verb gesir {now g^sir), to lie.-L. iacere, 
to lie. (p.¥.gist=h.iacet.) See Jet (i). 

Gitteru ; see Cithern. 

Give. (Scand.) M.E.^_;^ (Northern), 
geuen, yeuen (Southern) ; pt. t. gaf (N.), 
yaf{^.), m.gifen (N.), yiuen, youen (S.). 
~Jc&\. gefa, Dan. give, Swed. gifva. + 
A. S. gifan, pt. t. gcaf, pp. gifen ; Do. 
geven ; Goth, giban, G. geben. Teut. type 
*geban-, pt. t. *gab. Cf. O. Irish gab-im, 
I give, I take. 

Gizzard. (F.-L.) M.E. giser (the 
d being added). — O. F. gezier, jugier, 
juisier (F. gisier). — \,. gigeritim, only in 
pi. gigeria (Late L. gizeria), cooked 
entrails of poultry. 

Glabrous, smooth. (L.) From L. 
glaber, smooth. Idg. stem *gladh-ro- ; 
see Glad. Brugm. i. § 589. 

Glacial,icy. (F.-L.) 'S.glacial.-'L. 
glaciSlis, icj'. — L. glacies, ice. 

glacier, a mountain ice-field. (F. — L.) 

F. glacier (a Savoy word). — F. glace, ice. — 
Folk-L. glacia, for L. glacies, ice. 

glacis, smooth slope. (F.— L.) F. 
glacis. — M.. F. glacer, to cover with ice.— 
¥. glace (above). 

Glad. (E.) A. S. ^&i/, shining, bright, 
cheerful, glad.-J-Du. glad, smooth, bright, 
Icel. glair, bright, glad, Dan. Swed. glad, 

G. glatt, smooth, polished. Cf. Russ. 
gladkii, even, smooth ; L. glaber, smooth ; 
see Glabrous. 

Gladden, Gladeu, a plant ; Iris 

pseudacorics , (L.) K.%. glcedene; altered 
from L. gladiolus, a swoid-lily. Dimin, 
of L. gladius, a sword ; see Gladiator. 

Glade, an open space in a wood. (E.) 
The orig. sense was prob. an opening for 
light, passage through a wood ; from A.S. 
glced, bright, shining. Cf. Swed. dial. 
glad-ypfen, completely open, said of a 
lake whence the ice has all melted away. 

Gladiator, a swordsman. (L.) L. gla- 
diator. — L. gladius, a sword. 

Glair, the white of an egg. (F.-L.) 
M. E. gleyre. — O. F. glaire. — L. cldra, 
fern, of clarus, bright ; Late L. cldra dm, 
the white of an egg. 



Glaive, a sword. (F.— L.) A..Y. glaive, 
a sword; O. F. glaive, a sword, lance.— 
L,. gladiuni, ace. oi gladius, a sword. 

Glamour ; see Gramarye. 

Glance, a swift dart of light, quick 
look ; as a verb, to glide off or from, to 
graze, to flash. (F. — L.) The sb. is from 
the verb. A nasalised form (influenced 
by M. E. glenten, to glance) of O. F. 
glacer, glacier, to glide, slip, glance. — F. 
glace, ice; see Glacial. 2. M. K. glen/en 
answers to the causal form of the strong 
verb glinta, to shine, still found in Swed. 
dialects (Rietz). See Glint. 

Gland, a fleshy organ in the body, 
secreting fluid. (F.— L.) M. F. and F. 
glande, a gland ; O. F. glandre. — L. glan- 
dtila, a gland; dimin. of glans (stem 
gland-), an acorn.+Gk. P&kavos, an acorn. 
Brugm. i. § 665. 

glanders, glandular swellings. (F. — 
L.) M. F. glandres, pi. — Lat. pi. ace. 
glandulas, swollen glands ; from L. glans 

Glare, to shine brightly. (E.) M. E. 
glaren ; cf. A. S. gl&r, amber. + Low 
G. glaren, to glow. Perhaps allied to 
Glass. Cf. Dan. glar, Icel. gler, glass 

Glass. (E.) A. S. glees. + Du. glas, 
G. glas ; cf. Dan. glar, M. Swed. glar, 
Icel. gler, glass. Orig. sense prob. ' shin- 
ing.' See above. 

Glaucous, grayish blue. (L. - Gk.) 
L. glauc-us ; with suffix -ous. — Gk. 7X011- 
Kt)%, gleaming, bluish. 

Glaze, to furnish with glass. (E.) 
M. E. glasen. — M. E. glas, glass ; see 

Gleam, a beam of light. (E.) A. S. 
glSm ; Teut. type *glaimiz. + O. Sax. 
glimo, brightness ; O. H. G. gllmo, gleimo, 
a glow-worm (from base *gleim-). Allied 
to Gk. xXi-ap6s, warm. See GUmmer. 

Glean. (F.) M. E. glenen. - O. F. 
glener, glaner (F. glaner), to glean ; Low 
L. glenare (a.d. 561) ; cf. Low L. glena, 
gelina, gelima, a handful. Of unknown 
origin. The A. S. gilm, a handful, whence 
prov. E. yelm, to provide handfuls of straw 
ready for a thateher, will not account for 
the O. F. form. ^ We also find the form 
togleame (Levins) , also spelt gleme. 

Glebe, soil. (F. - L.) M. F. glebe, 
' glebe, land belonging to a parsonage ; ' 
Cot. — L. glUa, soil, a clod of earth. 

Glede (i), a kite, a bird so called. (E.) 


M. E. glede. A. S. glida, a kite, lit. 
' glider,' from its smooth flight. - A. S. 
slid; weak grade of gltdan, to glide ; see 
Glide. Cf. Icel. gleSa (the same). 

Glede (2), Gleed, a glowing coal. 
(E.) A. S. gled (where e is from 0, by 
vowel-change). - A. S. glSwan, to glow ; 
see Glow. Cf. Dan. Swed. glbd, the same. 

Glee, joy, singing. (E.) A. S. gleo, 
esalier gliu, joy, mirth, music. + Icel. gly, 
glee, gladness; Swed. dial, gly, mockery. 
Cf. Gk. x'^^^V, a jest. Brugm. i. § 633. 

Gleek (i), a scoff, jest. See Nares, 
Prob. a particular use of Gleek (2). 

Gleek (2), a game at cards ; in which 
a gleek meant three cards alike (as three 
kings). (F. -Du.) See Nares. - O. F. 
glic, a game at cards; also spell g/ielicque 
(Godefroy).-M. Du. gelijck, alike. -M. 
Du. ge-, gke-, Du. ge-, prefix ( = A. S. ge-, 
Goth.^a-) ; M. Du. -lijck, Du. -lijk, cognate 
with E. like ; see Like. % Hexham has 
gelijk ofte ongelijk spclen, to play at even 
or odds. 

Glen, a narrow valley. (C.) Gael, and 
Irish gleann, O. Irish glenn ; W. glyn, a 
valley, glen. Celtic type *^/i?««uj. 

Glib (i), smooth, voluble. (E.) Cf. 
E. Fries, glibberig, slippery ; glifpen, "to 
slip.-|-Du. glibberig, slippery, glibberen,\.Q 
slide ; Du. and Low G. glippen, to slip 

Gub (2), a lock of hair. (C.) Irish and 
Gael, glib, also Ir. clib, a lock of hair. 

Glib (3), to castrate. (E.) The same as 
lib, with prefixed ^- = A. S. ^V!-, a common 
prefix. Cognate with Dn. lubben, \a cas- 
trate, M. Du. lubben. See Left. 

Glide. (E.) M. E. gliden, pt. t. glood. 
A. S. glidan. + Du. glijden, Dan. glide, 
Swed. glida, G. gleiten. Teut. type *glei- 
dan-, pt. t. *glaid, pp. *glidanoz. 

Glimmer, verb. (E.) M. E. gli- 
mereti. -(- Low G. glimmem, frequent, of 
glimmen, to shine ; Dan. glimre, vb., cf. 
glimmer, sb., glitter; Swed. dial. glimmer, 
vb., glimmer, sb., glitter. Frequent, of 
Dan. glimme, Swed. glimma, to shine. Cf. 
Swed. dial, glim, a glance, A. S. gleomtt 
(for *glimu), splendour ; from *glim-, 
weak grade of *gleim- ; see Gleam. 

glimpse, a slight gleam. (E.) For- 
merly glimse ; M. E. glimsen, to glimpse ; 
formed with suffix -s- from *glim (above). 

Glint, to shine, glance. (Scand.) M. E. 
glenten. — Swed. dial, gldnta, glinta, to 
shine ; nasalised from Icel. glila, to shine. 


+M.H.G. ^/inzen, to glint, Svred. ^^lindra. 
See Glitter. 

Glisten, Glister, to glitter. (E.) 
Extended from base g-lis- of M. E. glisten, 
to shine. A. S. gUsian ; whence also 
glisnian, to shine. We also find M. E. 
glisteren, glistren, to glitter. Cf. Dn. 
glinsteren, to glitter ; Swed. dial, glisa. 

Glitter. (E.) M. E. gUteren, to shine. 
K.^. glitinian, to shine; extended from 
A.S. glitian, to shine. +Icel. glitra, to 
glitter, frequent, of gUta, to shine ; Swed. 
glittra, to glitter ; glitter, sb., a sparkle. 
Cf. Goth, glit-munjan, to glitter. From 
*glit-, weak grade of *gleit-, as in O. Sax, 
glitan, G. gleissen, to shine. 

Gloaming, twilight. (E.) A Scot 
word for even-glow, the time of becoming 
dusk ; A. S. Sfen-glommung, glow of eve, 
Hymn. Surtees, i6. i6. See Glow. 

Gloat, to stare, gaze with admiration. 
(E.) Formerly glote (XVI cent.). + Icel. 
glotta, to grin, smile scornfully; Swed 
dial, glotta, glutla, to peep ; G. glotzen, to 
stare. Cf. Russ. gliadiet{/), to look at, 

Globe. (F.-L.) O. F. globe. - L. 
globumi ace. of globus, a ball ; cf. glomtis, 
a ball, clue. 

Glomerate. (L.) From pp. oi glo- 
merare, to collect into a ball. — L. glomer-, 
for *glomes, stem of glomus, a ball or 
clew of yarn. See Globe. 

Gloom. (E.) M. E. gloumen, to lower, 
as if from A. S. *gliimian ; cf. roo?n from 
A. S. riim ; and prov. E. glum, overcast. 
+Norw. glyma, an overcast sky ; Low G. 
glum, turbid. See Glum. 

Glory. (F. - L.) M. E. glorie. - A. F. 
and O. F. glorie (F. gloire). — L. gloria. 

Gloss (I), lustre. (Scand.) Icel.glossi, 
a blaze, gfys, finery; Swed. dial, glossa, 
to glow ; Hoxvf.glosa, to glow.+M. H. G. 
gl'osen, to glow, glos, lustre ; Du. gloren 
(Franck), E. Fries, gloren. 

Gloss (2), a commentary, explanation. 

(F.-L Gk.) M. E. glose. - O. F. glose, 

'a glosse;' Cot. — L. glossa, a difficult 
word requiring explanation. — Gk. yXSiaaa, 
the tongue, a language, word needing ex- 
planation. Der. gloss, vb., gloise. 

glossary. (L.— Gk.) L.glossdrium, 
a glossary ; formed witb suffix -arium 
from L. gloss-a (above). 

glOSSOgrapber. (Gk.) Coined from 
gWsso-, from Gk. y\a<X(ra, a hard word; 
ypdtpetv, to write. 

glottis. (Gk.) Gk. 7\oitWs, the 



mouth -of the windpipe. — Gk. fKaiTTa, 
Attic form of yXwaaa, the tongue. Der. 

Glove. (E.) A. S. glof, a glove ; cf. 
Icel. glofi, prob. borrowed from A. S. glof. 
Possibly from g- (for ge-'), prefix ; and 
Icel. iBji, Goth, /ij^, the palm of the hand. 
Der. fox-glove. 

Glow. (E.) M. E. glowen. A. S. 
glowan, to be ardent, to shine brightly. -J- 
Icel, gloa, Dan. gloe, to glow, stare, Swed. 
glo, to stare, Du. gloeijen, G. glUhen. 
Brugm. i. § 156. Hex. glede (3). 

Glower, to look frowningly. (E.) E. 
Fries, gliiren. Cf. Low G. gluren, M. Du. 
gloeren, ' to look awry, to leare,' Hex- 
ham ; Du. gluren. % M. E. gloren, to 
stare, is allied to glare. 

Gloze, to interpret, flatter. (F.-L.— 
Gk.) M.E. glosen, to make glosses.— 
M. E. glose, a gloss ; see Gloss (2). 

Glue. (F. - L.) O. F. ghi. - Late L. 
glutem, ace. of gWs (gen. gliltis), glue ; 
allied to L. gluten, glue, glutus, tenacious. 
+Gk. y\ot6s, mud, gum. Allied to Clay. 
Brugm. i. § 639. 

Glum, sullen. (E.) M. E. glommen, 
glomben, gloumen, to look "gloomy. ' E. 
Fries, ghmien, glfimen, to look sullen. -|- 
Low G. gluum, a sullen look, ghimmen, 
to make turbid ; Norw. glyme, a sullen 
look, glyma, gloma, to look sullen. See 

Glume, a bracteal covering, in grasses. 
(L.) L. gliima, a husk, hull. — L. glilbere, 
to peel, take off the husk. See Cleave (i). 

Glut, to swallow greedily. (F.-L.) 
M.E. glotien. — O. F. glotir, gloutir. — l^, 
gliittre, gluttlre, to swallow ; cf. gula, the 
throat. J>6T. glutton. 

Glutinous, gl»ey. (L.) l,.gliitinosus, 
sticky. — h.glatin; ioi gluten, glue. 

Glutton. (F. — L.) M.Y,. gloton.— 
O. F. gloton. — L. gluttsnem, glutonem, 
ace, a ^■aVioa. — 'L. glutire, to devour. 

Glycerine, a viscid fluid, of sweet 
taste. fF. — Gk.) 'S . glycirine ; from Gk. 
y\v«ep6s, sweet ; from Gk. yXvKvs, sweet. 

Gljrptic, relating to carving in stone. 
(Gk.) Gk. y\virTiK6s, carving. — Gk. 
y\viTT6$, carved. — Gk. y\v(peiv, to hollow 
out, engrave. See Cleave (i). 

Gliarl, to snarl, growl. (E.) Frequen- 
tative oignar, to snarl, an imitative word. 
Cf A. S. gnyrran, to creak ; E. Fries. 
gnarren, to creak, snarl.+Du. knoi-ren, 
Dan. knurre, to growl, Dan. knarre, to 



creak ; Swed. knorra, G. knurren, to 
growl, G. knarren, to creak. 

Gnarled, knotty, twisted. (E.) Gnarled 
is fuU of gnarls, where gnar-l is a dimin. 
of gnar or knar, M. E. knarre, a knot in 
wood. See Knurr. 

Craash. (E.) M. E. gnasten, to gnash 
the teeth. E. Fries, gnastem, gnastern, 
to gflash.+Swed. knastra, to crash (be- 
tween the teeth) ; Dan. knaske, to gnash ; 
Icel. gnastan, sb., a gnashing, ^wsj/o (pt. t. 
gnasi), to crack ; G. knaslern, to crackle. 
Imitative ; so also Dan. knase, to crackle ; 
Icel. gnista, to gnash, E. Fries, gnisen. 

Gnat. (E.) A. S. gnatt. Said to be 
named from the whirring of the wings; 
cf. Icel. gnata, to clash, gnat, clash of 

Gnaw. (E.) M. E. gnawen, pt. t. gnew, 
gno'cv. A. S, gnagan, to gnaw, pt. t. gnoh, 
pp. gnageu.+Da. knagen, Low G. gnauen, 
O. Icel. knaga, mod. Icel. naga, Dan. 
gnave, Swed. gnaga. Without the g, we 
have G. nagen ; also Dan. nage, to gnaw, 
Swed. nagga, whence prov. E. nag, to 

Gneiss, a rock. (G.) G.giuiss; from 
its sparkling. — O. H. G. gneistan, to 
sparkle ; gneista, a spark. + A. S. gndst, 
Icel. gneisti, a spark. 

Gnome, a kind of sprite. (F.-GIc) 
F. gnome, a gnome ; a word due to Para- 
celsus ; from the notion that gnomes could 
reveal secret treasures. -> Gk. fvkn-q, intelli- 
gence. — Gk. fiSn m , to know. (v'GEN. ) 
gnomon, index of a dial. (L.^Gk.) 
L. gnomon. — G\i. -yviiiMv, an interpreter 
(one who knows) ; the index of a dial. — 
Gk. yvuivai, to know. 

gnostic, one of a certain sect. (Gk.) 
Gk. yvaiaTiKus, wise, good at knowing. — 
Gk. yvaiarvs, from yvairSs, known. — Gk. 
fSivai, to know. 

Gun, a kind of antelope. (Hottentot.) 
Formd in S. Africa. Said to belong to the 
Hottentot language. See Supplement. 
.Go, to move about, proceed, advance. 
(E.) M.'E. gon, goon. A. S. ^a«.+Du. 
gaan, Dan. gaae, Swed. ga ; G. gehen ; 
O. H. G.gan,gen. ^ ' The Tt\A.gai-{== 
A. S. ga-, O. H. G. ge-) supplanted the 
Idg. y'l, to go, in Lat. tre, Gk. Uvai, 
Skt. i. Since Teut. gai- has no old primi- 
tive noun-derivatives in Teut., and takes 
the place of Idg. ^I (the Goth, aorist 
iddja^K. S. eode still remains), and as it 
is inflected after the -mi- conjugation, the 


supposition arises that Teut. *gaim, *gais, 
*gaith are contracted from the veibat 
particle ga- and the inherited un-, iz, ith = 
Skt. Imi, eshi, eti; cf. Gk. el/u.'— Kluge, 
But this is mere conjecture. 

Goad. (E.) M. E. gode. A. S. gad. 
Teut. type *gaidd, f.+Lombardic gaida, 
a gore (Due.) ; from the base *gai-, Idg. 
*ghai-, whence also A. S. ga-r, Icel. gei-rr, 
O. Irish gai, a spear ; see Gore (2). 

Goal, the winning-post in a race. (E.) 
M. E. gol, Shoreham', p. 145. Answering 
to A. S. *gal, prob. ' an impediment ; ' 
whence A. S. gSlan, to impede. Goal 
may have meant ' stopping- place.' 

Goat. (E.) U.K.goot. A.S.gat.+ 
Dn. gett, Dan. ged, Swed. get, Icel. geit,' 
G. geiss, geisse ; Goth, gaits. Teut. base 
*gait- ; allied to L. hcedus. 

Gobbet, a mouthful, a small piece. 
(F. - C.) M. E. gobet, a small piece. — 
O. F. gobet, a morsel of food (see Littri) ; 
allied to M.F. gob, a gulp (in swallowing), 

— O. F. gober, to devour. — Gael, gob, beak, 
bill, mouth ; Irish gob, mouth, beak. 

gobble (0, to devour. (F.-C.) Fre- 
quentative, with suffix -le, from O. F. 
gob-er, to devour ; see Gobbet. 

Gobble (2), to make a gabbling noise. 
(E.) Imitative ; a variant al gabble. 

Gobelin, a French tapestry. (F.) 
Named from Giles Gobelin, wool-dyer of 
Paris, in the i6th cent. 

Goblet. (F. - L.) F. gobelet, ' a 
goblet ; ' Cot. Dimin. of O. F. gobel, a 
cup. — Late L. cUpellum, ace. of ctipelhis,. 
a cup ; dimin. of L. cufa,, a vat ; see 
Coop. Cf. Picard gobe, a great cup. 

Goblin. (F.-L.-G.) O.F. gobelin. 

— Low L. gobelinus, a goblin ; properly 
' a household-god ' ; cf. A. S. cof-godas, 
' penatcs.' - M. H. G. kobel, a hut ; dimin. 
of M. H. G. kobe, a stall, cognate with 
Icel. io/i, a hut, A. S. co/a, a chamber 
(Kluge). See Cove. 

Goby, a fish. (L.-Gk.) For h.gobius, 
orig. applied to the gudgeon. — Gk. icw0i6s, 
a kind of fish, gudgeon, tench. Der. 

God. (E.) A.S. .fOi^.+Dn. ^(/, Icel. 
goS, guS, Dan. gtid, Swed- giid, Goth. 
gutA, G. gott. Teiit. type *guthom ; Idg; 
type *ghutom, perhaps ' the being wor- 
shipped,' a pp. form ; from Idg. root *ghu, 
to worship, as in Skt. hu, to sacrifice 
(to), whence huta-, one to whom sacri- 
fice is offered. % Not allied to good, adj. 


ffoddess. (E. ; with F. suffix.) . M. E. 
goddesse {godesse). Made from god by- 
adding the O. F. suffix -esse ( = L. -issa- 
Gk. -taaa). 

godfather. (E.) M. E. godfader, 
father in baptism ; from god o.nA fader. 

godhead. (E.) M. E. godhcd, also 
godhod; the suffix answers to A. S. had, 
office, state, dignity; see -hood (suffix). 

Godwit, a bird. (E.) Origin un- 
known. Can it mean ' good creature ' ? 
A. S. god laiht, a good wight, good crea- 
ture {wiht being often applied to animals 
and birds). See "Wight. 

Goffer, Gauffer, to plait or crimp 
lace, &c. (F.-O. Low G.) M. F. gauf- 
frer, to goffer ; orig. to mark like the 
edges . of wafers. — M. F. gauffre, goffre, a 
wafer ; see 'Wafer. 

Goggle-eyed, having rolling and 
staring eyes. ^E.) M. E. gogil-eyid. ' They 
gagle with their eyes hither and thither ; ' 
Holinshed, Descr. of Ireland, c. i. Cf. 
Irish and Gael, gogshuileach, goggle-eyed, 
having wandering eyes, from gog, to move 
slightly, and suil, eye. But gog seems to 
be from E., and of imitative origin. Cf. 
prov. E. coggk, Bavar. gageln, to be un- 

Goitre. (F. — L.) F. ^«7r^, a swelled 
throat ; from O. F. goitron, the same, esp. 
in Savoy. — Late L. ace. type *guttridneni, 
from L. guttur, throat. 

Gold. (E.) K.S. gold.+T>vi. goud {ior 
gold), Icel. gull, Swed. Dan.^/<^, G. gold, 
Goth, gulth. Teut. type *gul-thom, n. ; 
Idg. type *gh}l-iom ; cf. Russ. zoloto, Skt. 
hataka-, gold ; also Pers. %ar, gold, Zend 
naranya-, Skt. hiranya-. Named from its 
colour. Allied to Yellow. (VGHEL.) 
Der. matt-gold, gild. 

Golf, a game. (Du.) Mentioned A. D. 
1457 (Jam.). The name is from that of a 
Bu. game played with club and ball. — Du. 
kolf, a club used to strike balls with.+ 
Low G. hilf, hockey-stick; Icel. kdlfr, 
clapper of a bell, kylfa, a club ; Dan. kolbe, 
butt-end of a weapon, kolv, bolt, shaft, 
arrow, Swed. kolf, butt-end, G. kolbe, club, 
mace, knob. 

Golosh ; the same as G-aloche. 

Gondola. (Ital.-Gk.-Pers.?) Ital. 
gondola, dimin. of gonda, a boat. — Gk. 
KovSv, a drinking-vessel ; from the shape 
(Diez). Said to be of Pers. origin; cf. 
Pers. kandii, an earthen vessel. 

Gon^Eiuou, Gonfalon, a kind of 


banner. (F.-M. H. G.) 'iA.'E.gotifailon. 
— O.F.gonfanon. — M. H. G. gundfano, 
lit. ' battle-flag.' — M. H. G. gund, gunt, 
battle; fano {G. faline), a banner, flag. 
Here gimt is cognate with A. S. gu6 (for 
*gunth), battle, war ; cf. Skt. ban, to kill. 
Fano is allied to Vane. 

Gong. (Malay.) Malay agong or gmg, 
the gong, a sonorous instrument. 

Good. (E.) M.Kgood. A.S. god.+ 
Du. goed, Icel. godr, Dan. Swed. god, 
Goth, gods, G. gui. Teut. type *gddoz\ 
from *god-, strong grade of *gad-, ' fit ; ' 
see Gather. Allied to Kuss. godmtii, 
suitable, O. Slav. godA, fit season. Der. 
goods, sb. pi., i. e. good things, property ; 
good-will, &c. Also ^<j«rf-»2rt«, i. e. master 
of the house, good-wife, mistress of the 
Goodbye, farewell. (E.) A familiar, 
but meaningless, contraction of God be 
with you, the old form of farewell ; 
very common; often written God b'w'y. 
% Not ior Cod he by you; the form God 
btiy you^God be-wii/i-you yoii {you re- 

Goodman; see Good. 
Goose, a bird. (E.) A. S. gos, pi. ges 
(lengthened caused loss of n, and gds = 
*gons <*ga»s). + I3n. gans, Dan. gaas, 
Swed. gas, Icel. gas, G. gans. Teut. type 
*gans ; Idg. type *ghans- ; cf. L. anser, 
Gk. X'J"'; Skt. hamsa, a swan; O. Iiish 
geis, a swan ; Lith. zffsis, a goose. 
Gooseberry. (E. ; cf. F.-M. H. G.) 
In Levins. From goose and berry; cf 
goose-grass, &c. >i. We also find North. 
E. grosers, gooseberries ; Burns h.a.igroeet, 
a gooseberry. Apparently from O. F. 
*grose, *groise, a gooseberry, not recorded, 
but occurring not only in the O. P'. dimin. 
form groisele, grosele,a. gooseberry, but also 
in Irishgrois-aid, Gael. grois-eid,W,grivys, 
a gooseberry, all borrowed from M.E. The 
spelling groisele is as old as the 13th 
century (Bartsch) ; and answers to the 
form crosela in the dialect of Como 
(Monti), p. The orig. O. F. *groise or 
*grose was bon-owcd from M. H. G. krus, 
chrling, crisped, whence G. krausbeere, a 
ci'anberry, a rough gooseberry. Cf. Swed. 
kt^usbdr, a gooseberry, from krus, crisp, 
curled, frizzled. The name was first given 
to the rougher kinds of the fruit, from the 
curling hairs on it ; similarly, Levins 
gives the Lat. name as utia crispa (frizzled 



Gopher, a kind of wood. (Heb.) Heb. 
gopher, a wood. 

Gorbellied, having a fat belly. (E.) 
Compounded of E. gore, lit. filth, dirt (also 
the intestines) ; and belly. So also Swed. 
dial, g&rbalg, a fat paunch, from gir, dirt, 
contents of the intestines, and bdlg, belly. 
See Gore (i). 

gorcrow, carrion-crow. (E.) I. e. 
gore-crow ; see above. 

Gordian. (L. — Gk.) Only in the phr. 
' Gordian knot,' i.e. intricate knot. Named 
from the Phrygian king Gordius (Vopiios), 
who tied it. An oracle declared tliat who- 
ever undid it should reign over Asia. 
Alexander cut the knot, and applied the 
oracle to himself. 

Gore (I), clotted blood. (E.) It for- 
merly meant filth. A. S. gor, filth, dirt.-f 
Icel gor,gore; Swed. ^or, dirt; M.Da.goor; 
O. H. G. gor, filth. Origin uncertain. 

Gore (.2), a triangular piece let into a 
garment, a triangular slip of land. (E.) 
M. E. gore. A. S. gdra, a gore, project- 
ing piece of land ; from gar, a dart, a 
spear-point. Named from the shape. [So 
also Icel. geiri, a triangular slip of land, 
from geirr, a spear ; G. gehre, a wedge, 
gusset, gore ; Du. geer, a gusset, gore.] 
p. The A. S. gar (Icel. geirr, O. H. G. 
g^r) is from Tent, type *gaizoz, m. ; 
allied to Gaulish L. gaesum, a javelin, 
O. Irish gai, a spear. 

Gore (3), to pierce. (E.) From A. S. 
gar, a spear-point (with the usual change 
from a to long 0). 

Gorge, the throat, a narrow pass. (F. 
,— L.) O. F. gorge, throat. — Late L. gorga, 
variant of L. gurges, a whirlpool, hence 
(in Late L.) the gullet, from its voracity. 
Cf. L. gurgulio, gullet +Skt. gargara-, a 

gorgeous, showy, splendid. (F.— L.) 
O. F. and M. ¥.gorgias, 'gorgeous;' Cot. 
The O. F. gorgias also theant a gorget ; 
the sense of ' gorgeous ' was orig. proud, 
from the swelling of the throat in pride. 
Cotgrave gives F. se rengorger, ' to hold 
down the head, or thrust the chin into the 
neck, as some do in pride, or to make 
their faces look the fuller ; we say, to 
bridle it.' Hence the derivation is from 
F. gorge, throat (above). 

forget, armour for the throat (F.— 
From gorge, i. e. throat. 
Gorgon, a monster. (L.-^Gk.) L. 
Gorgon, Gorgo. — G\i. rop7ii, the Gorgon. 


- Gk. 7op7<is, fearfnl. + O. Ir. garg, 

Gorilla, a kind of large ape. (O. Afri- 
can.) An old word revived. In the Peri- 
plus of Hanno, near the end, some creatures 
are described ' which the interpreters called 
Gorillas ' — in Greek, 7o/)i\\as. 

Gormandise ; see Oourmand. 

Gorse. (E.) Formerly ^^jrrf. — A. S. 
gorst, gorse. Cf. Skt. krsh, to bristle. 

Goshawk. (E) Lit 'goose-hawk.' 
A. S. goshafuc. - A. S. gos, goose ; hafuc, 

gosling. (E.) Formed from A. S. 
gos, goose i,M. E. gos'), with double dimin. 
suffix -l-ing. 

Gospel, the life of Christ. (E.) M. E. 
gospel. A. S. godspell. — K. S. god, God, 
i. e. Christ ; spell, a story. Lit ' narrative 
of God,' i. e. life of Christ. % Orig. god 
spell, i- e. good spell, n. translation of Gk. 
iiayfikiov ; but soon altered to godspell', 
for the E. word was early introduced into 
Iceland in the form guSspJall (where gulS- 
= god, as distinguished from ^tfff-= good), 
and into Germany as O. H. G. gotspell 
(where ^fl^ = god, as distinguished from 
guot, good). 

Gossamer. (E.) M. E. gossomer, 
gosesomer, lit. 'goose-summer' The prov. 
E. name (in Craven) is summer-goose. 
Named from the lime of year when it is 
most seen, viz. during St. Alartin's summer 
(early November) ; geese were eaten on 
Nov. II formerly. Cf. l^owl. Sc. go- 
summer (popular variant), Martinmas. % 
Also called summer-colt (Whitby) ; also 
summer-ganze. Cf. G. sommerfdden (lit. 
summer-threads), gossamer; Du. zomer- 
draden, Swed. semmertrdd, the same. [But 
in G. it is also called mddchensemmer, 
lit. Maiden-summer, der allweibersotnmer, 
the old women's summer ; which aho 
means St. Martin's summer.] It would 
appear that summer is here used in the 
sense of 'summer-film,' so that gossamer = 
goose-summer-film. (Better spelt gossamer 
or gossummer.) 

Gossip. (E.) Now a crony ; formerly 
a sponsor in baptism. M. E. gossib, also 
godsib, lit ' related in god.' — M. E. god, 
god; sib, related, from O. Northumb. 
sibbo, pi. relatives, allied to Goth, sibja, 
relationship, G. sippe, affinity, sippen, 
kinsmen. Cf. Skt. sabhya-, fit for an 
assembly, trnsty, from sab/id, an assembly. 
Brugm. i. §§ 124 (4), 567. 



Gouge, a hoUow-bladecl chisel. (F. — 
Low L.) F, gouge. — Low L. *gobia, 
*guim, only recorded in the form giivia 
(Span, gubia). Cf. Ital. sgorbia, gouge ; 
Gascon goujo. 

Gonxd. (F.-L.) F. gourde, formerly 
gouhoitrde and cougourde (Cot.). — L. cu- 
curbita, a gourd. < 

Goarmand, a glutton. (F.) F. gour- 
mand, ' a glntton, gormand, belly-god ; ' 
Cot. Etym. unknown. Der. gormandise 
(for gotirmaitd-ise). 

Gout (i), a drop, disease. (F.-L.) 
M. E. goute, a disease supposed to be due 
to defluxion of humours. — O. F. goute, 
goutie, a drop. — L. guita, a drop. 

Gout (2), taste. (F.-L.) F. goUt, 
taste. — h.gtistiis, taste ; see Gust (2). 

Govern. (F.-L.- Gk.) M.Kgouer- 
tieit. — O. F. govemer. — L. guberndre, to 
steer a ship, rule. — Gk. Kv0epvS.v, to steer. 
Cf. Lith. kumbriii, to steer. 

Gowan, a daisy. (Scand.) North. E. 
gowfan, Sc. yel/ow gezvatt, com marigold. 
Named from the colour. — Icel. gulr, Swed. 
gii/, Dan. gtiul, Norw. gul, gaul, yellow. 
See Yellow. 

Gowk, a simpleton. (Scand.) Icel. 
gaukr, a cuckoo, Sviei. gok.-I^G. gauch, a 
cuckoo, simpleton. 

Gown, a loose robe. (C.) M.'E. goune. 
— W, gzt/H, a. loose robe. [Iiish gunn, 
Gael, and Com. gun, Manx goon, are from 
E. O. F. goufie is Gaulish.] Stokes- 
Fick, p. 281. 

Grab, to seize. (E.) Cf. E. Fries. 
grabbig, greedy; grabbelen, to grab at; 
Du. grMel, a scramble, grabbelen, to 
scraiiible for ; Low G. grabbeln, to grab 
at ; Swed. grabba, to grasp.+Skt. grah, 
O. Skt. grabh, O. Pers. and Zend grab, 
to seize. See Garb (2). Cf. Grasp. 

Grace. (F.-L.) 0.¥. grace. -l.. 
gi-dtia, favour. — L. gratus, dear, pleasing. 
Brngm. i. §§ 524, 632. 

Grade, a degree. (F.-L.) v. grade, 
a degree. — L. gradum, ace. of gradus, a 
degree, step. — L. ^/-arff (pp. gressus), to 
step, walk, go. (VGHREDH.) Brugm. 

i. § 635 ; "■ S ?°7- 

gradient, a gradually rising slope. 
(l!) L. gradient-, stem of pres. pt. of 
gradi, to walk, advance. 

gradual, advancing by steps. (L.) 
Orig. gradual, sb., a service-book called 
in Lat. graduale, and iij E. gradual or 
grayl.-mhtite L. gradudlis, only in neut. 



graduale, a service-book of portions sung 
in gradibus, i. e. on the steps (of the 
choir). — L. gradus, a step. 

graduate. (L.) Late L. graduatus, 
one who lias taken a degree ; pp. of Late 
L. gradudre. — L. gradu-s, degree. 

Graft, Graff, to insert buds on a stem. 
(F.-L.-Gk.) (7ra// is a later form of 
gi-aff, and due to confusion with graffed, 
pp. Shak. has pp. graft, Rich. Ill, iii. 7. 
127. M. E. graffen, to graff, from graffe, 
sb. — O. F. graffe, a sort of pencil, also a 
slip for grafting, because it resembled a 
pointed pencil in shape. — L. ^ra/AiV/m, a 
style to write with. — Gk. ypa<piov, ypa- 
(peiov, the same. — Glc. •fpA(pa.v,. to write. 

Grail (i), a gradual, a semce-book. 
(F. — L.) M.E. graile, grayle. — O. F, 
grael. — Late L. graddle, also called gra- 
duale ; see gradual. 

Grail (2), the Holy Dish at the Last 
Supper. (F. — L.-Gk.) The etymology 
was very early falsified by an easy 
change from San Greal (Holy Dish) to 
Sang Heal (Royal Blood, strangely taken 
to mean Real Blood). — O. F. graal, greal, 
grasal, a flat dish; with numerous other 
forms, both in O. F. and Late L. It 
would appear that the word was corrupted 
in various ways from Late L. type *crdtaKs 
(cf. Late L. graddle, a bowl) ; from Late 
L. crdt-us, a bowl, equivalent to L. crater, 
a bowl ; see Crater. (Diez.) 

Grail (3), fine sand. (F. - L.) In 
Spenser, F. Q. i. 7. 6 ; Vis. Bellay, st. 12. 
— O. F. gi-aisle, graile (F. grlle), thin, 
small. — L. gracilem, ace. of gracilis, 
slender. , 

Grain. (F. - L.) M. E. grein. - O. F. 
grain. — L,. grdnuin, a grain, com.+Irish 
gran, W. grenyn. Cognate with E. Corn. 

Grallatory. (L.) A term applied to 
wading birds. — L. gralldtor, a walker on 
stilts. — L.^a/& (for *gradh), stilts. — L. 
gradus, a step ; gradl, to walk. 

Gramarye, magic. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M. E. gramery, skill in grammar, and 
hence skill in magic. — O. F. gramaire, 
grammar ; see Grammar. Cf. O. F. 
gramaire, (i) a grammarian, (2) a ma- 
gician. *([ The word glamour is a mere 
corruption of gramarye or grammar, 
meaning (i) grammar, (2) magic, 

Gramercy, thanks. (F. — L.) For- 
merly ground mercy, Chaucer, C. T. 
8964. — F. ^)"a»«(/ OT«m, great thanks; see 
Grand and Mercy. 


GTaJuineouS. (L.") 'From', 
for gramen, grass ; with sufiiix -e-ous. 

Grammar. (F. -L. -Gk.) M.E. 
grammere.—O. F. giamaire (XIII cent.). 

— Late 'L.grammaiica, grammar (Schwan). 

— Gk. ypa/ifiaTiicri, grammar. — Gk. fpaii- 
HaTtxds, knowing one's letters ; see below. 

grammatical. (F.—L.—Gk.) M.F. 

grammatical; from 'L.grammaiicus, gram- 
matical. — Gk. ypaniiaTiKSs, versed in one's 
letters. — Gk. ypaiJiiaT-, stem of -ypamia, 
a letter. — Gk. ypcupav, to write. See 

Grampus, a large fish. (F.— L.) Spelt 
grampasse, A. D. \(>^c^. — K.Y. grampais ; 
Blk. Bk. Adm. i. 1^,2.-1^. grandem piscem, 
ace. oi grandis piscis, great fish. 

Granary, store-house for grain. (L.) 
L. granaria, pi. — L. grdnum, corn. See 

Grand, great. (F.-L.) 0.¥, grand. 

— T,. grandem, ace. o{ grandis, great. 
grandee, a Spanish nobleman. (Span. 

— L.) Span, grande, great ; also, a 
nobleman. — L. grandem, ace. of grandis, 

grandeur, greatness. (F.-L.) F. 
grandeur; formed with suffix -eur (L. 
-orejrC), from grand, great. 

grandiloquent, pompous in speech. 

(L.) Coined from L. grandi-, decl. stem 
of grandis, great ; and loquent-, stem of 
pres. pt. of loqui, to speak ; see Loqua- 
cious. The true L. form is grandi- 

Grange, a farm-house. (F. - L.) O. F. 
grange, a barn, a farm-house. — Late L. 
grdnea, a bam. — L. granum, corn. 

• granite, a hard stone. (Ital. — L.) 
Ital. granito, granite, speckled stone.— 
Ital. granito, pp. of granire, to reduce to 
grains (hence, to speckle). — Ital. grano, 
a grain. — L. granum, a grain ; see Grain. 

Grant. (F.— L.) M. E. graunten.— 
O. F. graanter, graunter, later spelling of 
crdanter, creanter, to caution, assure, 
guarantee ; whence the later senses, to 
promise, yield; Late L. creantdre, for 
"credentdre. — L. credent-, stem of pres. 
pt. of credere, to trust. See Creed. 

Granule, a little grain. (L.) L. grd- 
nulum, dimin. oi granum, a grain. 

Grape. (F.-M. H. G.) A. ¥. grape, 
t/l.Y . grappe, 'bunch, or cluster of grapes;' 
Cot. [In E., the sense has changed, from 
cluster to single berry.] The orig. sense 
of grappe was 'a hook,' then clustered 


fruit. -M. H. G.krapfe, O. H. G. krapfo, 
a hook. Allied to Cramp, The senses